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Louisville, KY, United States

Reynolds K.K.,University of Louisville | McNally B.A.,PGXL Laboratories | Linder M.W.,University of Louisville
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2016

Pharmacogenetics examines an individual's genetic makeup to help predict the safety and efficacy of medications. Practical application optimizes treatment selection to decrease the failure rate of medications and improve clinical outcomes. Lack of efficacy is costly due to adverse drug reactions and increased hospital stays. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes roughly 25% of all drugs. Detecting variants that cause altered CYP2D6 enzymatic activity identifies patients at risk of adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure with standard dosages of medications metabolized by CYP2D6. This article discusses the clinical application of pharmacogenetics to improve care and decrease costs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Johnson S.M.,The Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Johnson S.M.,Ohio State University | McNally B.A.,The Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | McNally B.A.,Ohio State University | And 12 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2015

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of lower respiratory disease in infants, but no vaccine or effective therapy is available. The initiation of RSV infection of immortalized cells is largely dependent on cell surface heparan sulfate (HS), a receptor for the RSV attachment (G) glycoprotein in immortalized cells. However, RSV infects the ciliated cells in primary well differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures via the apical surface, but HS is not detectable on this surface. Here we show that soluble HS inhibits infection of immortalized cells, but not HAE cultures, confirming that HS is not the receptor on HAE cultures. Conversely, a “non-neutralizing” monoclonal antibody against the G protein that does not block RSV infection of immortalized cells, does inhibit infection of HAE cultures. This antibody was previously shown to block the interaction between the G protein and the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and we have mapped the binding site for this antibody to the CX3C motif and its surrounding region in the G protein. We show that CX3CR1 is present on the apical surface of ciliated cells in HAE cultures and especially on the cilia. RSV infection of HAE cultures is reduced by an antibody against CX3CR1 and by mutations in the G protein CX3C motif. Additionally, mice lacking CX3CR1 are less susceptible to RSV infection. These findings demonstrate that RSV uses CX3CR1 as a cellular receptor on HAE cultures and highlight the importance of using a physiologically relevant model to study virus entry and antibody neutralization. © 2015 Johnson et al.

Boswell M.V.,University of Louisville | Elaine Stauble M.,University of Louisville | Loyd G.E.,University of Louisville | Langman L.,Mayo Medical School | And 4 more authors.
Pain Physician | Year: 2013

Background: Postoperative pain management remains a challenge for clinicians due to unpredictable patient responses to opioid therapy. Some of this variability may result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human opioid mu-1 receptor (OPRM1) that modify receptor binding or signal transduction. The OPRM1 variant with the highest frequency is the A118G SNP. However, previous studies have produced inconsistent results regarding the clinical effects of A118G on opioid response. We hypothesized that measurement of serum opioid concentrations, in addition to determining total opioid consumption, may provide a more precise method of assessing the effects of A118G on analgesic response. The current study evaluated the relationship of analgesia, side effects, total hydrocodone consumption, quantitative serum hydrocodone and hydromorphone concentrations, and A118G SNP in postoperative patients following Cesarean section. Methods: 158 women scheduled for Cesarean section were enrolled prospectively in the study. The patients had bupivacaine spinal anesthesia for surgery and received intrathcal morphine with the spinal anesthetic or parenteral morphine for the first 24 hours after surgery. Thereafter, patients received hydrocodone/acetaminophen for postoperative pain control. On postoperative day 3, venous blood samples were obtained for OPRM1 A118G genotyping and serum opioid concentrations. Results: 131 (82.9%) of the subjects were homozygous for the 118A allele of OPRM1 (AA) and 27 (17.1%) carried the G allele (AG/GG). By regression analysis, pain relief was significantly associated with total hydrocodone dose in the AA group (P = 0.01), but not in the AG/GG group (P = 0.554). In contrast, there was no association between pain relief and serum hydrocodone concentration in either group. However, pain relief was significantly associated with serum hydromorphone concentration (a metabolite of hydrocodone) in the AA group (P = 0.004), but not in the AG/GG group (P = 0.724). Conversely, side effects were significantly higher (P < 0.04) in the AG/GG group (mean = 6.4) than in the AA group (mean = 4.4), regardless of adjustment for BMI, pain level, or total dose of hydrocodone. Conclusion: This study found a correlation between pain relief and total hydrocodone dose in patients homozygous for the 118A allele (AA) of the OPRM1 gene, but not in patients with the 118G allele (AG/GG). However, pain relief in 118A patients did not correlate with serum hydrocodone concentrations, but rather with serum hydromorphone levels, the active metabolite of hydrocodone. This suggests that pain relief with hydrocodone may be due primarily to hydromorphone. Although pain relief did not correlate with opioid dose in AG/GG patients, they had a higher incidence of opioid side effects. The correlations identified in this study may reflect the fact that serum opioid concentrations were measured directly, avoiding the inherent imprecision associated with relying solely on total opioid consumption as a determinant of opioid effectiveness. Thus, measurement of serum opioid concentrations is recommended when assessing the role of OPRM1 variants in pain relief. This study supports pharmacogenetic analysis of OPRM1 in conjunction with serum opioid concentrations when evaluating patient responses to opioid therapy.

Borgman M.P.,PGXL Laboratories | Pendleton R.C.,University of Utah | McMillin G.A.,Arup | McMillin G.A.,University of Utah | And 8 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2012

We performed a randomised pilot trial of PerMIT, a novel decision support tool for genotype-based warfarin initiation and maintenance dosing, to assess its efficacy for improving warfarin management. We prospectively studied 26 subjects to compare PerMIT-guided management with routine anticoagulation service management. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype results for 13 subjects randomly assigned to the Per- MIT arm were recorded within 24 hours of enrolment. To aid in INR interpretation, PerMIT calculates estimated loading and maintenance doses based on a patient's genetic and clinical characteristics and displays calculated S-warfarin plasma concentrations based on planned or administered dosages. In comparison to control subjects, patients in the PerMIT study arm demonstrated a 3.6-day decrease in the time to reach a stabilised INR within the target therapeutic range (4.7 vs. 8.3 days, p= 0.015); a 12.8% increase in time spent within the therapeutic interval over the first 25 days of therapy (64.3% vs. 55.3%, p = 0.180); and a 32.9% decrease in the frequency of warfarin dose adjustments per INR measurement (38.3% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.007). Serial measurements of plasma S-warfarin concentrations were also obtained to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of the pharmacokinetic model during induction therapy. The PerMIT S-warfarin plasma concentration model estimated 62.8% of concentrations within 0.15 mg/l. These pilot data suggest that the PerMIT method and its incorporation of genotype/phenotype information may help practitioners increase the safety, efficacy, and efficiency of warfarin therapeutic management. © Schattauer 2012.

McNally B.,PGXL Laboratories | Linder M.,PGXL Laboratories | Linder M.,University of Louisville | Valdes Jr. R.,PGXL Laboratories | Valdes Jr. R.,University of Louisville
Personalized Medicine | Year: 2014

Epigenetic testing, primarily in the form of DNA methylation analysis, is currently being used in healthcare settings to help identify and manage disease conditions and to develop and select drugs that specifically target epigenetic machinery. Yet, the clinical application of epigenetic analysis is still in its infancy. With a number of large-scale national and international epigenomic consortia projects in progress to identify tissue-specific epigenomes in normal and disease conditions, we are now poised for a new era of understanding disease processes based upon genetic changes that do not involve alterations to the DNA sequence. The developing epigenetic knowledge base will significantly advance the practice of personalized medicine and precision therapeutics. In this article, we provide a primer on the fundamentals of epigenetics with an emphasis on DNA methylation and review the prospective uses of epigenetic testing in advancing healthcare. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

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