Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center

Beijing, China

Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center

Beijing, China

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Yao Y.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center | Gao L.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center | Li Y.,Qinghai Academy of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science | Ma S.,Qinghai Academy of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science | And 5 more authors.
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs).METHODS: Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs).RESULTS: Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic Low→High→Low alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris.CONCLUSION: The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD polymorphism for Hs from those for Cs supports the hypothesis of integrated micro-ecosystem Cs with multiple fungi, but does not support the "single fungal species" hypothesis for Cs and the anamorph-teleomorph connection between Hs and Cs.


PubMed | University of California at San Diego, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Qinghai Academy of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science and Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2014

To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs).Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs).Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic LowHighLow alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris.The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD polymorphism for Hs from those for Cs supports the hypothesis of integrated micro-ecosystem Cs with multiple fungi, but does not support the single fungal species hypothesis for Cs and the anamorph-teleomorph connection between Hs and Cs.


Dong Y.-Z.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center | Zhang L.-J.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center | Wu Z.-M.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center | Gao L.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods: The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%-4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion: Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments during maturation. In conjunction with prior mycological and molecular observations, the findings from this proteomic study support the integrated micro-ecosystem hypothesis for natural Cs. © 2014 Dong et al.


PubMed | University of California at San Diego, Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem.The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph).SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%-4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster.Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments during maturation. In conjunction with prior mycological and molecular observations, the findings from this proteomic study support the integrated micro-ecosystem hypothesis for natural Cs.


Gao L.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2012

To examine maturational changes in expressions of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in Cordyceps sinensis (C.sinensis) stroma. MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum genotyping was used, and 8 SNP extension primers were designed based on the scattered, multiple point mutations of known sequences for the O.sinensis mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments. Of the extension primers, 5 (not capable of distinguishing between the 2 AT-biased genotypes) located in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions: 067721-211, 067721-240, 067721-477, 067721-531 and 067721-581. The other 3 extension primers located in 5.8S rDNA region: 067740-324, 067740-328 and 067740-360, to distinguish between the 2 AT-biased genotypes. MS chromatograms at the 8 SNP sites showed dynamic alterations of mutant alleles in C.sinensis stroma. The allele for the AT-biased genotypes at 067721-211 site showed higher peak height than its GC-biased counterpart in the premature C.sinensis stroma, but disappeared with C.sinensis maturation. Chromatograms displayed not only the transition mutation alleles, but also transversion mutants. Some of the transversion mutation alleles displayed higher peak heights than those for GC- and AT-biased alleles, but their peak heights and detection rates tended to be decreased with C.sinensis maturation. When distinguishing between the 2 AT-biases, AB067744 and AB067740 genotype alleles co-existed in the premature C.sinensis stroma. The allele peak height for AB067744 genotype was greatly decreased with C.sinensis maturation, while that for AB067740 genotype increased. Co-existence of at least 5 transition and transversion mutant genotypes of O.sinensis and the dynamic changes in their expressions in C.sinensis stroma along with C.sinensis maturation may be of extreme importance in C.sinensis stroma germination and maturation, enabling C.sinensis to complete its life cycle.


Gao L.,Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2011

To examine the mutants of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Os) in the stroma of premature Cordyceps sinensis (Cs). Used MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) MALDI-TOF mass spectrum genotyping, designed eight SNP extension primers on the basis of the scattered, multiple point mutations of known Os mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments, and examined the Os mutant genotypes relating to the GC-biased Os genotype (gb #AB067721) in premature Cs stroma. The two AT-biased genotypes and the GC-biased Os were simultaneously detected in premature Cs stroma. SNP genotyping also detected at least two other Os genotypes of unknown sequences. Coexistence of the three known Os genotypes indicates the existence of possible transition point mutations within Os genes during germination and early maturation of Cs. Simultaneous detection of at least two unknown genotypes coexisting with those known mutants possibly evidences the transversion mutations within Os genes.


PubMed | Pharmanex Beijing Clinical Pharmacology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2012

To examine maturational changes in expressions of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in Cordyceps sinensis (C.sinensis) stroma.MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum genotyping was used, and 8 SNP extension primers were designed based on the scattered, multiple point mutations of known sequences for the O.sinensis mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments. Of the extension primers, 5 (not capable of distinguishing between the 2 AT-biased genotypes) located in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions: 067721-211, 067721-240, 067721-477, 067721-531 and 067721-581. The other 3 extension primers located in 5.8S rDNA region: 067740-324, 067740-328 and 067740-360, to distinguish between the 2 AT-biased genotypes.MS chromatograms at the 8 SNP sites showed dynamic alterations of mutant alleles in C.sinensis stroma. The allele for the AT-biased genotypes at 067721-211 site showed higher peak height than its GC-biased counterpart in the premature C.sinensis stroma, but disappeared with C.sinensis maturation. Chromatograms displayed not only the transition mutation alleles, but also transversion mutants. Some of the transversion mutation alleles displayed higher peak heights than those for GC- and AT-biased alleles, but their peak heights and detection rates tended to be decreased with C.sinensis maturation. When distinguishing between the 2 AT-biases, AB067744 and AB067740 genotype alleles co-existed in the premature C.sinensis stroma. The allele peak height for AB067744 genotype was greatly decreased with C.sinensis maturation, while that for AB067740 genotype increased.Co-existence of at least 5 transition and transversion mutant genotypes of O.sinensis and the dynamic changes in their expressions in C.sinensis stroma along with C.sinensis maturation may be of extreme importance in C.sinensis stroma germination and maturation, enabling C.sinensis to complete its life cycle.

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