Pharmacy Unit

Venezia, Italy

Pharmacy Unit

Venezia, Italy

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Cecco S.,Pharmacy Unit | Muraro E.,Cancer Bio Immunotherapy Unit | Giacomin E.,Pharmacy Unit | Martorelli D.,Cancer Bio Immunotherapy Unit | And 4 more authors.
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2011

The topic of this review covers a very important branch of cancer research, cancer vaccination. The growing knowledge in tumor immunology has evolved rapidly, starting from unspecific generic stimulation of the immune system to more specific approaches based on the availability of tumor antigens. The review covers molecular and cell biology, and pharmaceutical technology of cancer vaccines. Particularly, it is aimed at highlighting the results of cancer vaccines from phase II and III clinical trials, an issue that is of relevance to better understand how cancer vaccines can successfully complement antitumor therapy, including conventional chemotherapy and the recently developed target-based drugs. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


PubMed | Hospital Of Blanes, Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta, Dementia Unit, University of Girona and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics | Year: 2015

Drug spending increases exponentially from the age of 65-70 years, and dementia is one of the diseases significantly contributing to this increase. Our aim was to describe pharmaceutical consumption and cost in patients with dementia, using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. We also assessed the evolution of costs and consumption, and the variables associated to this evolution during three years.Three years prospective cohort study using data from the ReDeGi and the Health Region of Girona (HRG) Pharmacy Unit database from the Public Catalan Healthcare Service (PCHS). Frequency of consumption and costs of ATC categories of drugs were calculated.Sample of 869 patients with dementia, most of them with a diagnosis of degenerative dementia (72.6%), and in a mild stage of the disease (68.2%). Central nervous system (CNS) drugs had the highest consumption rate (97.2%), followed by metabolic system drugs (80.1%), and cardiovascular system drugs (75.4%). Total pharmaceutical cost was of 2124.8 per patient/year (standard deviation (SD)=1018.5 ), and spending on CNS drugs was 55.5% of the total cost. After 36 months, pharmaceutical cost increased in 694.9 (SD=1741.9), which was associated with dementia severity and institutionalization at baseline.Pharmaceutical consumption and costs are high in patients with dementia, and they increase with time, showing an association with baseline dementia severity and institutionalization. CNS drugs are the pharmaceuticals with highest prescription rates and associated costs.


PubMed | Nutrition and Dietetics Service, Pharmacy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo and Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015

The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4 (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early markers of anabolic/catabolic fluctuations.


Hohl Moinat C.,Hopital Cantonal de Fribourg | Periard D.,Hopital Cantonal de Fribourg | Grueber A.,Hopital Cantonal de Fribourg | Hayoz D.,Hopital Cantonal de Fribourg | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Insertion of central venous port (CVP) catheter in the cancer population is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). However, trials have shown limited benefit of antithrombotic treatment to prevent catheter-related venous thrombosis. This prospective observational cohort study was designed to assess the incidence of VTE closely related to CVP implantation in patients with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, and to identify a high risk subgroup of patients. Between February 2006 and December 2011, 1097 consecutive cancer patients with first CVP implantation were included. Catheter-related VTE were defined as deep venous thrombosis in the arm, with or without pulmonary embolism (PE), or isolated PE. The incidence of CVP-associated VTE was 5.9% (IC95 4.4-7.3%) at 3 months, and 11.3% (IC95 9.4-13.2%) at 12 months. The incidence of any VTE was 7.6% (IC95 6.0-9.3%) at 3 months, and 15.3% (IC95 13.1-17.6%) at 12 months. High Khorana risk score and lung cancer were significant predictors of 3 month VTE. In conclusion, this large cohort study of patients with first CVP catheter implantation confirms the high incidence of VTE associated with the CVP implantation and allow identifying high risk patients who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis. © 2014 Christine Hohl Moinat et al.


Principi N.,University of Milan | Caironi M.,University of Milan | Venturini F.,Pharmacy Unit | Pani L.,Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco | Esposito S.,University of Milan
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

To overcome the problems stemming from antimicrobial resistance, there have been several attempts to develop new antimicrobials in recent years. Of the highly potent drugs targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, daptomycin has a number of attractive characteristics that suggest its possible use in the treatment of serious infections due to these organisms. Although several pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in adults have provided data to determine howthis drug should be prescribed to obtain the maximal clinical efficacy without significant risks of severe adverse events, we have not yet solved all of the problems related to the use of this antibiotic in paediatric patients. In this paper, the resolved and lingering problems of daptomycin treatment in newborns and children are reviewed and discussed. Studies have indicated that daptomycin is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of paediatric diseases caused by MDR Gram-positive bacilli. However, before daptomycin can be licensed for use in newborns and children, further studies are needed to establish the appropriate dosages for paediatric patients of different ages. The data collected in adults can only be transferred to children older than 12 years, and the information available is not sufficient to determine the dosage that will assure the highest antimicrobial efficacy with only marginal risks of adverse events in younger patients. Thus, studies in neonates and younger infants are urgently needed to permit the use of daptomycin in the first months of life, a period in which infections due to MDR Gram-positive pathogens are increasing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Pharmacy Unit, Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2015

To overcome the problems stemming from antimicrobial resistance, there have been several attempts to develop new antimicrobials in recent years. Of the highly potent drugs targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, daptomycin has a number of attractive characteristics that suggest its possible use in the treatment of serious infections due to these organisms. Although several pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in adults have provided data to determine how this drug should be prescribed to obtain the maximal clinical efficacy without significant risks of severe adverse events, we have not yet solved all of the problems related to the use of this antibiotic in paediatric patients. In this paper, the resolved and lingering problems of daptomycin treatment in newborns and children are reviewed and discussed. Studies have indicated that daptomycin is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of paediatric diseases caused by MDR Gram-positive bacilli. However, before daptomycin can be licensed for use in newborns and children, further studies are needed to establish the appropriate dosages for paediatric patients of different ages. The data collected in adults can only be transferred to children older than 12 years, and the information available is not sufficient to determine the dosage that will assure the highest antimicrobial efficacy with only marginal risks of adverse events in younger patients. Thus, studies in neonates and younger infants are urgently needed to permit the use of daptomycin in the first months of life, a period in which infections due to MDR Gram-positive pathogens are increasing.


Cruz I.,Idiap Research Institute | Serna C.,University of Lleida | Rue M.,University of Lleida | Real J.,Idiap Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Non-compliance with antidepressant treatment continues to be a complex problem in mental health care. In immigrant populations non-compliance is one of several barriers to adequate management of mental illness; some data suggest greater difficulties in adhering to pharmacological treatment in these groups and an increased risk of therapeutic failure. The aim of this study is to assess differences in the duration and compliance with antidepressant treatment among immigrants and natives in a Spanish health region. Methods: Population-based (n = 206,603), retrospective cohort study including all subjects prescribed ADT between 2007 and 2009 and recorded in the national pharmacy claims database. Compliance was considered adequate when the duration was longer than 4 months and when patients withdrew more than 80% of the packs required. Results: 5334 subjects (8.5% of them being immigrants) initiated ADT. Half of the immigrants abandoned treatment during the second month (median for natives = 3 months). Of the immigrants who continued, only 29.5% presented good compliance (compared with 38.8% in natives). The estimated risk of abandoning/ending treatment in the immigrant group compared with the native group, adjusted for age and sex, was 1.28 (95%CI 1.16-1.42). Conclusions: In the region under study, immigrants of all origins present higher percentages of early discontinuation of ADT and lower median treatment durations than the native population. Although this is a complex, multifactor situation, the finding of differences between natives and immigrants in the same region suggests the need to investigate the causes in greater depth and to introduce new strategies and interventions in this population group. © 2012 Cruz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Di Lauro V.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Torrisi E.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Bidoli E.,Epidemiology Unit | Quitadamo D.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Trastuzumab-based regimes improved clinical outcome in women with overexpressing HER2 metastatic breast cancer, mainly due to the availability of different combination therapies, clinically active and well tolerated. In this study we retrospectively evaluated clinical activity and toxicity of trastuzuamb plus gemcitabine regimen in heavily pretreated HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer patients. Although the observed population was heavily pretreated, the evaluated regimen was notably effective in terms of response rate, time to progression and survival, with very mild toxicity. These data suggest that in over expressing HER2 metastatic breast cancer patients, sequential trastuzumab based chemotherapeutic regimens can achieve good response rate with prolonged TTP in responding patients, even after other target therapy such as lapatinib based combinations. Copyright 2012 Vincenzo Di Lauro et al.


PubMed | University of Lleida, Institute Of Recerca Biomedica Of Lleida, Pharmacy Unit and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2016

Although acute exacerbations are key events in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), their frequency and the factors associated with acute exacerbation are not fully known.To determine the incidence and risk factors of very frequent exacerbations in COPD (3 per year).In a cohort study to analyse acute exacerbation and associated factors in 512 primary care patients during a 2-year follow-up, variables of interest were collected for each patient. Acute exacerbation was defined as an event that required antibiotics and/or systemic steroids (moderate) or hospital admission (severe). Odds ratios (OR) were used to determine factors associated with exacerbation.Incidence of exacerbation was 61.7% in the first year of follow-up and 63.9% in the second year. During the first year, the factors associated with very frequent exacerbation were previous hospital admission (OR 1.69), dyspnoea (moderate [OR 2.86] and severe-very severe [OR 5.83]) and the Charlson Index (OR 1.19); during the second year, associated factors were female sex (OR 4.17), history of previous hospital admissions (OR 2.90), smoking (smoker/ex-smoker) (OR 2.00) and forced vital capacity (OR 0.98).Incidence of exacerbation is high in COPD patients. Previous admission for exacerbation is a strong predictor and can identify patients at risk.


Baldo P.,Pharmacy Unit
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006 and previously updated in 2009.Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound or noise in the absence of real acoustic stimulation. It has been compared with chronic pain, and may be associated with depression or depressive symptoms which can affect quality of life and the ability to work. Antidepressant drugs have been used to treat tinnitus in patients with and without depressive symptoms. To assess the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of tinnitus and to ascertain whether any benefit is due to a direct tinnitus effect or a secondary effect due to treatment of concomitant depressive states. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 5 January 2012. Randomised controlled clinical studies of antidepressant drugs versus placebo in patients with tinnitus. Two authors critically appraised the retrieved studies and extracted data independently. Where necessary we contacted study authors for further information. Six trials involving 610 patients were included. Trial quality was generally low. Four of the trials looked at the effect of tricyclic antidepressants on tinnitus, investigating 405 patients. One trial investigated the effect of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in a group of 120 patients. One study investigated trazodone, an atypical antidepressant, versus placebo. Only the trial using the SSRI drug reached the highest quality standard. None of the other included trials met the highest quality standard, due to use of inadequate outcome measures, large drop-out rates or failure to separate the effects on tinnitus from the effects on symptoms of anxiety and depression. All the trials assessing tricyclic antidepressants suggested that there was a slight improvement in tinnitus but these effects may have been attributable to methodological bias. The trial that investigated the SSRI drug found no overall improvement in any of the validated outcome measures that were used in the study although there was possible benefit for a subgroup that received higher doses of the drug. This observation merits further investigation. In the trial investigating trazodone, the results showed an improvement in tinnitus intensity and in quality of life after treatment, but in neither case reached statistical significance. Reports of side effects including sedation, sexual dysfunction and dry mouth were common. There is as yet insufficient evidence to say that antidepressant drug therapy improves tinnitus.

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