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Maringá, Brazil

Abdelgawad I.A.,Cairo University | El-Mously R.H.,Cairo University | Saber M.M.,Pharmaceutical science | Mansour O.A.,Cairo University | Shouman S.A.,Cairo University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology

Vitamin D and calcium are involved in a wide range of proliferation, apoptosis and cell signaling activities in the body. Suboptimal concentrations may lead to cancer development. The role of phosphate in cancer metabolism is particularly relevant in breast cancer while, magnesium deficiency favors DNA mutations leading to carcinogenesis. Objectives: To determine serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and parathormone in female breast cancer patients and to assess their association with some prognostic factors in breast cancer. Design and methods: This study is done on 98 newly diagnosed female breast cancer patients and 49 age matched apparently healthy female volunteers as controls. Serum samples from all patients and controls were subjected to 25-OH Vit D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and parathormone measurements. Results: In the breast cancer group, the median serum levels of 25-OH Vit D were 15 ng/ml, while it was 21 ng/ml in the control group. Levels of 25-OH Vit D and other tested minerals were significantly lower while calcium: magnesium (Ca:Mg) ratio, and calcium: phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio were significantly higher in the breast cancer group. Significant negative correlation was detected between phosphorus and calcium, ionized calcium, calcium magnesium ratio, and calcium phosphorus ratio. Conclusion: It is not only the deficient levels of Vit D and other related minerals, but the combination of the abnormal levels of all the studied parameters that might contribute to the development of cancer. Further studies with larger number of patient are needed. Source

Cruz I.,Idiap Research Institute | Serna C.,University of Lleida | Rue M.,University of Lleida | Real J.,University of Lleida | And 2 more authors.
European Psychiatry

Background: Raised rates of psychoses among ethnic minorities have been reported. Exposure to antipsychotic medications can give information on mental illness management and ethnic-related differences. Objective: To compare exposure to antipsychotic medications in immigrant and native-born populations in Spain. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study of the dispensation of antipsychotic medications to the population aged 15 to 64. years, in a Spanish Health Region during 2008. Results: 1.9% of the native-born population was exposed to antipsychotic medications as compared to 0.4% of the immigrant population. Native-born women were exposed from 1.8 to 5.3 times more and native-born men from 3.6 to 6.3 times more than immigrants of the same gender. The least exposed were persons from Eastern Europe and men from sub-Saharan Africa. Active ingredients prescribed were similar between the two groups. Of the immigrant group, 15.7% were admitted to a psychiatric ward as compared to 6.4% of the native-born population. In the former, non-specific diagnoses were predominant. Conclusions: All immigrant groups had lower exposure to antipsychotic medications, were admitted to inpatient care more often and had less specific diagnoses. Both diagnostic processes and adherence to treatment need improvement in the regional immigrant population. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Chim N.,UCI | Harmston C.A.,UCI | Guzman D.J.,Pharmaceutical science | Goulding C.W.,UCI
BMC Structural Biology

Background: Bacterial Disulfide bond forming (Dsb) proteins facilitate proper folding and disulfide bond formation of periplasmic and secreted proteins. Previously, we have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF aid in vitro oxidative folding of proteins. The M. tuberculosis proteome contains another predicted membrane-tethered Dsb protein, Mt-DsbA, which is encoded by an essential gene. Results: Herein, we present structural and biochemical analyses of Mt-DsbA. The X-ray crystal structure of Mt-DsbA reveals a two-domain structure, comprising a canonical thioredoxin domain with the conserved CXXC active site cysteines in their reduced form, and an inserted -helical domain containing a structural disulfide bond. The overall fold of Mt-DsbA resembles that of other DsbA-like proteins and not Mt-DsbE or Mt-DsbF. Biochemical characterization demonstrates that, unlike Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF, Mt-DsbA is unable to oxidatively fold reduced, denatured hirudin. Moreover, on the substrates tested in this study, Mt-DsbA has disulfide bond isomerase activity contrary to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mt-DsbA acts upon a distinct subset of substrates as compared to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. One could speculate that Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF are functionally redundant whereas Mt-DsbA is not, offering an explanation for the essentiality of Mt-DsbA in M. tuberculosis. © 2013 Chim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Warren D.B.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | King D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Benameur H.,Pharmaceutical science | Pouton C.W.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Chalmers D.K.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pharmaceutical Research

Purpose: Little is known about the microstructure of lipid-based formulations, or how their structure changes as they disperse in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to study such formulations at the molecular level as they interact with water during dispersion. Methods: We studied a simple lipid formulation, by itself and in the presence of drugs. The formulation contained mono- and di-lauroyl glycerides at 0-75% w/w water. Acyclovir, danazol, hydrocortisone, ketoprofen or progesterone, were included to investigate their dynamic behavior and localization during dispersion. Results: Micro-structuring of the formulation was evident at all water concentrations. As the water content increased, the microstructure evolved from a continuous phase containing isolated water molecules, to a reverse micellar solution and finally to a system containing lamellar lipids with large pools of free water. Drugs partitioned into the aqueous and lipid domains principally under the influence of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Drugs located preferentially to the interfaces between water and lipid where they are able to make both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Conclusion: Molecular dynamics simulations offer an unprecedented view of the structure of lipid-based formulations and has considerable potential as an in silico tool for formulators. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Complementary or Alternative Medicine is defined as a form of therapy that has no scientific basis or proven effectiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of such therapies for pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis at the University Hospital of Brasília, in the period between March 2007 and December 2008. A total number of 54 patients (63.5%) used some kind of alternative resource and phytotherapy and homeopathy were the most used ones. ©2011 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. Source

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