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Coll J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Molto J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Boix J.,Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol Badalona | Gomez-Mora E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 11 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2015

Objective: Maraviroc (MVC) is a potential candidate for 'on demand' preexposure prophylaxis. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a single oral dose of MVC to prevent ex-vivo HIV-1 infection of rectal tissue in humans. Design and Methods: Eight HIV-1-negative healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of MVC (300 or 600 mg), and two additional volunteers received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC, 300/200 mg) for 10 days. Rectal biopsies were performed prior to the ex-vivo challenge (day 0), at day 7 (4 h after MVC) or after 10 days with TDF/FTC. Rectal biopsies were infected ex-vivo, and viral inhibition and CCR5 occupancy was analyzed. MVC concentration in plasma and rectal tissue was measured just after biopsy and after viral incubation. Results: Ex-vivo rectal tissue protection with MVC was incomplete in all but two participants, whereas TDF/FTC avoided ex-vivo infection in the two controls. Median dose-normalized concentration of MVC was significantly higher in rectal tissue than in plasma (561.1 and 155.1 ng/ml, respectively). A significant loss of MVC during the virus incubation (about 60%) and a low CCR5 occupancy (approximately 45%) were detected in rectal cells. Conclusions: An ex-vivo challenge with a single oral dose of MVC does not prevent ex-vivo infection of human rectal mucosa. The lack of prophylactic efficacy observed suggests that 'on demand' MVC preexposure prophylaxis would not prevent rectal HIV-1 transmission. © Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rikimaru K.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Rikimaru K.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | Wakabayashi T.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Wakabayashi T.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | And 40 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

In our search for a novel class of non-TZD, non-carboxylic acid peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonists, we explored alternative lipophilic templates to replace benzylpyrazole core of the previously reported agonist 1. Introduction of a pentylsulfonamide group into arylpropionic acids derived from previous in-house PPARγ ligands succeeded in the identification of 2-pyridyloxybenzene-acylsulfonamide 2 as a lead compound. Docking studies of compound 2 suggested that a substituent para to the central benzene ring should be incorporated to effectively fill the Y-shaped cavity of the PPARγ ligand-binding domain (LBD). This strategy led to significant improvement of PPARγ activity. Further optimization to balance in vitro activity and metabolic stability allowed the discovery of the potent, selective and orally efficacious PPARγ agonist 8f. Structure-activity relationship study as well as detailed analysis of the binding mode of 8f to the PPARγ-LBD revealed the essential structural features of this series of ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rikimaru K.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Rikimaru K.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | Wakabayashi T.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Wakabayashi T.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | And 38 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of novel benzylpyrazole acylsulfonamides as non-thiazolidinedione (TZD), non-carboxylic-acid-based peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonists. Docking model analysis of in-house weak agonist 2 bound to the reported PPARγ ligand binding domain suggested that modification of the carboxylic acid of 2 would help strengthen the interaction of 2 with the TZD pocket and afford non-carboxylic-acid-based agonists. In this study, we used an acylsulfonamide group as the ring-opening analog of TZD as an isosteric replacement of carboxylic acid moiety of 2; further, preliminary modification of the terminal alkyl chain on the sulfonyl group gave the lead compound 3c. Subsequent optimization of the resulting compound gave the potent agonists 25c, 30b, and 30c with high metabolic stability and significant antidiabetic activity. Further, we have described the difference in binding mode of the carboxylic-acid-based agonist 1 and acylsulfonamide 3d. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nomura S.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | Yamamoto Y.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | Matsumura Y.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | Ohba K.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories | And 7 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Inhibition of the renal sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and thus reduces blood glucose levels during hyperglycemia. To explore the potential of new antihyperglycemic agents, we synthesized and determined the human SGLT2 (hSGLT2) inhibitory potential of novel substituted 3-benzylindole-N-glucosides 6. Optimization of 6 resulted in the discovery of 3-(4-cyclopropylbenzyl)-4-fluoroindole-N-glucoside 6a-4 (TA-1887), a highly potent and selective hSGLT2 inhibitor, with pronounced antihyperglycemic effects in high-fat diet-fed KK (HF-KK) mice. Our results suggest the potential of indole-N-glucosides as novel antihyperglycemic agents through inhibition of renal SGLT2. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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