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Lincoln, New Zealand

Lean I.J.,SBScibus | Westwood C.T.,PGG Wrightson Seeds Ltd. | Golder H.M.,SBScibus | Vermunt J.J.,James Cook University
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

This review has a focus on understandings of horn structure, the digital fat pad and associations between ruminal acidosis and lameness. While there is an abundance of basic studies, particularly those examining putative mechanisms influencing risk of lameness and observational field studies, there are relatively few randomised controlled intervention studies. Consequently, the strength of the evidence for some interventions is not high. While there is evidence that increased grain feeding and increased ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre are associated with increased lameness, evidence for starch effects, per se, on laminitis is limited. There is strong evidence that fructans and glucose increase lactic acid production and laminitis. There is a need for more studies on the role of protein and risk of lameness. Histamine, endotoxin and lactic acid are either present in feed or generated in the rumen; can be absorbed; and have caused laminitis when injected. These provide potential links between ruminal acidosis and laminitis, but may not be the sole agents involved, and there are risks that these agents and other vasoactive agents pose that may be influenced by gut lesions. The important role of lipids in hoof wall integrity and in the digital hoof pad support understandings that trace elements and vitamins involved in pathways that control and limit oxidative damage may be important to hoof health. Further, associations between digital fat pad depth and body condition score suggest that dietary precursors for fats including preformed lipids in the diet and those derived from short chained fats may influence lameness.There is evidence that biotin reduces the risk of lameness, but there is a need for more consistent studies to identify which forms of lameness are reduced. Monensin and organic trace element complexes have reduced lameness in some studies, but the results are not consistently significant and more studies are needed to evaluate responses, especially effects on specific hoof conditions.The well-established effects of mineral nutrition on bone health were briefly examined, as were the effects of toxins. There is considerable scope for well-designed studies to evaluate the complex interactions among nutrients and the various forms of lameness. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

PGG Wrightson Seeds Ltd | Date: 2012-02-28

Seeds, namely, grass seeds.

PGG WRIGHTSON SEEDS Ltd and Wrightson Ltd | Date: 2008-04-29

Agricultural products, namely, agricultural seeds, namely, pastoral, grass, forage crops, plant and cereal seeds.

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