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McLaughlin J.E.,Office of Strategic Planning and Assessment | Roth M.T.,Office of Strategic Planning and Assessment | Gharkholonarehe N.,REX UNC Health Care | Davidson C.A.,Pharmacy Development | And 2 more authors.
Academic Medicine | Year: 2014

Recent calls for educational reform highlight ongoing concerns about the ability of current curricula to equip aspiring health care professionals with the skills for success. Whereas a wide range of proposed solutions attempt to address apparent deficiencies in current educational models, a growing body of literature consistently points to the need to rethink the traditional in-class, lecture-based course model. One such proposal is the flipped classroom, in which content is offloaded for students to learn on their own, and class time is dedicated to engaging students in student-centered learning activities, like problem-based learning and inquiry-oriented strategies.In 2012, the authors flipped a required first-year pharmaceutics course at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. They offloaded all lectures to self-paced online videos and used class time to engage students in active learning exercises. In this article, the authors describe the philosophy and methodology used to redesign the Basic Pharmaceutics II course and outline the research they conducted to investigate the resulting outcomes. This article is intended to serve as a guide to instructors and educational programs seeking to develop, implement, and evaluate innovative and practical strategies to transform students' learning experience.As class attendance, students' learning, and the perceived value of this model all increased following participation in the flipped classroom, the authors conclude that this approach warrants careful consideration as educators aim to enhance learning, improve outcomes, and fully equip students to address 21st-century health care needs.

Khandai M.,P.A. College | Chakraborty S.,Pharmacy Development | Ghosh A.K.,IFTM University
Powder Technology | Year: 2014

The objective behind this study is to ameliorate the flowability, compressibility and tableting properties of aceclofenac by developing a prolonged release microparticulate system using an algino-carbopol polymeric blend. Prepared microspheres were subjected to various physico-chemical studies along with in vitro drug release studies to optimize the concentration of the polymeric blend required to sustain the drug release for 12. h. Optimize formulation was further subjected to different flowability and compressibility studies to observe the impact of microspheres on improvements of flow properties. All the microsphere formulations exhibited good entrapment efficiency and showed prolonged drug release. SEM study revealed that the microspheres were almost spherical in shape with rough outer surface containing small pores. The findings of micromeritic studies suggested that the flowability and compressibility properties of the pure drug were significantly improved by the microsphere formulation. Heckel analysis also suggested that the microspheres exhibited better plasticity and die filling behavior as compared to pure drug. The tablets containing optimized microspheric formulation showed better handling properties than pure drug and no significant difference in drug release when compared with the marketed product. So the present study concluded that encapsulation of aceclofenac into microparticulate system not only enhanced its flowability, compressibility and tableting properties but also simultaneously helped to improve the patient compliance by sustaining the drug release for a prolonged period of time to manage pain and its symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Smith M.T.,Pharmacy Development | Moore B.J.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2012

Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) is the most common cause of chronic widespread body pain in humans. Co-morbidities include sleep disturbance, fatigue, impaired physical functioning, altered mood and negative effects on health-related quality of life. Pregabalin inhibits presynaptic release of pronociceptive neurotransmitters in the CNS; this likely underpins its therapeutic benefit in patients with FM. Areas covered: This review addresses pregabalin pharmacokinetics, efficacy and adverse event (AE) profiles from randomized controlled trials and open-label extension studies in patients with FM. These effects are compared with those of the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine and milnacipran that also have FDA approval for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Expert opinion: At the approved dosages, oral pregabalin has at most a moderate therapeutic benefit above placebo with tolerable side-effects, in no more than 50% of patients with FM. Durability of clinically meaningful (≥ 30%) pain relief in pregabalin-responders has been demonstrated for at least 6-months, but longer-term studies are required as most patients have symptoms for decades. Exclusion of patients with common co-morbidities from the pregabalin RCTs in FM raises questions on the generalizability of the RCT findings to the typical patient seen in clinical practice and so additional investigation is required. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Conner T.A.,Pharmacy Development | McQuade C.,University of New Mexico | Olp J.,University of New Mexico | Pai A.B.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
BioMetals | Year: 2012

Reticuloendothelial blockade in hemodialysis patients prevents optimal intravenous (IV) iron utilization. Vitamin C has emerged as a potential therapy to improve anemia treatment by enhancing iron mobilization. However, Vitamin C can act as a prooxidant in the presence of iron. This was a prospective, open-label, crossover study. Thirteen patients with endstage renal disease on hemodialysis and four healthy controls were assigned to receive 100 mg of IV iron sucrose (IS) or 100 mg of IV IS co-administered with 300 mg of IV Vitamin C (IS + C) in random sequence. Serum samples for IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a and IL-10 and non-transferrin bound iron were obtained at baseline, 45 min and 105 min post study medication administration. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at the same time points and stained with fluorescent probes to identify intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential (δψm) by flow cytometry. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by plasma F2-isoprosatane concentration. Both IS and IS + C were associated with increased plasma F2-isoprostanes concentrations post-infusion. Maximal plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations after IS + C were significantly elevated from baseline (234 ± 0.04 vs. 0.198 ± 0.028 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After IS + C, IL-1, IL-6, IL- 10, and TNF-alpha were significantly elevated compared to baseline. After IS alone only IL-6 was noted to be elevated. Intracellular production ofH2O2 and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (δψm) was observed after IS while IS + C was associated with increased O2 .- production. Both IS and IS + C induced serum cytokine activation accompanied by lipid peroxidation, however, IS + C induced higher plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, IL-1, IL-10, and TNF-a post-infusion. Long-term safety studies of IV iron coadministered with Vitamin C are warranted. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2012.

Chockalingam V.,Pharmacy Development | Suryakiran Kadali S.D.V.,P.A. College | Gnanasambantham P.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE) was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001) the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT), and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice.

Vassou S.L.,SRM University | Kusuma G.,Pharmacy Development | Parani M.,SRM University
Gene | Year: 2015

The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA. -trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA. -trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Jacobs M.S.,Truveris | Johnson K.A.,Pharmacy Development
American Health and Drug Benefits | Year: 2012

Background: Specialty injectables and protein-based biologic therapies represent the fastest growing segment of the drug trend for many plan sponsors. Coupled with the decline in spending on traditional pharmaceuticals and so-called blockbuster drugs coming off patent, the upward trend of specialty drug spending continues at an unprecedented rate, precipitating a shift in the focus of payers who manage prescription drugs. Objectives: To characterize the current and future specialty drug spending and describe contemporary trends among payers for managing cost and quality in this segment, as well as to elucidate the shortcomings of the current efforts and to explore a comprehensive approach for addressing the cost and quality concerns directly associated with specialty injectables and protein-based biologics through interrelated management interventions. Discussion: Although a notable decrease in spending on traditional pharmaceuticals was realized in 2010, disproportionate increases in specialty drug utilization and cost per unit fueled the continuing growth of the injectable and biologic markets. Each course of these therapies can cost in the tens of thousands of dollars, and this upward trend of specialty spending represents an escalation of an already significant spending for payers, employers, and members. Beyond the high cost and growing utilization of specialty pharmaceuticals, current management efforts have been met with variable degrees of success and have often proved challenging and, in some cases, even counterproductive. Common interventions used by payers nationwide for addressing specialty drug spending trend include specialty drug formularies, provider reimbursement strategies, distribution channel management, benefit design modifications, utilization management, and operational and administrative improvements such as postclaim edits. Although often overlooked, appropriate implementation of these tactics, and the extent to which they are integrated with overall drug benefit management, are key to the success of the pharmaceutical management program. Conclusion: Conventional specialty pharmaceutical management initiatives offer promise in various areas, but incentives for the best protocols may be misaligned when they are applied individually. Conversely, a comprehensive approach that integrates effective components of the specialty pharmaceutical management interventions can improve the quality of care and control costs associated with these agents, with significant specialty drug management expertise and access to benchmarking data serving as the foundation for appropriate decision-making. © 2010-2011 Engage Healthcare Communications, LLC. All rights reserved.

Pharmacy Development | Date: 2013-12-11

A novel usage of catalpol. The novel usage refers to the application of catalpol in the preparation of a drug or health food for treatment of hyperthyroidism, and to the application of catalpol in the preparation of a drug or health food for treatment of hyperthyroidism related cardiopathy

Pharmacy Development Services (PDS) is proud to announce the 13th Annual All Star Super-Conference February 23-25th, 2017 in Orlando, Florida. This event is a call-to-arms for independent pharmacy owners.

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