Pharmaceutical science

Maringá, Brazil

Pharmaceutical science

Maringá, Brazil
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Waaler J.,University of Oslo | Boggs J.,Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Blake R.A.,Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology | Magnuson S.,Discovery Chemistry | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Most colorectal cancers (CRC) are initiated by mutations of APC, leading to increased β-catenin-mediated signaling. However, continued requirement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling for tumor progression in the context of acquired KRAS and other mutations is less well-established. To attenuate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tumors, we have developed potent and specific small-molecule tankyrase inhibitors, G007-LK and G244-LM, that reduce Wnt/β-catenin signaling by preventing poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent AXIN degradation, thereby promoting β-catenin destabilization. We show that novel tankyrase inhibitors completely block ligand-driven Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cell culture and display approximately 50% inhibition of APC mutation-driven signaling in most CRC cell lines. It was previously unknown whether the level of AXIN protein stabilization by tankyrase inhibition is sufficient to impact tumor growth in the absence of normal APC activity. Compound G007-LK displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties and inhibits in vivo tumor growth in a subset of APC-mutant CRC xenograft models. In the xenograftmodel most sensitive to tankyrase inhibitor, COLO-320DM, G007-LK inhibits cell-cycle progression, reduces colony formation, and induces differentiation, suggesting that β-catenin-dependent maintenance of an undifferentiated state may be blocked by tankyrase inhibition. The full potential of the antitumor activity of G007-LK may be limited by intestinal toxicity associated with inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cell proliferation in intestinal crypts. These results establish proof-of-concept antitumor efficacy for tankyrase inhibitors in APC-mutant CRC models and uncover potential diagnostic and safety concerns to be overcome as tankyrase inhibitors are advanced into the clinic. Cancer Res; 73(10); 3132-44. © 2013 AACR.

Schumock G.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Li E.C.,University of New England at Biddeford | Hines E.,Hines Veterans Administration Hospital | Matusiak L.M.,Research Support Instruments, Inc. | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Purpose. An analysis of trends in U.S. pharmaceutical spending is presented, including projections for drug expenditures in nonfederal hospital and clinic settings in 2014. Methods. Trends in pharmaceutical expenditures and developments likely to influence future spending, including new drug approvals and patent expirations, were analyzed using data from the IMS Health National Sales Perspectives database. Projections were based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses and expert opinion. Results. Total prescription sales for the 12 months ending September 2013 were approximately $326 billion, 0.7% lower than sales during the previous 12 months; pharmaceutical spending by clinics and nonfederal hospitals grew by 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively. Vaccines were among the products driving large sales increases in clinic settings, with alteplase and pegfilgrastim topping the list of fast-growing drugs by hospital expenditures. Few new drug approvals anticipated in 2014 are expected to result in major expenditures by hospitals and clinics. Expansion of access to health care and other changes related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as well as continued improvement in the U.S. economy, may drive growth in pharmaceutical spending over the next 12-24 months. Conclusion. Growth in U.S. prescription drug expenditures is expected to rebound in 2014, with a projected 3-5% increase in total drug expenditures across all settings this year, including a 5-7% increase in clinic spending and a 1-3% increase in hospital spending. Health-system pharmacy leaders should carefully examine local drug-utilization patterns to determine their respective organization's anticipated spending in 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

De Souza Ferreira S.B.,Pharmaceutical science | Moco T.D.,Laboratory of Research and Development of Drug Delivery Systems | Borghi-Pangoni F.B.,Pharmaceutical science | Junqueira M.V.,Pharmaceutical science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2015

The development of binary polymeric mixtures (polymer blends) containing bioadhesive and thermoresponsive polymers can provide new materials for biomedical applications, with higher contact, increased adhesion, prolonged residence time, protection, and in determined cases, secured absorption of an active agent from the site of application. Mixtures were prepared using a wide range of poloxamer 407 and Carbopol 971P® amounts. The rheological (flow and oscillatory), sol-gel transition temperature, mechanical (hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and elasticity), softness, and mucoadhesive properties of formulations were investigated. Moreover, the interaction between the different proportions of polymers was also analyzed. Continuous shear and oscillatory rheometry identified the plastic flow with various degrees of thixotropy, besides the viscoelastic behavior of formulations. The determination of gelation temperature displayed values ranged from 27.17 to 41.09°C. It was also found that low carbomer concentrations were enough to provide positive interaction parameter. However, the highest values were obtained for the polymeric blends with higher concentration of poloxamer 407. The mucoadhesion and softness index were greater in preparations containing 20% (w/w) poloxamer 407. The rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of the polymeric blends can be manipulated by changing the concentrations of the polymers and they suggest the blends are worthy of biomedical applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Chim N.,UCI | Harmston C.A.,UCI | Guzman D.J.,Pharmaceutical science | Goulding C.W.,UCI
BMC Structural Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Bacterial Disulfide bond forming (Dsb) proteins facilitate proper folding and disulfide bond formation of periplasmic and secreted proteins. Previously, we have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF aid in vitro oxidative folding of proteins. The M. tuberculosis proteome contains another predicted membrane-tethered Dsb protein, Mt-DsbA, which is encoded by an essential gene. Results: Herein, we present structural and biochemical analyses of Mt-DsbA. The X-ray crystal structure of Mt-DsbA reveals a two-domain structure, comprising a canonical thioredoxin domain with the conserved CXXC active site cysteines in their reduced form, and an inserted -helical domain containing a structural disulfide bond. The overall fold of Mt-DsbA resembles that of other DsbA-like proteins and not Mt-DsbE or Mt-DsbF. Biochemical characterization demonstrates that, unlike Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF, Mt-DsbA is unable to oxidatively fold reduced, denatured hirudin. Moreover, on the substrates tested in this study, Mt-DsbA has disulfide bond isomerase activity contrary to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mt-DsbA acts upon a distinct subset of substrates as compared to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. One could speculate that Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF are functionally redundant whereas Mt-DsbA is not, offering an explanation for the essentiality of Mt-DsbA in M. tuberculosis. © 2013 Chim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Warren D.B.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | King D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Benameur H.,Pharmaceutical science | Pouton C.W.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Chalmers D.K.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: Little is known about the microstructure of lipid-based formulations, or how their structure changes as they disperse in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to study such formulations at the molecular level as they interact with water during dispersion. Methods: We studied a simple lipid formulation, by itself and in the presence of drugs. The formulation contained mono- and di-lauroyl glycerides at 0-75% w/w water. Acyclovir, danazol, hydrocortisone, ketoprofen or progesterone, were included to investigate their dynamic behavior and localization during dispersion. Results: Micro-structuring of the formulation was evident at all water concentrations. As the water content increased, the microstructure evolved from a continuous phase containing isolated water molecules, to a reverse micellar solution and finally to a system containing lamellar lipids with large pools of free water. Drugs partitioned into the aqueous and lipid domains principally under the influence of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Drugs located preferentially to the interfaces between water and lipid where they are able to make both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Conclusion: Molecular dynamics simulations offer an unprecedented view of the structure of lipid-based formulations and has considerable potential as an in silico tool for formulators. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

PubMed | University of Kentucky, University of Bath and Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: WebmedCentral | Year: 2016

This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoED-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723s pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis.ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis.The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone.Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN723T treatment.

Bian B.,Pharmaceutical science | Kelton C.M.L.,Economics and Adjunct Professor of Clinical Pharmacy | Guo J.J.,Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmacoepidemiology | Wigle P.R.,University of Cincinnati
Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy | Year: 2010

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, as well as for kidney disease prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus and the management of patients after myocardial infarction. Objective: To (a) describe ACE inhibitor and ARB utilization and spending in the Medicaid fee-for-service program from 1991 through 2008, and (b) estimate the potential cost savings for the collective Medicaid programs from a higher ratio of generic ACE inhibitor utilization. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive analysis was performed using the National Summary Files from the Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data, which are composed of pharmacy claims that are subject to federally mandated rebates from pharmaceutical manufacturers. For the years 1991-2008, quarterly claim counts and expenditures were calculated by summing data for individual ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Quarterly per-claim expenditure as a proxy for drug price was computed for all brand and generic drugs. Market shares were calculated based on the number of pharmacy claims and Medicaid expenditures. Results: In the Medicaid fee-for-service program, ACE inhibitors accounted for 100% of the claims in the combined market for ACE inhibitors and ARBs in 1991, 80.6% in 2000, and 64.7% in 2008. The Medicaid expenditure per ACE inhibitor claim dropped from $37.24 in 1991 to $24.03 in 2008 when generics accounted for 92.5% of ACE inhibitor claims; after adjusting for inflation for the period from 1991 to 2008, the real price drop was 59.2%. Brand ACE inhibitors accounted for only 7.5% of the claims in 2008 for all ACE inhibitors but 32.1% of spending; excluding the effects of manufacturer rebates, Medicaid spending would have been reduced by $28.7 million (9%) in 2008 if all ACE inhibitor claims were generic. The average price per ACE inhibitor claim in 2008 was $24.03 ($17.64 per generic claim vs. $103.45 per brand claim) versus $81.98 per ARB claim. If the ACE inhibitor ratio had been 75% in 2008 rather than 64.7%, the Medicaid program would have saved approximately 13% or about $41.8 million, again excluding the effects of manufacturer rebates. If the ACE inhibitor ratio had been 90% in 2008, the cost savings for the combined Medicaid fee-for-service programs would have been about 33% or about $102.3 million. The total cost savings opportunity with 100% generic ACE inhibitor utilization in 2008 and an ACE inhibitor ratio of 75% was $75.1 million (24%) or $142.3M (46%) with a 90% ACE inhibitor ratio. Conclusion: Factors that affect Medicaid spending by contributing to increased utilization of ACE inhibitors and ARBs, such as the rising prevalence of hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes, can be offset by reduction in the average price attained through a higher proportion of ACE inhibitors and a higher percentage of generic versus brand ACE inhibitors. © 2010, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved.

Ignatious F.,Glaxosmithkline | Sun L.,Glaxosmithkline | Lee C.-P.,Pharmaceutical science | Baldoni J.,Glaxosmithkline
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

In order to enhance the delivery of drugs with limited absorption due to poor solubility/ dissolution, approaches are being developed to improve the dissolution rates and solubility of drug molecules. These approaches include identification of water-soluble salts of parent drugs, preparation of stable amorphous drug formulations, inclusion of solubility-enhancing agents in the dosage form, and particle size reduction. Technologies to reduce drug particle size to sub-micrometer range are being applied to product development more frequently. Electrospinning is being considered as one of the technologies which can produce nanosized drugs incorporated in polymeric nanofibers. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the release rates of drugs from these nanofiber formulations are enhanced compared to those from original drug substance. This technology has the potential to be used for enhancing the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. © 2010 Springer Seience+Business Media, LLC.

Junior N.R.A.,Pharmaceutical science | Costa I.M.C.,University of Brasilia
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia | Year: 2011

Complementary or Alternative Medicine is defined as a form of therapy that has no scientific basis or proven effectiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of such therapies for pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis at the University Hospital of Brasília, in the period between March 2007 and December 2008. A total number of 54 patients (63.5%) used some kind of alternative resource and phytotherapy and homeopathy were the most used ones. ©2011 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia.

PubMed | Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Drug metabolism letters | Year: 2015

Obesity in children is a significant clinical concern. There are many anecdotes and case studies regarding specific reactions of obese children to medications including therapeutic failure, adverse drug reactions and/or requirements for higher weight-adjusted dosing. There isis, however, a lack of basic and clinical data dissecting the mechanisms of these effects on pharmaceutical efficacy and safety. At present it is unknown how much of the difference in drug disposition in obese children can be attributed to obesity, to maturation or to an interaction between the two. Since a major determinant of drug disposition is hepatic metabolism, here we review how obesity alters hepatic drug disposition in children. Basic as well as clinical data summarizing the current knowledge of biochemical, physiological and clinical effects of pediatric obesity on drug disposition are considered. We conclude that there is a dire need for increased research into the direct effects of obesity on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as changes to pharmacokinetic parameters such as bioavailability and clearance. Increased effort in this area may elucidate the effects of obesity on clinical drug disposition with sufficient detail to provide better dosing guidelines where needed for children.

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