Loeser E.,Pharmaceutical and Analytical Development |
Sutton P.,Pharmaceutical and Analytical Development |
Skorodinsky A.,Pharmaceutical and Analytical Development |
Lin M.,Chemical and Analytical Development |
Yowell G.,Pharmaceutical and Analytical Development
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2012
In this study, the tromethamine salt of an active pharmaceutical ingredient containing both a carboxylic acid and ethyl ester functionality was subjected to forced degradation conditions. Based on HPLC-MS analysis, it was found that tromethamine formed both amide and ester type condensation products with the API, with amide formation predominating over ester formation. Addition of tromethamine at the carboxylic acid group of the API was favored over addition at the ethyl ester group. Tromethamine condensation products were observed only under the harshest stress conditions (80 degrees and 75% relative humidity), in which the salt physically changed from a crystalline form to a deliquesced state. Under stress conditions in which the crystalline structure of the salt remained intact, good stability was observed. Thus, the interaction between tromethamine and API occurred only in cases where the crystallinity of the salt was compromised. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Abzalimov R.R.,University of Massachusetts Amherst |
Bobst C.E.,University of Massachusetts Amherst |
Salinas P.A.,Pharmaceutical and Analytical Development |
Savickas P.,Pharmaceutical and Analytical Development |
And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013
Arylsulfatase A is an endogenous enzyme that is responsible for the catabolism and control of sulfatides in humans. Its deficiency results in the accumulation of sulfatides in the cells of the central and peripheral nervous system leading to the destruction of the myelin sheath and resulting in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease. A recombinant human form of this glycoprotein (rhASA) is currently under development as an enzyme replacement therapy. At neutral and alkaline pH, this protein exists as a homodimer but converts to an octameric state in the mildly acidic environment of the lysosome, and a failure to form an octamer results in suboptimal catalytic activity (most likely due to a diminished protection from lysosomal proteases). Despite the obvious importance of the rhASA oligomerization process, its mechanistic details remain poorly understood. In this work, we use size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to monitor the dimer-to-octamer transition as a function of both solution pH and protein concentration. While SEC clearly shows different profiles (i.e., retention time differences) for rhASA when the chromatography is performed at neutral and lysosomal pH, consistent with changing oligomerization states, no resolved peaks could be observed for either octamer or dimer when analyzed at intermediate pH (5.5-6.5). This could be interpreted either as the result of a rapid dimer-to-octamer interconversion on the chromatographic time scale or as a consequence of the presence of previously unidentified intermediate species (e.g., tetramer and/or hexamer). In contrast, ESI MS provides strong evidence of the dimer-to-octamer transition state that occurs when the analysis is performed within a narrow pH range (6.0-7.0). Octamer assembly was shown to be a highly cooperative process with no intermediate states that are populated to detectable levels. A tetrameric state of rhASA exists at equilibrium with a dimer at neutral pH but does not appear to be involved in the octamer assembly process. © 2012 American Chemical Society.