European marketing authorisation: A long process: Experiences of small biotech companies with the ATMP regulation [Der lange Weg zur zentralen Zulassung: Erfahrungen kleiner Biotechnologieunternehmen mit der ATMP-Verordnung]
Buljovcic Z.,PharmaLex GmbH
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz | Year: 2011
On 30 December 2008, the Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) entered into force. Herewith the first EU-wide regulatory framework for ATMPs was established. It requires a central marketing authorisation application to the EMA (European Medicinal Agency). This new framework especially changes the code of regulatory practice for tissue engineered products (TEPs), as no registration procedure had been previously required for autologous TEPs. This also meant that no clinical proof of efficacy achieved by a pivotal clinical trial was necessary. Difficulties and their background as well as the vast requirements for product development that have to be addressed by small companies within a very short time frame are presented. Hereby, it is obvious that regulatory experience which is required to identify and implement the resulting implications was not in place yet and still had to be established. The lack of regulatory experience also resulted in difficulties with scientific advice preparation, expectations toward regulatory agencies, consultants, and transformation of regulatory requirements. Addressing the regulatory requirements within the transition period is even more difficult for entrepreneurs with products which are assigned for indications resulting in complex challenges to the trial design. Due to the enormous time pressure to generate data and due to the implied financial pressure, different adaptation strategies are evolving. In Germany the "hospital exemption" according to §4b AMG (German Medicinal Products Law) is of major importance. A reorientation toward acellular products and a slow down in development of new ATMP products is expected. © 2011 Springer Medizin Verlag.
Rao P.R.,University of California at San Francisco |
Lin L.,University of California at San Francisco |
Lin L.,PharmaLex GmbH |
Huang H.,University of California at San Francisco |
And 6 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015
The Drosophila tracheal system is a branched tubular network that forms in the embryo by a post-mitotic program of morphogenesis. In third instar larvae (L3), cells constituting the second tracheal metamere (Tr2) reenter the cell cycle. Clonal analysis of L3 Tr2 revealed that dividing cells in the dorsal trunk, dorsal branch and transverse connective branches respect lineage restriction boundaries near branch junctions. These boundaries corresponded to domains of gene expression, for example where cells expressing Spalt, Delta and Serrate in the dorsal trunk meet vein–expressing cells in the dorsal branch or transverse connective. Notch signaling was activated to one side of these borders and was required for the identity, specializations and segregation of border cells. These findings suggest that Tr2 is comprised of developmental compartments and that developmental compartments are an organizational feature relevant to branched tubular networks. © Rao et al.
Fickert S.,University of Mannheim |
Gerwien P.,University of Mannheim |
Helmert B.,University of Mannheim |
Schattenberg T.,University of Mannheim |
And 3 more authors.
Cartilage | Year: 2012
Background: The 3-dimensional autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT3D) comprises isolation of chondrocytes from cartilage biopsies, cultivation to spheroids, and transplantation into the cartilage defect. Objectives: To evaluate the patients' general health and functionality and to assess the defect repair after ACT3D with spheroids by MRI and MOCART scoring. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with isolated chondral lesions of the knee underwent ACT3D with spheroids through medial arthrotomy. Patient-administered scores were assessed at baseline (day before transplantation), at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. MRI and MOCART scoring were performed at 3 and 12 months after ACT3D. Results: Patients were diagnosed with full-thickness patellofemoral (n = 16), femoral condylar (n = 18), or both defect types (n = 3), International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3 or 4, with defect sizes between 1.0 and 12.0 cm2. On average, 59.5 spheroids/cm2 in defect size were transplanted. An overall statistically significant improvement from baseline to 12 months was observed for all assessment scores (Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], SF-36, Tegner) combined with a significant reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and an advanced defect filling. Subgroup analyses revealed a positive clinical outcome independent on defect size, defect locations, spheroid dosage, age, duration of symptoms, and severity of complaints at baseline. Seven patients experienced in total 8 adverse events, of which knee joint effusion and blocking were assessed as possibly or probably related to ACT3D. Conclusions: The patient-administered assessment scores along with the fast defect filling with ACT3D using spheroids demonstrated an increase in activity level and quality of life after a 1-year follow-up. © SAGE Publications 2012.
Bendadani C.,German Institute of Human Nutrition |
Meinl W.,German Institute of Human Nutrition |
Monien B.H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition |
Dobbernack G.,German Institute of Human Nutrition |
And 2 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2014
The common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylpyrene is hepatocarcinogenic in the newborn mouse assay. In vitro studies showed that it is metabolically activated via benzylic hydroxylation and sulphation to a reactive ester, which forms benzylic DNA adducts, N 2-(1- methylpyrenyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine (MPdG) and N 6-(1- methylpyrenyl)-2′-deoxyadenosine (MPdA). Formation of these adducts was also observed in animals treated with the metabolites, 1-hydroxymethylpyrene and 1-sulphooxymethylpyrene (1-SMP), whereas corresponding data are missing for 1-methylpyrene. In the present study, we treated mice with 1-methylpyrene and subsequently analysed blood serum for the presence of the reactive metabolite 1-SMP and tissue DNA for the presence of MPdG and MPdA adducts. We used wild-type mice and a mouse line transgenic for human sulphotransferases (SULT) 1A1 and 1A2, males and females. All analyses were conducted using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, for the adducts with isotope-labelled internal standards. 1-SMP was detected in all treated animals. Its serum level was higher in transgenic mice than in the wild-type (p < 0.001). Likewise, both adducts were detected in liver, kidney and lung DNA of all exposed animals. The transgene significantly enhanced the level of each adduct in each tissue of both sexes (p < 0.01-0.001). Adduct levels were highest in the liver, the target tissue of carcinogenesis, in each animal model used. MPdG and MPdA adducts were also observed in rats treated with 1-methylpyrene. Our findings corroborate the hypothesis that 1-SMP is indeed the ultimate carcinogen of 1-methylpyrene and that human SULT are able to mediate the terminal activation in vivo. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Olliaro P.,World Health Organization |
Olliaro P.,University of Oxford |
Delgado-Romero P.,PharmaLex GmbH |
Keiser J.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute |
Keiser J.,University of Basel
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014
Praziquantel has been the mainstay of schistosomiasis control since 1984 and widely distributed since 2006 through 'preventive chemotherapy' programmes to school-aged children or at-risk populations. In addition, preschool-aged children are now recognized as a vulnerable population and a group for targeted treatment, but they may be difficult to dose correctly with the available product-a racemate, based on the biologically active enantiomer (R-praziquantel) and the inactive distomer (S-praziquantel), which contributes the bitter taste and doubles the size of the tablets. Hence, a paediatric formulation is required, possibly enantiomerically pure. Developing such a product and extending its use to younger children should be pharmacologically guided, but limited data exist on pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations for praziquantel. This article presents available data on the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of praziquantel, as well as R-praziquantel, and points to gaps in our knowledge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.