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Norwood, Australia

Longo M.,Pharmacotherapies Research Unit | Wickes W.,Pharmacotherapies Research Unit | Smout M.,Pharmacotherapies Research Unit | Harrison S.,Pharmacotherapies Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2010

Aim To investigate the safety and efficacy of once-daily supervised oral administration of sustained-release dexamphetamine in people dependent on methamphetamine. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Forty-nine methamphetamine-dependent drug users from Drug and Alcohol Services South Australia (DASSA) clinics. Intervention Participants were assigned randomly to receive up to 110 mg/day sustained-release dexamphetamine (n = 23) or placebo (n = 26) for a maximum of 12 weeks, with gradual reduction of the study medication over an additional 4 weeks. Medication was taken daily under pharmacist supervision. Measurements Primary outcome measures included treatment retention, measures of methamphetamine consumption (self-report and hair analysis), degree of methamphetamine dependence and severity of methamphetamine withdrawal. Hair samples were analysed for methamphetamine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Findings Treatment retention was significantly different between groups, with those who received dexamphetamine remaining in treatment for an average of 86.3 days compared with 48.6 days for those receiving placebo (P = 0.014). There were significant reductions in self-reported methamphetamine use between baseline and follow-up within each group (P < 0.0001), with a trend to a greater reduction among the dexamphetamine group (P = 0.086). Based on hair analysis, there was a significant decrease in methamphetamine concentration for both groups (P < 0.0001). At follow-up, degree of methamphetamine dependence was significantly lower in the dexamphetamine group (P = 0.042). Dexamphetamine maintenance was not associated with serious adverse events. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study have demonstrated that a maintenance pharmacotherapy programme of daily sustained-release amphetamine dispensing under pharmacist supervision is both feasible and safe. The increased retention in the dexamphetamine group, together with the general decreases in methamphetamine use, degree of dependence and withdrawal symptom severity, provide preliminary evidence that this may be an efficacious treatment option for methamphetamine dependence. © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

Coller J.K.,University of Adelaide | Cahill S.,Pharmacotherapies Research Unit | Edmonds C.,Pharmacotherapies Research Unit | Farquharson A.L.,University of Adelaide | And 6 more authors.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics | Year: 2011

Given the evidence from retrospective studies indicating that alcohol-dependent patients with homozygous or heterozygous A118G variant of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1, gene have significantly better outcomes when treated with naltrexone; this study examined this prospectively in 100 alcohol-dependent participants prescribed naltrexone for 12 weeks and offered six sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy or intervention. Comparisons were made among OPRM1 genotypic groups on several outcome measures. Naltrexone treatment produced significant decreases in self-reported and objective indicators of alcohol use and craving from baseline (P<0.0001 and 0.017, respectively), particularly during the first 2 months of treatment, with 68% completing the study. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between OPRM1 A118G genotype and treatment success on any of the outcome measures. Therefore, while naltrexone was an effective treatment for alcohol dependence, the OPRM1 A118G genotype was not a predictor of success. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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