Āzamgarh, India
Āzamgarh, India

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Hossain E.,Pharmacy College | Chandra G.,University of Burdwan | Nandy A.P.,University of Burdwan | Mandal S.C.,Jadavpur University | Gupta J.K.,Jadavpur University
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Bombax malabaricum (family Bombacaceae) is used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine in Southern Punjab of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extract of B. malabaricum leaves (MEBM). Live parasites (trematode: Paramphistomum explanatum) were collected from buffalo in 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline. It was incubated in Petri dishes at 37±1°C in media containing either no extract (control) or MEBM, the test drug at 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml dose level or albendazole, the standard drug at 10 mg/ml. The efficacy of the extract or albendazole was measured on the basis of the loss of spontaneous movement and/or death of the trematodes. Paralysis was considered when there is no movement unless shaken vigorously. Death was confirmed when the trematodes completely lost their motility, even when vigorously shaken or dipped in warm water (50°C), followed by fading away of their body color. The trematodes, both drug treated and others, were further processed for SEM study using the standard method. All trematodes died with all the abovementioned doses of MEBM within a short period of time (less than 45 min) which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). MEBM at 100 mg/ml showed maximum efficacy. It paralyzed and killed trematodes in 18.50±0.62 and 22.17±0.48 min, respectively. SEM study showed that MEBM-treated trematodes were stretched. The study established the anthelmintic activity of MEBM. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Hossain E.,Pharmacy College | Chandra G.,University of Burdwan | Nandy A.P.,University of Burdwan | Mandal S.C.,Jadavpur University | Gupta J.K.,Jadavpur University
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Dregea volubilis (family Asclepediaceae) is widely used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine in eastern and southern part of India. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extract of D. volubilis leaves (MEDV) and to observe its effect through SEM study. Live parasites (trematode Paramphistomum explanatum) were collected from buffalo in 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). It was incubated at 37±1°C in media containing either no extract (control), the test drug, MEDV at four dose levels (10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml) or the standard drug, albendazole, at a dose of 10 mg/ml. The effectiveness of the extract was judged on the basis of the loss of spontaneous movement and/or complete destruction or death of the trematodes. After being removed from the experimental medium, trematodes were dipped in PBS at 37±1°C and on gentle stimulation, the paralyzed parasite showed immobility. Death was confirmed when it completely lost its motility even when vigorously shaken or dipped in warm water (50°C). The trematodes, both drug treated and others, were further processed for SEM study using standard method. The anthelmintic activity was found with all the doses through paralysis and death of the organisms (p<0.001). Maximum anthelmintic activity was found with a dose of 100 mg/ ml. Minor damage was observed with both suckers, but severe distortion was found with tegumental surface of the treated trematodes. The present SEM-based study established the anthelmintic activity of MEDV. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Hossain E.,Pharmacy College | Rawani A.,University of Burdwan | Chandra G.,University of Burdwan | Mandal S.C.,Jadavpur University | Gupta J.K.,Jadavpur University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To analyze the larvicidal activity of two plant leaf powder and leaf-extracts, Dregea volubilis and Bombax malabaricum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The larvicidal bioassay was done for powdered leaves of Dregea volubilis and Bombax malabaricum individually and their methanol extracts against first-, second-, third- and fourth-instar larval forms of Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality rate was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of post-exposure. LC 50 and LC 90 values were calculated at different time intervals for third instar larvae. Results: All the graded concentration (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of powdered leaves showed significant (P <0.05) larval mortality. The mortality rate was higher in 50 ppm doses of methanolic extracts of both the plants against Culex quinquefaciatus. The corresponding LC 50 values were 56.97 ppm and 48.85 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. There is no mortality of non-target organism such as Chironomous circumdatus, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Diplonichus annulatum within 72 h of post exposure to 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% crude powdered leaves and methanolic extracts of both the two individual plants under the laboratory condition. The results of preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of both the plants revealed the presence of many bioactive principles such as steroids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, etc. that may be responsible for their bio-control potentiality. Conclusions: The results have shown potential and eco-friendly use of both plant extracts against larva of Culex quinquefasciatus for the first time. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.


Hossain E.,Pharmacy College | Mandal S.C.,Jadavpur University | Gupta J.K.,Jadavpur University
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: To investigate the antipyretic activity of the methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves (MEBM) in rats. Methods: Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in Wistar rats which were divided into four groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered MEBM (200 mg/kg), MEBM (400 mg/kg), paracetamol (reference standard, 150 mg/kg) and 1% Tween 80 (control), respectively. The body temperature of the rats was measured rectally over a period of 8 h. MEBM was also phytochemically screened for alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, fixed oils, proteins, triterpenoids, deoxy-sugar, flavonoid, cyanogenetic and coumarin glycosides. Results: MEBM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced yeast-induced pyrexia (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Phytochemical tests showed the presence of steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids, deoxy-sugars, flavonoids and coumarin glycosides. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves possesses significant antipyretic activity. © Pharmacotherapy Group.


Iype T.,Pharmacy College | George L.E.,Pharmacy College | Cherian A.,Medical College | Kumar A.,Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis | Year: 2012

Introduction: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), the State-run Tuberculosis Control Initiative of the Government of India, recommends intermittent thrice a week Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) both during intensive phase and continuation phase for a total of nine months for tubercular meningitis. However, most recent guidelines recommend daily regimen. Objective'. Assessment of the in-hospital mortality in patients with meningeal tuberculosis. Material and Methods-. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients (n=98) admitted with a diagnosis of meningeal tuberculosis from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009 in a tertiary care centre in South India. Thwaites index score of four or less was used for diagnosis of meningeal tuberculosis which is a weighted diagnostic index score for dichotomised clinical variables including age, blood white cell count, duration of illness, CSF total white cell count, and CSF neutrophil percentage. We compared in-hospital treatment outcome of patients on thrice weekly intermittent DOTS regimen with daily regimen patients. Results: The inhospital mortality was same (27%) in the two treatment regimens (p 0.944). However, there was less incidence of hepatic dysfunction in the intermittent DOTS regimen, even though it was not statistically significant (p 0.148). Conclusions: In the short term, both regimens have similar mortality outcomes and no statistically significant difference in hepatic dysfunction during the hospital stay.


Zhang J.-L.,Pharmacy College | Hao B.-L.,Pharmacy College | Yang H.-X.,Pharmacy College
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

The cadmium complex {[Cd(adi)0.5Cl(bimt)]·H2O}n (H2adi = adipic acid, bimt = 2-((benzoimidazol-yl)methyl)-1H-tetrazole) was prepared by reaction of CdCl2·2.5H2O, bimt and H2adip in methanol/water solution and its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 8.4863(17) Å, b = 8.5551(17) Å, c = 11.422(2) Å, α = 100.08(3)°, β = 106.33(3)°, γ = 98.37(3)°, V = 766.7(3) Å3, Z = 2, F(000) = 434, Dc = 1.898 g/cm3, μ = 1.623 cm-1, the final R = 0.0252 and wR = 0.0566. A total of 8672 reflections were collected, of which 3584 were independent (Rint = 0.0216). © 2015, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.


Samanta K.,Pharmacy College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Hygrophila difformis Blume (Family-Acanthaceae) and has great medicinal importance like An antibacterial activity, high insecticide activity and Tribal's are also used as anticoagulants. It is very useful in tropical fresh water aquarium plant and Environmental importance Ornamentals plants. In present study deals with the characterization of morphological features, determination of physical constant such as the total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were 1.97%, 0.59%, 1.37% respectively. Loss of weight drying was 4.5%, the percent yield for ethanol 9.12% and aqueous 5.45%.


Lei G.M.,Pharmacy College
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To improve the quality standard of stewed Rhizoma Polygonati with yellow wine. On the basis of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010, some items were added, which included assay of reducing sugars, water-soluble extracts, acid insoluble ash content and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Reducing sugars was no less than 34.0%, water-soluble extracts no less than 19.0%, acid insoluble ash content no more than 0.2%, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural no more than 0.02%. The quality standard of stewed Rhizoma Polygonati with yellow wine is improved on the basis of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.


Rabari H.,Veerayatan Institute of Pharmacy | Pandya S.,Pharmacy College | Vidyasagar G.,Veerayatan Institute of Pharmacy | Gajra B.,Veerayatan Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of Cocculus pendulus, were tested for anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Both the extracts at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, produced dose dependent and significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema. The exhibited anti-inflammatory activity was comparable with the standard drug aspirin. The wound healing activity was evaluated by using excision wound model of rat. The percentage of wound contraction was found to be significant in animals treated with chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract when compared to controls. The results were comparable with that of the standard drug povidone iodine ointment. The chloroform and ethyl acetate extract treated wounds were found to epithelize faster as compared to controls.


PubMed | United Arab Emirates University, Health Science University and Pharmacy College
Type: Review | Journal: Infectious diseases of poverty | Year: 2016

Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many African countries and parts of Asia and South America. Novel approaches to combating the disease have emerged in recent years and several drug candidates are now being tested clinically. However, it is long before these novel drugs can hit the market, especially due to a scarcity of safety and efficacy data.To reduce the malaria burden, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) was established in 1999 to develop novel medicines through industry and academic partners collaboration. However, no reviews were focused following various preclinical and clinical studies published since the MMV initiation (2000) to till date.We identify promising approaches in the global portfolio of antimalarial medicines, and highlight challenges and patient specific concerns of these novel molecules. We discuss different clinical studies focusing on the evaluation of novel drugs against malaria in different human trials over the past five years.The drugs KAE609 and DDD107498 are still being evaluated in Phase I trials and preclinical developmental studies. Both the safety and efficacy of novel compounds such as KAF156 and DSM265 need to be assessed further, especially for use in pregnant women. Synthetic non-artemisinin ozonides such as OZ277 raised concerns in terms of its insufficient efficacy against high parasitic loads. Aminoquinoline-based scaffolds such as ferroquine are promising but should be combined with good partner drugs for enhanced efficacy. AQ-13 induced electrocardiac events, which led to prolonged QTc intervals. Tafenoquine, the only new anti-relapse scaffold for patients with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, has raised significant concerns due to its hemolytic activity. Other compounds, including methylene blue (potential transmission blocker) and fosmidomycin (DXP reductoisomerase inhibitor), are available but cannot be used in children.At this stage, we are unable to identify a single magic bullet against malaria. Future studies should focus on effective single-dose molecules that can act against all stages of malaria in order to prevent transmission. Newer medicines have also raised concerns in terms of efficacy and safety. Overall, more evidence is needed to effectively reduce the current malaria burden. Treatment strategies that target the blood stage with transmission-blocking properties are needed to prevent future drug resistance.

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