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Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Hong T.K.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Trang N.H.H.D.,University of Sydney | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and to identify components of cardiovascular risk clusters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 693 high-school students 13 to 16. years old in 2007. MetS was defined according to five different definitions: the Pediatric International Diabetes Federation, the Adult Treatment Panel III, and the modified definitions by Cook, Weiss, and De Ferranti. Principal components analysis (PCA) was carried out to cluster risk factors. Results: The prevalence of MetS was high and varied from 3.9% to 12.5%, depending on the criteria used. High levels of triglycerides (or low High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) and high blood pressure were the most prevalent components of MetS, while impaired glucose tolerance was the least prevalent. PCA showed three factors in boys (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia) that cumulatively explained 64.3%, and four factors in females (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia) that accounted for 73.6% of the observed variance of MetS. Conclusions: The prevalence of MetS in HCMC adolescents was high. Obesity accounts for the maximum variance in clustering and appears to be a more powerful correlate of cardiovascular risk than other variables. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hong T.K.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney | Sibbritt D.,University of Newcastle
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective The present study evaluates the reliability and validity of an FFQ designed for use with adolescents in urban Vietnam.Design A cohort study was conducted between December 2003 and June 2004. The FFQ was administered three times over a 6-month period (FFQ 1-3) and nutrient intakes were compared to those obtained from four 24 h recalls collected over the same period (24 h recalls 1-4) using crude, energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlation coefficients. The level of agreement between the two measurements was also evaluated with Bland-Altman analysis. The percentage of nutrient intakes classified within one quintile, as well as quadratic-weighted kappa statistics, were calculated.Setting Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.Subjects A total of 180 students were recruited in three junior high schools.Results Coefficients ranged from 0·22 for retinol to 0·78 for fibre for short-term reliability, and from 0·30 for retinol to 0·81 for zinc for long-term reliability. Coefficients for nutrient intakes between the mean of the three FFQ and mean of four 24 h recalls were mostly around 0·40, but higher for energy-adjusted nutrients. After allowing for within-person variation, the mean coefficient was 0·52 for macronutrients and 0·46 for micronutrients. There were a relatively high proportion of nutrient intakes classified within one quintile and a small number grossly misclassified. Kappa values shows 'fair' to 'good' agreement for all food/nutrient categories, while the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the FFQ is accurate in assessing nutrient intake at a group level.Conclusions This newly developed FFQ is a valid tool for measuring nutrient intake in adolescents in urban Vietnam. © 2009 The Authors. Source

Trang N.H.H.D.,University of Sydney | Hong T.K.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Van Der Ploeg H.P.,University of Sydney | Van Der Ploeg H.P.,VU University Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with increased risk of chronic disease and sedentary behavior is increasing among adolescents. Data on changes in sedentary behavior in developing countries are limited. Purpose: To describe 5-year longitudinal changes in nonschool sedentary hours among urban adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, and to identify correlates with this change. Methods: This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort with systematic random sampling of 759 students from 18 junior high schools. All measures were taken annually between 2004 and 2009. Sedentary behavior was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to analyze the data in 2011. Results: Between 2004 and 2009, self-reported time spent in nonschool sedentary behavior increased from 498 to 603 minutes/day. In the 5th survey year, boys and girls (aged 16 years) were, respectively, 3.6 times (95% CI=2.3, 6.0) and 3.1 times (95% CI= 1.8, 5.0) more likely to spend ≥2 hours/day on screen time compared with baseline (aged 12 years). Accelerometer data adjusted for wearing time revealed that boys and girls aged 16 years had, respectively, 78 minutes/day (95% CI=48, 104) and 69 minutes/day (95% CI=34, 95) more nonschool sedentary time than those at the first accelerometer assessment (at age 13 years). Girls in the highest socioeconomic quartile spent an additional 90 minutes/day in sedentary behavior compared with girls in the lowest quartile (95% CI=52, 128). Conclusions: Nonschool sedentary behavior increased among Vietnamese adolescents with age. The largest increase was in recreational screen time (28%), which would be the most obvious target for preventive health strategies. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

Ho-Pham L.T.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Nguyen N.D.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Lai T.Q.,Peoples Hospital 115 | Nguyen T.V.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Nguyen T.V.,University of New South Wales
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2010

Background. The relative contribution of lean and fat to the determination of bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is a contentious issue. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that lean mass is a better determinant of BMD than fat mass. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 210 postmenopausal women of Vietnamese background, aged between 50 and 85 years, who were randomly sampled from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Whole body scans, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMD were measured by DXA (QDR 4500, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA). Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were derived from the whole body scan. Furthermore, lean mass index (LMi) and fat mass index (FMi) were calculated as ratio of LM or FM to body height in metre squared (m2). Results. In multiple linear regression analysis, both LM and FM were independent and significant predictors of BMD at the spine and femoral neck. Age, lean mass and fat mass collectively explained 33% variance of lumbar spine and 38% variance of femoral neck BMD. Replacing LM and FM by LMi and LMi did not alter the result. In both analyses, the influence of LM or LMi was greater than FM and FMi. Simulation analysis suggested that a study with 1000 individuals has a 78% chance of finding the significant effects of both LM and FM, and a 22% chance of finding LM alone significant, and zero chance of finding the effect of fat mass alone. Conclusions. These data suggest that both lean mass and fat mass are important determinants of BMD. For a given body size - measured either by lean mass or height - women with greater fat mass have greater BMD. © 2010 Ho-Pham et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Hong T.K.,Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine | Trang N.H.H.D.,University of Sydney | van der Ploeg H.P.,University of Sydney | Hardy L.L.,University of Sydney | Dibley M.J.,University of Sydney
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2012

Background: Accurate assessment of physical activity in adolescents at population level is necessary. In Vietnam, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQA) have been validated against accelerometers for use in adolescents. However, these questionnaires were originally designed for adults and showed poor validity. This study aims to assess the reliability and validity of the Vietnamese Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire (V-APARQ).Methods: One hundred and sixty five students were recruited from four junior high schools in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam in 2004. V-APARQ asked students to report their usual organised and non-organised physical activity during a normal week and moderate- (MPA), vigorous- (VPA and moderate-to-vigorous- (MVPA) physical activity were calculated. Reliability was assessed by test-retest (2 weeks apart). Construct validity was assess by 7-day accelerometry, following the completion of the first V-APARQ.Results: The construct validity of the V-APARQ showed Spearman correlation of 0.25 and 0.22 for the assessment of the questionnaire when compared to the accelerometer. Test-retest reliability showed a weighted Kappa of 0.75 and the intra-class correlation coefficient for MVPA was 0.57 for the whole group (MPA =0.37 and VPA = 0.62), and were higher in boys than girls. The Bland-Altman plots for reliability show a mean difference of 0.4 minutes (95 % CI = -3.2, 4.0) for daily MVPA (n = 146) and the limits of agreement were -42.6 to 43.4 mins/day. In boys MVPA was lower on the first, compared with second administration of V-APARQ while the reverse was observed among girls.Conclusion: The reliability and validity of the V-APARQ were low to fair, but are comparable to other self-report physical activity questionnaires used among adolescents. V-APARQ will be useful for population monitoring of change in physical activity among urban Vietnamese adolescents. © 2012 Hong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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