Neurology India | Year: 2010
Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) is a rare disorder characterized by childhood onset, ophthalmoplegia and migraine headaches. The 3rd cranial nerve is commonly involved in recurrent attacks. Involvement of the sixth and fourth nerves is uncommon. GdMRI discloses enhancement of the nerves. Adult cases are rare and confined to case reports. A viral pathogenesis is considered to be the cause of OM in view of nerve enhancement. We look at the various aspects of OM in children and adults.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology | Year: 2010
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can have devastating long-term sequelae. It is very common in injecting drug users (IDU) worldwide. India has a huge number of substance abusers, with an estimated 1.1 million IDU. Research on HCV prevalence in IDU and especially other substance use is sparse. This review identified 15 such studies. Some of these also studied prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and co-infection rates. The summary findings indicate that there are pockets of very high HCV seroprevalence (60-90%), otherwise the range is moderate (30-50%), though, in real terms, it still indicates the appreciable magnitude of the problem that may emerge as an epidemic if it goes unheeded. HCV infection seems to be more common in IDU than HBV and HIV infections, again pointing toward the urgent need to prioritise this area. Co-infection rates are low in most of the few studies available, but clearly more studies are needed. There is a glaring paucity of studies on risk behaviours that can be linked meaningfully to HCV infection and its consequences. The urgent future research needs in this important area are highlighted. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Bhatia A.,PGIMER |
Cancer Microenvironment | Year: 2011
Cancer-immune (CI) equilibrium constitutes an important component of the cancer immunoediting theory. It is defined as a period during which our immune system and cancer live in harmony in the body. The immune system, though not able to completely eliminate the cancer, doesn't allow it to progress or metastasize further. Mechanisms of this phase are poorly understood because this phase is difficult to identify even by the most modern detection methods. Till now, the work done on the equilibrium phase of cancer, suggests promising improvements in cancer therapy if the disease could be withheld in this phase. However, there are many queries which remain to be addressed about this interesting yet unresolved phase of cancer immunity. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Bhatia A.,PGIMER |
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014
Immune escape is the final phase of cancer immunoediting process wherein cancer modulates our immune system to escape from being destroyed by it. Many cellular and molecular events govern the cancer's evasion of host immune response. The tumor undergoes continuous remodeling at the genetic, epigenetic and metabolic level to acquire resistance to apoptosis. At the same time, it effectively modifies all the components of the host's immunome so as to escape from its antitumor effects. Moreover, it induces accumulation of suppressive cells like Treg and myeloid derived suppressor cells and factors which also enable it to elude the immune system. Recent research in this area helps in defining the role of newer players like miRNAs and exosomes in immune escape. The immunotherapeutic approaches developed to target the escape phase appear quite promising; however, the quest for a perfect therapeutic agent that can achieve maximum cure with minimal toxicity continues. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.
Pal A.,P.G.I.M.E.R. |
Neurotoxicity Research | Year: 2014
In the last two decades, there has been widespread acknowledgment of the pivotal role played by astrocytes in diverse aspects of central nervous system functioning. Astrocytes are crucial for the homeostasis of the copper in the central nervous system as evident by its proficiency in acquisition, trafficking, and export of copper. Moreover, the imbalance in copper homeostasis and impairment in astrocyte functioning are increasingly being recognized as an important contributing factor in the development of neurodegeneration and cognitive waning. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in the field of copper homeostasis in astrocytes along with briefly outlining the copper dyshomeostasis associated hepatocerebral and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.
Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A | Year: 2010
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to make a definite preoperative diagnosis, and most cases are diagnosed at the time of laparotomy. It is usually of unknown origin, although, at times, it may be seen secondary to a variety of conditions. Spillage of bile and gallstones at laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an unusual cause of SEP and has not been reported in literature, to date. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed small-bowel loops congregated to the center of the abdomen encased by a soft-tissue density mantle with loculated fluid in the interloop bowel location. Excision of the sac and adhesiolysis was done in our patient for recurrent episodes of intestinal obstruction, who recovered well in the postoperative period.
The journal of knee surgery | Year: 2012
Primary malignant melanoma (clear cell sarcoma) of bone is a very rare neoplasm. Although metastatic melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary malignant melanoma of bone is extremely uncommon. To date, only nine cases have been reported in the English literature. In this report, we present a case of primary malignant melanoma arising from the medial aspect of the proximal tibia in a 26-year-old woman. We treated the patient with above-knee amputation without any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. At final follow-up of 18 months, the patient was free of disease.
Cardiovascular Pathology | Year: 2012
Background: Rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains one of the most important causes of cardiovascular morbidity leading to a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. This was a pilot study to assess the presence of inflammation and expression of adhesion molecules by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in endomyocardial biopsy specimens of patients with chronic RHD. Methods: Endomyocardial biopsy was obtained from 14 patients of chronic RHD with no features of activity clinically. Biopsies were processed for histology and IHC. IHC was carried using monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Results: Histomorphologically, varying degree of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis was seen in all the 13 patients (100%). Mild fibrosis (1+) was seen in five patients (38.5%); moderate interstitial fibrosis (2+) was present in four patients (30.8%).There was no Aschoff nodule or evidence of active myocarditis in any of the biopsy specimens. Immunohistochemistry: Moderate positivity of (2+) and intense positivity of (3+) for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was seen in 11 and 2 patients, respectively. With vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, four showed mild positivity (1+), and three showed intense positivity (3+). The phenotypic analysis of the inflammatory cells in our study revealed CD8 + cells in 77%, CD4 + in 23.1%, and CD3 + in 38.5% of total patients, which suggests chronicity. Conclusion: The nonspecific histomorphological changes and increased adhesion molecules expression could be a part of the ventricular remodeling due to the hemodynamic stress by the stenotic or regurgitant lesions of RHD itself. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhatia A.,PGIMER |
APMIS | Year: 2013
Micronucleus (MN) is the small nucleus that forms whenever a chromosome or its fragment is not incorporated into one of the daughter nuclei during cell division. Any form of genotoxic stress due to extraneous or internal factors leads to formation of a MN, which serves as an indicator of chromosomal instability. Chromosomal damage and formation of MN are believed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of many malignancies. Studies have shown that MN assay can be used as a tool for risk prediction, screening, diagnosis, prognosis and as a treatment-response indicator in cancers. With the advancements in technology, greater details are becoming available regarding the molecular events in carcinogenesis. The micronuclei (MNi) in the cancer cells are now being used as tools to understand the pathogenetics of the malignancies. However, despite large number of studies on MNi in lymphocytes or exfoliated cells of cancer patients, the data regarding a cancer cell MN remain scarce. This review article tries to unleash some of the mysteries related to the formation of MN inside the cancer cell. Also, it discusses the possible effects and the events post MN formation in the cancer cell. © 2012 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
APMIS | Year: 2016
Sarcina was first described by Goodsir. The appearance of this bacterium is so characteristic that the diagnosis can be made on light microscopy. Although the original description of Sarcina was made more than 150 years ago, little is known about its role in various human diseases. This study was undertaken with the aim to analyze critically the reason for this sudden recent interest in human Sarcina infection. The results indicate that Sarcina is a histopathological marker of functional or anatomical causes of gastric stasis, and has a possible association with life-threatening emphysematous gastritis. Hence, its documentation in the final report is warranted as the patient might need further work-up. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd