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Osceola, WI, United States

Xu Z.-L.,South China Agricultural University | Wang H.,South China Agricultural University | Shen Y.-D.,South China Agricultural University | Nichkova M.,Pharmasan Laboratories Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2011

The type of hapten linkage to a carrier protein can play an important role in determining the nature of the resulting antibody response. Generic haptens using three types of linkers were synthesized (a monocarboxylic acid, an unsaturated hydrocarbon and a carboxamido spacer). These haptens were conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and used as immunogens to produce broad-specificity monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Three-dimensional (3D) structures of hapten-lysine conjugates were optimized using molecular modeling (MM) to mimic conformations of hapten-BSA conjugates. The results from MM studies revealed a change of the 3D conformation and electrostatic potential of hapten 1 when the monocarboxylic acid linker was coupled to lysine. This result was consistent with the observed high-cross-reactivity of the corresponding MAb-H1 for the OPs. The competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on MAb-H1 is ideally suited to be used as a screening method for OP contaminants. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Huisman H.,Pharmasan Laboratories Inc. | Wynveen P.,Pharmasan Laboratories Inc. | Nichkova M.,Pharmasan Laboratories Inc. | Kellermann G.,Pharmasan Laboratories Inc. | Kellermann G.,NeuroScience Inc.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA, glycine and agmatine and neuromodulators β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) and taurine are important biogenic amines of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in the body. Abnormalities in the metabolism of these biomarkers have been implicated in a vast number of neurological diseases. Novel competitive immunoassays, using one unique whole urine derivatization procedure applicable for all five biomarkers, have been developed. The determination of these biomarkers was highly reproducible: the coefficient of variance of inter- and intra-assay variation is between 3.9% and 9.8% for all assays. The assays show a good linearity in urine samples within the range of 100-400 mg Cr/dL and specificity when urine samples are spiked with biogenic amines. The recoveries are between 76 and 154%. The correlation between HPLC and ELISA for glycine and taurine (n = 10) showed regression coefficients of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. An in vivo study on the urinary clearance of β-PEA, agmatine and taurine after oral intake by healthy individuals demonstrated the specificity and clinical significance of these new immunoassays. The immunoassays are useful for clinical and basic research where a fast and accurate assay for the screening of biogenic amines in urine is required, without preclearance of the sample. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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