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Thanapreedawat P.,University of Shizuoka | Kobayashi H.,University of Shizuoka | Inui N.,University of Shizuoka | Sakamoto K.,University of Shizuoka | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2013

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid found in unpolished rice, chocolate, tea, and other foods. It is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter. However, the influence of GABA on object recognition and working memory is still unknown. In this study, the effects of GABA on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and working memory were examined. The proper retention interval and delay time were also investigated for the NOR test and T-maze test, respectively. Male 3-wk-old Wistar rats were allowed free access to food and water containing 0.5% GABA or 1% GABA for a month. After that, the rats performed the NOR test at a 48 h retention interval and T-maze test at a 900 s delay time to estimate the effects of GABA on learning behavior. The results showed that the object information in the NOR test was stored as long-term memory and the recognition index (RI) was significantly increased after GABA administration. The accuracy rate also significantly increased after GABA administration. These indicate that GABA may be involved in long-term object recognition memory and working memory.

Yamamoto H.,Osaka University | Awada C.,Osaka University | Awada C.,Pharma Foods International Co. | Matsumoto S.,Osaka University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2015

Wnt5a regulates planar cell polarity in epithelial cells, but it remains to be determined whether Wnt5a and its receptors are sorted apically or basolaterally, and how Wnt5a signaling is involved in apical and basolateral polarization. We found that Wnt5a was secreted basolaterally in polarized kidney epithelial cells. The basolateral secretion of Wnt5a required Wntless (Wls), clathrin and adaptor protein 1 (AP-1). Wnt5a receptors were also localized to the basolateral membranes, but their sorting did not require Wls. Wnt5a-induced signaling was stimulated more efficiently at the basolateral side than the apical side of epithelial cells. Knockdown of Wnt5a delayed apical lumen formation of the epithelial cyst, and these phenotypes were rescued by wild-type Wnt5a, but not by a Wnt5a mutant that is secreted apically. Although apoptosis was not required for apical lumen formation in a wild-type cyst, apoptosis was necessary for eliminating luminal cells in a Wnt5a-depleted cyst. These results suggest that Wnt5a and its receptors are sorted to their correct destination by different mechanisms and that the basolateral secretion of Wnt5a is necessary for apical lumen formation in the epithelial cyst. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Ok W.-J.,Inje University | Cho H.-J.,Konyang University | Kim H.-H.,Inje University | Lee D.-H.,Inje University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2012

Aim: In this study, we investigated the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cyclic nucleotide production and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation in collagen (10 μg/mL)-stimulated platelet aggregation. Methods: Washed platelets (10 8/mL) from Sprague-Dawley rats (6-7 weeks old, male) were preincubated for 3 min at 37° in the presence of 2 mM exogenous CaCl2 with or without EGCG or other materials, stimulated with collagen (10 μg/mL) for 5 min, and then used for the determination of intracellular cytosolic Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+]i), thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2), adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), and VASP phosphorylation. Results: EGCG dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation by inhibiting both [Ca 2+]i mobilization and TXA 2 production. Of two aggregation-inhibiting molecules, cAMP and cGMP, EGCG significantly increased intracellular levels of cAMP, but not cGMP. EGCG-elevated cAMP level was decreased by SQ22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, but not by etazolate, a cAMPspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In addition, EGCG elevated the phosphorylation of VASP-Ser 157, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) substrate, but not the phosphorylation of VASP-Ser 239, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase substrate, in intact platelets and collagen-induced platelets, and VASPSer157 phosphorylation by EGCG was inhibited by both an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and an A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. We have demonstrated that EGCG increases cAMP via adenylate cyclase activation and subsequently phosphorylates VASP-Ser 157 through A-kinase activation to inhibit [Ca 2+]i mobilization and TXA2 production on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusions: These results strongly indicate that EGCG is a beneficial compound elevating cAMP level in collagen-platelet interaction, which may result in the prevention of platelet aggregationmediated thrombotic diseases.

Pharma Foods International Co. | Date: 2009-07-14

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used as an ingredient of soft drinks, sport drinks, and smoothies.

Pharma Foods International Co. | Date: 2013-07-04

The present invention provides a novel active ingredient which can be safely used in preventing, ameliorating or treating diseases related to the cartilage such as cartilage damages and cartilage disorders. Since the egg yolk protein hydrolyzate has an effect on chondrocyte proliferation promotion, it is useful as an active ingredient for preventing, ameliorating or treating cartilage disorders and for preventing, ameliorating or treating joint pain. The egg yolk protein hydrolyzate is a natural-origin material with high safety and, therefore, can be widely used in foods and drinks, medicines, feeds and the like which can be daily ingested.

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