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Nagasaki-shi, Japan

Huy N.T.,Nagasaki University | Van Giang T.,Nagasaki University | Thuy D.H.D.,PharmaCo Cell Co. | Kikuchi M.,Nagasaki University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:The pathogenesis of dengue shock syndrome (DSS, grade 3 and 4) is not yet completely understood. Several factors are reportedly associated with DSS, a more severe form of dengue infection that reportedly causes 50 times higher mortality compared to that of dengue patients without DSS. However, the results from these reports remain inconclusive. To better understand the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and pathogenesis of DSS for development of new therapy, we systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies that reported factors in both DSS and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, grade 1 and 2) patients.Methods and Findings:PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, Dengue Bulletin, Cochrane Library, Virtual Health Library, and a manual search of reference lists of articles published before September 2010 were used to retrieve relevant studies. A meta-analysis using fixed- or random-effects models was used to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) or event rate with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Assessment of heterogeneity and publication bias, meta-regression analysis, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and analysis of factor-specific relationships were further performed. There were 198 studies constituting 203 data sets that met our eligibility criteria. Our meta-regression analysis showed a sustained reduction of DSS/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) ratio over a period of 40 years in Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand. The meta-analysis revealed that age, female sex, neurological signs, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemoconcentration, ascites, pleural effusion, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, hepatomegaly, levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase, thrombocytopenia, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen level, primary/secondary infection, and dengue virus serotype-2 were significantly associated with DSS when pooling all original relevant studies.Conclusions:The results improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of DSS by identifying the association between the epidemiology, clinical signs, and biomarkers involved in DSS. © 2013 Huy et al.

Machida T.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,PharmaCo Cell Co. | Matsumoto J.,Fukuoka University | And 6 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2015

In the acute phase of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation and brain edema are associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Elevated levels of thrombin, a coagulation factor, contribute to the development of brain edema during ICH through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 production. Thrombin directly induces a variety of cellular responses through its specific receptors known as protease-activated receptors (PARs). However, it remains unclear which cell types constituting the BBB mainly produce MMP-9 in response to thrombin. Here, we compared the MMP-9 release induced by thrombin using primary cultures of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes. Brain pericytes exhibited the highest levels of MMP-9 release due to thrombin stimulation among the BBB cells. The pattern of PAR mRNA expression in pericytes was characterized by high expression of PAR1 and moderate expression of PAR4. Heat-inactivated thrombin failed to stimulate pericytes to release MMP-9. A selective PAR1 inhibitor SCH79797 blocked the thrombin-induced MMP-9 release from pericytes. These findings suggest that both PAR1 and PAR4 mediate thrombin-induced MMP-9 release from pericytes. The present study raises the possibility that brain pericytes could play a pivotal role as a highly thrombin-sensitive and MMP-9-producing cell type at the BBB in brain damage including ICH. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Matsumoto J.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,PharmaCo Cell Co. | Machida T.,Fukuoka University | And 8 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2014

Brain pericytes are involved in neurovascular dysfunction, neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation. In the present study, we focused on the proinflammatory properties of brain pericytes to understand their participation in the induction of inflammation at the neurovascular unit (NVU). The NVU comprises different cell types, namely, brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes and microglia. Among these, we found pericytes to be the most sensitive to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, possessing a unique cytokine and chemokine release profile. This was characterized by marked release of interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Furthermore, TNF-α-stimulated pericytes induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1β mRNAs, as an index of BV-2 microglial cell activation state, to the highest levels. Based on these findings, the possibility that brain pericytes act specifically as TNF-α-sensitive cells and as effectors of TNF-α through the release of proinflammatory factors, and that, as such, they have a role in inducing brain inflammation, should be considered. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Takata F.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,PharmaCo Cell Co. | Dohgu S.,Fukuoka University | Matsumoto J.,Fukuoka University | And 8 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs frequently in CNS diseases and injuries. Few drugs have been developed as therapeutic candidates for facilitating BBB functions. Here, we examined whether metformin up-regulates BBB functions using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBECs). Metformin, concentration- and time-dependently increased transendothelial electrical resistance of RBEC monolayers, and decreased RBEC permeability to sodium fluorescein and Evans blue albumin. These effects of metformin were blocked by compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK stimulation with an AMPK activator, AICAR, enhanced BBB functions. These findings indicate that metformin induces up-regulation of BBB functions via AMPK activation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sumi N.,Fukuoka University | Nishioku T.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,Fukuoka University | Takata F.,PharmaCo Cell Co. | And 7 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and neurons. BBB disruption under pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative disease and inflammation is observed in parallel with microglial activation. To test whether activation of microglia is linked to BBB dysfunction, we evaluated the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on BBB functions in an in vitro co-culture system with rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBEC) and microglia. When LPS was added for 6 h to the abluminal side of RBEC/microglia co-culture at a concentration showing no effects on the RBEC monolayer, transendothelial electrical resistance was decreased and permeability to sodium-fluorescein was increased in RBEC. Immunofluorescence staining for tight junction proteins demonstrated that zonula occludens-1-, claudin-5-, and occludin-like immunoreactivities at the intercellular borders of RBEC were fragmented in the presence of LPS-activated microglia. These functional changes induced by LPS-activated microglia were blocked by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride. The present findings suggest that LPS activates microglia to induce dysfunction of the BBB by producing reactive oxygen species through NADPH oxidase. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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