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Nagasaki-shi, Japan

So G.,Nagasaki University | Nakagawa S.,Nagasaki University | Morofuji Y.,Nagasaki University | Hiu T.,Nagasaki University | And 8 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2015

Candesartan has been reported to have a protective effect on cerebral ischemia in vivo and in human ischemic stroke. We studied the direct effects of candesartan on blood–brain barrier (BBB) function with our in vitro monolayer model generated using rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBECs). The in vitro BBB model was subjected to normoxia or 6-h oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/24-h reoxygenation, with or without candesartan. 6-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation decreased transendothelial electrical resistance and increased the endothelial permeability for sodium fluorescein in RBEC monolayers. Candesartan (10 nM) improved RBEC barrier dysfunction induced by 6-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation. Immunostaining and immunoblotting analysis indicated that the effect of candesartan on barrier function under 6-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation was not related to the expression levels of tight junction proteins. However, candesartan affected RBEC morphological changes induced by 6-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation. We analyzed oxidative stress and cell viability using chemical reagents. Candesartan improved cell viability following 6-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation, whereas candesartan had no effect on oxidative stress. These results show that candesartan directly improves cell function and viability of brain capillary endothelial cells under OGD/reoxygenation, suggesting that the protective effects of candesartan on ischemic stroke are related to protection of the BBB. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Xu L.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Xu L.,Wenzhou University | Dan M.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Shao A.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) can enter the brain and induce neurotoxicity. However, the toxicity of Ag-NPs on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the underlying mechanism(s) of action on the BBB and the brain are not well understood. Method: To investigate Ag-NP suspension (Ag-NPS)-induced toxicity, a triple coculture BBB model of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes was established. The BBB permeability and tight junction protein expression in response to Ag-NPS, NP-released Ag ions, and polystyrene-NP exposure were investigated. Ultrastructural changes of the microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Global gene expression of astrocytes was measured using a DNA microarray. Results: A triple coculture BBB model of primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes was established, with the transendothelial electrical resistance values > 200 Ω⋅cm2. After Ag-NPS exposure for 24 hours, the BBB permeability was significantly increased and expression of the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 was decreased. Discontinuous TJs were also observed between microvascular endothelial cells. After Ag-NPS exposure, severe mitochondrial shrinkage, vacuolations, endoplasmic reticulum expansion, and Ag-NPs were observed in astrocytes by TEM. Global gene expression analysis showed that three genes were upregulated and 20 genes were downregulated in astrocytes treated with Ag-NPS. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the 23 genes were associated with metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, response to stimuli, cell death, the MAPK pathway, and so on. No GO term and KEGG pathways were changed in the released-ion or polystyrene-NP groups. Ag-NPS inhibited the antioxidant defense of the astrocytes by increasing thioredoxin interacting protein, which inhibits the Trx system, and decreasing Nr4a1 and Dusp1. Meanwhile, Ag-NPS induced inflammation and apoptosis through modulation of the MAPK pathway or B-cell lymphoma-2 expression or mTOR activity in astrocytes. Conclusion: These results draw our attention to the importance of Ag-NP-induced toxicity on the neurovascular unit and provide a better understanding of its toxicological mechanisms on astrocytes. © 2015 Xu et al. Source


Takeshita T.,Nagasaki University | Nakagawa S.,Nagasaki University | Nakagawa S.,PharmaCo Cell Company | Tatsumi R.,Nagasaki University | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2014

We investigated the effects of cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity against ischemia-reperfusion injury enhanced by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). We used in vitro BBB models with primarily cultured BBB-related cells from rats (brain capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes and pericytes), and subjected cells to either normoxia or 3-h oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/24-h reoxygenation with or without AGEs. Treatment of AGEs did not affect the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in the BBB model under normoxia, but there was a significant decrease in TEER under 3-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation conditions with AGEs. Cilostazol inhibited decreases in TEER induced by 3-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation with AGEs. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses showed that AGEs reduced the expression of claudin-5, the main functional protein of tight junctions (TJs). In contrast, cilostazol increased the expression of claudin-5 under 3-h OGD/24-h reoxygenation with AGEs. Furthermore, while AGEs increased the production of extracellular transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, cilostazol inhibited the production of extracellular TGF-β1 and restored the integrity of TJs. Thus, we found that AGEs enhanced ischemia-reperfusion injury, which mainly included decreases in the expression of proteins comprising TJs through the production of TGF-β1. Cilostazol appeared to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury with AGEs by improving the TJ proteins and inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Yamada N.,Clinical Research Center | Yamada N.,Nagasaki University | Nakagawa S.,Nagasaki University | Nakagawa S.,PharmaCo Cell Company | And 7 more authors.
Microvascular Research | Year: 2014

The effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on barrier functions were investigated by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro model comprising a primary culture of rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBEC). In order to examine the response of the peripheral endothelial cells to HGF, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) were also treated with HGF. HGF decreased the permeability of RBEC to sodium fluorescein and Evans blue albumin, and dose-dependently increased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in RBEC. HGF altered the immunochemical staining pattern of F-actin bands and made ZO-1 staining more distinct on the linear cell borders in RBEC. In contrast, HGF increased sodium fluorescein and Evans blue albumin permeability in HMVEC and HUVEC, and decreased TEER in HMVEC. In HMVEC, HGF reduced cortical actin bands and increased stress fiber density, and increased the zipper-like appearance of ZO-1 staining. Western blot analysis showed that HGF significantly increased the amount of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin. HGF seems to act on the BBB to strengthen BBB integrity. These findings indicated that cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell-cell adhesion, such as through VE-cadherin and ZO-1, are candidate mechanisms for the influence of HGF on the BBB. The possibility that HGF has therapeutic significance in protecting the BBB from damage needs to be considered. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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