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Diamant M.,Diabetes Center | Van Gaal L.,University of Antwerp | Stranks S.,Southern Adelaide Diabetes and Endocrine Services | Guerci B.,University of Lorraine | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - We recently reported that after 26 weeks, exenatide once weekly (EQW) resulted in superior A1C reduction, reduced hypoglycemia, and progressive weight loss compared with daily insulin glargine (IG) in patients with type 2 diabetes who were taking metformin alone or with sulfonylurea. This 84-week extension study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of EQW versus IG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-arm, parallel trial assessed change in A1C, proportions of patients achieving A1C <7.0 and ≤6.5%, body weight, incidence of hypoglycemia, and overall safety. RESULTS - Of 415 patients who completed 26 weeks, 390 (194 EQW and 196 IG patients) entered the extension study. At 84 weeks, A1C decreased from baseline (8.3%) by -1.2% for EQW vs. -1.0% for IG (P = 0.029). The proportions of patients who achieved end point A1C targets <7.0 and ≤6.5% were 44.6% for EQW patients vs. 36.8% for IG patients (P = 0.084) and 31.3% for EQW patients vs. 20.2% for IG patients (P = 0.009), respectively. Patients taking EQW lost 2.1 kg of body weight, whereas those taking IG gained 2.4 kg (P < 0.001). Among patients taking metformin plus sulfonylurea, the incidence of minor hypoglycemia was 24% for EQW patients vs. 54% for IG patients (P < 0.001); among patients taking metformin alone, it was 8% for EQW patients vs. 32% for IG patients (P < 0.001). Among adverse events occurring in ≥5% of patients, diarrhea and nausea occurred more frequently (P < 0.05) in the EQW group than in the IG group (12 vs. 6% and 15 vs. 1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS - After 84 weeks, patients treated with EQW continued to experience better glycemic control with sustained overall weight loss and a lower risk of hypoglycemia than patients treated with IG. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.


Perlis R.H.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Fijal B.,Eli Lilly and Company | Dharia S.,PharmaNet i3 | Houston J.P.,Lilly United States LLC | Houston J.P.,Indiana University
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2013

We examined genetic associations with duloxetine response in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Three pooled studies in patients with GAD receiving duloxetine 60-120 mg per day (N=164) or placebo (N=95) were used. Associations between 825 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 61 candidate genes with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores were examined with set-based testing (adjusted for the number of SNPs within each gene); sets with two-sided adjusted P≤0.05 were examined using repeated measure analysis. Follow-up analysis explored associations of these SNPs with change in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-Anxiety Subscale in a 6-week study in duloxetine-treated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (N=241). Variants in corticotropin- releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3), nuclear receptor subfamily group C, member 1 (NR3C1) and phosphodiesterase 1A (PDE1A) were associated with duloxetine response in GAD. Only rs4792888 in CRHR1 showed modest evidence of association with duloxetine response in MDD (P=0.029 in GAD, P=0.054 in MDD). In conclusion, CRHR1 variation merits investigation in pathophysiology of anxiety and its treatment response. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved 1470-269X/13.


Leonardi C.,Saint Louis University | Matheson R.,Oregon Medical Research Center | Zachariae C.,Copenhagen University | Cameron G.,Eli Lilly and Company | And 4 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Type 17 helper T cells have been suggested to play a pathological role in psoriasis. They secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (also known as interleukin-17). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (LY2439821), a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, for psoriasis treatment. METHODS: In our phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 142 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis to receive subcutaneous injections of 10, 25, 75, or 150 mg of ixekizumab or placebo at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with reduction in the psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI) score by at least 75% at 12 weeks. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with reduction in the PASI score by at least 90% or by 100%. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, the percentage of patients with a reduction in the PASI score by at least 75% was significantly greater with ixekizumab (except with the lowest, 10-mg dose) - 150 mg (82.1%), 75 mg (82.8%), and 25 mg (76.7%) - than with placebo (7.7%, P<0.001 for each comparison), as was the percentage of patients with a reduction in the PASI score by at least 90%: 150 mg (71.4%), 75 mg (58.6%), and 25 mg (50.0%) versus placebo (0%, P<0.001 for each comparison). Similarly, a 100% reduction in the PASI score was achieved in significantly more patients in the 150-mg group (39.3%) and the 75-mg group (37.9%) than in the placebo group (0%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Significant differences occurred at as early as 1 week and were sustained through 20 weeks. Adverse events occurred in 63% of patients in both the combined ixekizumab groups and in the placebo group. No serious adverse events or major cardiovascular events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, ixekizumab, improved the clinical symptoms of psoriasis. Further studies are needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy in patients with psoriasis. (Funded by Eli Lilly; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01107457.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Burton T.,Health Economics and Outcomes Research | Le Nestour E.,PharmaNet i3 | Bancroft T.,Health Economics and Outcomes Research | Neary M.,Novartis
Pituitary | Year: 2013

Acromegaly is a rare, chronic, and debilitating disease that results from excessive growth hormone production. Clinically, this disease is associated with enlargement of soft tissue, excessive skeletal growth, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Acromegaly is often diagnosed late, when a wide range of comorbidities may already be present. First-line therapy for acromegaly is typically surgery; but a number of highly-specific pharmacological agents have recently enabled a more aggressive medical management of acromegaly. Since surgical cure of acromegaly is low for macroadenomas, medical control of active acromegaly is an important component of treatment. There are no published US data currently available regarding real-world rates of comorbidities and treatment patterns among patients with acromegaly. This retrospective study examined the comorbidities and treatment patterns of 949 health plan enrollees, who had acromegaly diagnosis and/or procedure codes in an administrative claims database from July 1, 2002 through June 30, 2010. Acromegaly was associated with high rates of hypertension and diabetes along with a number of other comorbidities. The incidence of comorbidities was highest among patients with acromegaly-related treatment, which may have resulted, in part, from inadequate disease management and/or poor disease control. Unexpectedly, 55 % of patients identified with acromegaly received no treatment for acromegaly (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, and medication) and only 28 % received a medication treatment during the observation period. However, some patients may have received a curative surgery prior to the observation period, which may have reduced the use of other acromegaly-related treatments during the study period. Of those treated with medications, the most common first medications were octreotide, cabergoline, and bromocriptine. Given the high incidence of serious comorbidities associated with active acromegaly, earlier diagnosis and treatment, along with appropriate follow-up care, may potentially avoid the life-long consequences of uncontrolled disease. © 2012 The Author(s).


Buse J.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Nauck M.,Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg | Forst T.,Institute for Clinical Research and Development | Sheu W.H.-H.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide have been shown to improve glycaemic control and reduce bodyweight in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly with liraglutide once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We did a 26 week, open-label, randomised, parallel-group study at 105 sites in 19 countries between Jan 11, 2010, and Jan 17, 2011. Patients aged 18 years or older with type 2 diabetes treated with lifestyle modification and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation sequence with a voice response system, to receive injections of once-daily liraglutide (1·8 mg) or once-weekly exenatide (2 mg). Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c) from baseline to week 26. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01029886. Findings Of 912 randomised patients, 911 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (450 liraglutide, 461 exenatide). The least-squares mean change in HbA 1c was greater in patients in the liraglutide group (-1·48%, SE 0·05; n=386) than in those in the exenatide group (-1·28%, 0·05; 390) with the treatment difference (0·21%, 95% CI 0·08-0·33) not meeting predefined non-inferiority criteria (upper limit of CI <0·25%). The most common adverse events were nausea (93 [21%] in the liraglutide group vs 43 [9%] in the exenatide group), diarrhoea (59 [13%] vs 28 [6%]), and vomiting 48 [11%] vs 17 [4%]), which occurred less frequently in the exenatide group and with decreasing incidence over time in both groups. 24 (5%) patients allocated to liraglutide and 12 (3%) allocated to exenatide discontinued participation because of adverse events. Interpretation Both once daily liraglutide and once weekly exenatide led to improvements in glycaemic control, with greater reductions noted with liraglutide. These findings, plus differences in injection frequency and tolerability, could inform therapeutic decisions for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.

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