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Tarkkonen K.M.,University of Turku | Nilsson E.M.,Lund University | Kahkonen T.E.,University of Turku | Dey J.H.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate the growth and progression of breast cancer. FGF signaling is transduced through FGF receptors 1-4, which have oncogenic or anti-oncogenic roles depending on the ligand and the cellular context. Our aim was to clarify the roles of FGFR1-3 in breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Pools of S115 mouse breast cancer cells expressing shRNA against FGFR1, 2 and 3 were created by lentiviral gene transfer, resulting in cells with downregulated expression of FGFR1, FGFR2 or FGFR3 (shR1, shR2 and shR3 cells, respectively) and shLacZ controls. FGFR1-silenced shR1 cells formed small, poorly vascularized tumors in nude mice. Silencing of FGFR2 in shR2 cells was associated with strong upregulation of FGFR1 expression and the formation of large, highly vascularized tumors compared to the control tumors. Silencing FGFR3 did not affect cell survival or tumor growth. Overexpressing FGFR2 in control cells did not affect FGFR1 expression, suggesting that high FGFR1 expression in shR2 cells and tumors was associated with FGFR2 silencing by indirect mechanisms. The expression of FGFR1 was, however, increased by the addition of FGF-8 to starved shLacZ or MCF-7 cells and decreased by the FGFR inhibitor PD173074 in shR2 cells with an elevated FGFR1 level. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that FGFR1 is crucial for S115 breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth and angiogenesis, whereas FGFR2 and FGFR3 are less critical for the growth of these cells. The results also suggest that the expression of FGFR1 itself is regulated by FGF-8 and FGF signaling, which may be of importance in breast tumors expressing FGFs at a high level. © 2012 Tarkkonen et al.


Rissanen J.P.,Pharmatest Services | Halleen J.M.,Pharmatest Services
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Osteoporosis affects nearly 100 million people in Europe, Japan and the US, and the number is increasing due to aging of the population. Preclinical efficacy studies performed according to regulatory guidelines are large, long and expensive, and there is a need for guidance and recommendations on how to perform preliminary studies prior to the regulatory studies. Areas covered in this review: We review research models that can be used for preclinical efficacy testing of new drug candidates for osteoporosis. Our focus is on testing compounds targeted to directly decrease osteoclastic bone resorption or increase osteoblastic bone formation. What the reader will gain: We provide an overview of in vitro bone cell culture systems and osteoporosis animal models useful for preclinical efficacy studies and a step-by-step approach on how the most interesting compound can be selected from thousands of drug candidates. Different approaches for testing anti-catabolic and anabolic compounds are provided. Take home message: Efficacy of new osteoporosis drug candidates can be first proven conveniently using in vitro bone cell cultures and then confirmed in short-term animal studies, followed by more extensive animal studies, and finally a regulatory study performed according to the guidelines of regulatory authorities. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.


Elo T.D.,University of Turku | Valve E.M.,University of Turku | Seppanen J.A.,University of Turku | Seppanen J.A.,Pharmatest Services | And 7 more authors.
Neoplasia | Year: 2010

Expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is commonly increased in prostate cancer. Experimental studies have provided evidence that it plays a role in prostate tumorigenesis and tumor progression. To study how increased FGF-8 affects the prostate, we generated and analyzed transgenic (TG) mice expressing FGF-8b under the probasin promoter that targets expression to prostate epithelium. Prostates of the TG mice showed an increased size and changes in stromal and epithelialmorphology progressing fromatypia and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mouse PIN, mPIN) lesions to tumors with highly variable phenotype bearing features of adenocarcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and sarcoma. The development of mPIN lesions was preceded by formation of activated stroma containing increased proportion of fibroblastic cells, rich vasculature, and inflammation. The association between advancing stromal and epithelial alterations was statistically significant. Microarray analysis and validation with quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of osteopontin and connective tissue growth factor was markedly upregulated in TG mouse prostates compared with wild type prostates. Androgen receptor staining was decreased in transformed epithelium and in hypercellular stroma but strongly increased in the sarcoma-like lesions. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that disruption of FGF signaling pathways by increased epithelial production of FGF-8b leads to strongly activated and atypical stroma, which precedes development ofmPIN lesions and prostate cancer with mixed features of adenocarcinoma and sarcoma in the prostates of TG mice. The results suggest that increased FGF-8 in human prostate may also contribute to prostate tumorigenesis by stromal activation. © 2010 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.


Suominen M.I.,Pharmatest Services
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2013

Bone metastases are associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium mimetic that localizes to bone, providing targeted therapy for skeletal metastasis. We investigated the mode of action of radium-223 dichloride using breast cancer cell, osteoclast, and osteoblast cultures as well as a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. A single dose of radium-223 dichloride was used in three different settings mimicking the prevention or treatment of bone metastasis. Disease progression was monitored using fluorescence and radiographic imaging and histological analyses. The effect of radium-223 dichloride alone and in combination with doxorubicin or zoledronic acid on survival of mice was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests used were two-sided. Radium-223 dichloride incorporated into bone matrix and inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (all P values < .001) in vitro. In an established bone metastasis setting, radium-223 dichloride prevented tumor-induced cachexia (0/14 vs 7/14 control mice) and decreased osteolysis by 56% and tumor growth by 43% (all P values < .05). Radium-223 dichloride induced double-strand DNA breaks in cancer cells in vivo. Finally, radium-223 dichloride extended survival as a monotherapy (29.2 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.6 to 31.8 days, P = .039) and in combination with zoledronic acid (31.4 days, 95% CI = 28.8 to 34.0 days, P = .004) or doxorubicin (31.5 days, 95% CI = 29.5 to 33.5 days, P < .001) compared to the vehicle group (24.9 days, 95% CI = 23.4 to 26.4 days). Similar but even more pronounced effects were observed when radium-223 dichloride was administered in a preventive or micrometastatic setting. Our findings strongly support the development of radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of breast cancer patients with or at high risk of developing bone metastases.


Bjorklund M.,Danisco | Bjorklund M.,Åbo Akademi University | Ouwehand A.C.,Danisco | Forssten S.D.,Danisco | And 4 more authors.
Age | Year: 2012

Ageing changes gut microbiota composition and alters immune system function. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics may improve the health status of elderly individuals by modifying the intestinal environment and the microbiota composition, and by stimulating the immune system. In this work, we studied the effects of synbiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota of healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-one elders were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic dietary supplement or a placebo in addition to their usual diet for a 2-week period. The synbiotic product consisted of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and the prebiotic lactitol and was ingested twice a day, with a total daily dose of 10 g lactitol and 2×1010 cells of probiotic bacteria. Before, during and after the intervention period fecal quantities of six phylogenetic bacterial groups were determined using quantitative PCR, and relative changes in total microbiota composition were assessed by percent guanineplus- cytosine profiling. The microbiota profiles showed certain relative changes within the microbial community, and indicated an increase of bifidobacteria levels during synbiotic supplementation. Quantification by PCR confirmed the in changes in the microbiota composition; for example increases in total levels of endogenous bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were recorded. Throughout the 6-week study period there was a decrease unrelated to intervention in the Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale bacterial group levels and Clostridium cluster XIVab levels, but this decrease appeared to be halted during the synbiotic intervention. In conclusion, putatively beneficial changes in microbiota were observed in the elderly subjects supplemented with the synbiotic product. © The Author(s) 2011.


Ouwehand A.C.,DuPont Company | Ten Bruggencate S.J.M.,NIZO Food Research | Schonewille A.J.,NIZO Food Research | Alhoniemi E.,Pharmatest Services | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

To assess the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 700396) on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection, in the present study, a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled 4-week intervention was performed in healthy males. The subjects largely consumed their habitual diet, but had to abstain from consuming dairy foods generally high in Ca. The subjects were randomised into the L. acidophilus (dose 109 colony-forming units twice daily; n 20) or the placebo (n 19) group. After an adaptation period of 2 weeks, the subjects were orally infected with a live, but attenuated, ETEC vaccine, able to induce mild, short-lived symptoms. Before and after the challenge, the subjects recorded stool consistency, bowel habits, and frequency and severity of gastrointestinal complaints. The ETEC challenge led to a significant increase in faecal output on the 2nd day and a concomitant increase in Bristol stool scale scores. Likewise, abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, fever, headache and nausea peaked 1Â d after the oral challenge. The concentrations of faecal calprotectin and IgA peaked 2Â d after and that of serum IgM peaked 9 and 15Â d after the oral challenge. The concentrations of serum IgA and IgG were unaffected. The ETEC challenge led to a reduction in the number of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium cluster XIVab and total faecal bacteria. Probiotic treatment was associated with a larger increase in Bristol stool scale scores and more fever, headache and nausea after the ETEC challenge compared with the placebo treatment. These differences were, however, small and with substantial variation within the groups. Oral application of an attenuated live ETEC vaccine provides a useful model for food-borne infections. Supplementation with L. acidophilus ATCC 700396, however, was ineffective in reducing ETEC infection symptoms in healthy men. © 2013 The Authors.


The present invention relates to the field of biotechnology. The present invention relates to a compound of formula (I), namely N6,N6-dimethyladenosine, for use in the treatment or prevention of primary and metastatic breast cancer. The present invention also relates to a combination of a compound of formula (I) with at least one further compound for use in the treatment or prevention of primary and metastatic breast cancer. The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of formula (I) or the combination.


The present invention relates to the field of biotechnology. The present invention relates to a compound of formula (I) for use in the treatment or prevention of primary and metastatic breast and prostate cancer. The present invention also relates to a combination of a compound of formula (I) with at least one further compound for use in the treatment or prevention of primary and metastatic breast and prostate cancer. The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of formula (I) or the combination.


The present invention relates to the field of biotechnology. The present invention relates to 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, i.e. a compound of formula (I) for use in the treatment or prevention of primary and metastatic breast and prostate cancer. The present invention also relates to a combination of a compound of formula (I) with at least one further compound for use in the treatment or prevention of primary and metastatic breast and prostate cancer. The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of formula (I) or the combination.


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