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Drozda K.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Muller D.J.,Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic | Bishop J.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Advancements in pharmacogenomics have introduced an increasing number of opportunities to bring personalized medicine into clinical practice. Understanding how and when to use this technology to guide pharmacotherapy used to treat psychiatric and neurological (neuropsychiatric) conditions remains a challenge for many clinicians. Currently, guidelines exist to assist clinicians in the use of existing genetic information for drug selection and/or dosing for the tricyclic antidepressants, carbamazepine, and phenytoin. Additional language in the product labeling suggests that genetic information may also be useful for determining the starting and target doses, as well as drug interaction potential, for a number of other drugs. In this review, we outline the current status of pharmacogenomic testing for neuropsychiatric drugs as it pertains to information contained in drug labeling, consensus guidelines, and test panels, as well as considerations related to obtaining tests for patients. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. Source


Pouget J.G.,Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute | Pouget J.G.,University of Toronto | Goncalves V.F.,Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute | Goncalves V.F.,University of Toronto | And 30 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2015

Aim: TSPO is a neuroinflammatory biomarker and emerging therapeutic target in psychiatric disorders. We evaluated whether TSPO polymorphisms contribute to interindividual variability in schizophrenia, antipsychotic efficacy and antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Patients & methods: We analyzed TSPO polymorphisms in 670 schizophrenia cases and 775 healthy controls. Gene-gene interactions between TSPO and other mitochondrial membrane protein-encoding genes (VDAC1 and ANT1) were explored. Positive findings were evaluated in two independent samples (Munich, n = 300; RUPP, n = 119). Results: TSPO rs6971 was independently associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in the discovery (puncor = 0.04) and RUPP samples (p = 3.00 × 10-3), and interacted with ANT1 rs10024068 in the discovery (p = 1.15 × 10-3) and RUPP samples (p = 2.76 × 10-4). Conclusion: Our findings highlight TSPO as a candidate for future investigations of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and support the involvement of mitochondrial membrane components in this serious treatment side effect. Original submitted 20 August 2014; Revision submitted 3 November 201. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Shams T.A.,Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic | Shams T.A.,Ryerson University | Muller D.J.,Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic | Muller D.J.,University of Toronto
Current Psychiatry Reports | Year: 2014

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a prevalent side effect of antipsychotic treatment, particularly with second generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine. At this point, there is virtually nothing that can be done to predict who will be affected by AIWG. However, hope for the future of prediction lies with genetic risk factors. Many genes have been studied for their association with AIWG with a variety of promising findings. This review will focus on genetic findings in the last year and will discuss the first epigenetic and biomarker findings as well. Although there are significant findings in many other genes, the most consistently replicated findings are in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), the leptin, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) genes. The study of genetic risk variants poses great promise in creating predictive tools for side effects such as AIWG. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Shams T.A.,Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic | Muller D.J.,Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic
Current psychiatry reports | Year: 2014

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a prevalent side effect of antipsychotic treatment, particularly with second generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine. At this point, there is virtually nothing that can be done to predict who will be affected by AIWG. However, hope for the future of prediction lies with genetic risk factors. Many genes have been studied for their association with AIWG with a variety of promising findings. This review will focus on genetic findings in the last year and will discuss the first epigenetic and biomarker findings as well. Although there are significant findings in many other genes, the most consistently replicated findings are in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), the leptin, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) genes. The study of genetic risk variants poses great promise in creating predictive tools for side effects such as AIWG. Source


Shams T.A.,Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic | Shams T.A.,Ryerson University | Foussias G.,University of Toronto | Foussias G.,Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
Current Psychiatry Reports | Year: 2015

Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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