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Melvisharam, India

Miyazaki T.,Tohoku University | Miyauchi S.,PG Research | Anada T.,Tohoku University | Imaizumi H.,Tohoku University | Suzuki O.,Tohoku University
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Osteoclasts are involved in bone resorption, and its activation is considered one of the causes of osteoporosis. The pit assay is the principal method for evaluating osteoclast function by measuring hydroxyapatite resorption in vitro. However, the pit assay requires time and trained techniques, including the pit image analysis, and there is no other easy method for evaluating bone resorption. In this study, we developed a novel approach to quantify the bone resorption activity using a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating labeled with fluorescent polyanion. Fluoresceinamine-labeled chondroitin polysulfate or Hoechst 33258-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid was used for CaP labeling. When macrophage cell line RAW264 was cultured on the labeled CaP under the stimulation with the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), RAW264 cells differentiated into osteoclastic cells and the fluorescence intensity of the culture supernatant and pit area increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, drugs for osteoporosis treatment, such as pamidronate and β-estradiol, inhibited fluorescein release by the cells stimulated with RANKL. A positive correlation between the fluorescence intensity and pit area was observed (r = 0.917). These results indicated that this new method using fluorescent polyanion-labeled CaP is a standardized useful assay system for the evaluation of bone resorption activity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Palani S.,Anna Bioresearch Foundation | Kumar S.N.,Anna Bioresearch Foundation | Kumar B.S.,PG Research
Natural Product Research | Year: 2011

Salacia oblonga, a woody climbing plant belonging to the family Celastaceae, is widely distributed in India and other southeast Asian countries. The genus Salacia have been used particularly for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, pruritus and asthma. Acetaminophen (APAP), used as an analgesic drug, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals at high doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Salacia oblonga (EESO) at the two dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kgbw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. The results showed that APAP significantly increases the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and reduces levels of uric acid concentration. The EESO reduces these by increasing anti-oxidative responses as assessed by biochemical and histopathological parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the EESO possesses nephroprotective and antioxidant effects against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Palani S.,Anna Bioresearch Foundation | Raja S.,Bharat Institute of Technology | Kalash R.S.,Anna Bioresearch Foundation | Kumar B.S.,PG Research
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2010

Mahonia leschenaultia takeda (Berberidaceae) (MLT) is a traditional medicinal plant that is commonly used to treat and improve liver and renal conditions in India and other Asian countries. Acetaminophen (APAP) is commonly used as an analgesic and an antipyretic agent that, in high doses, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of MLT at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 bw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. APAP significantly increased levels of serum urea, hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count, creatinine, packed cell volume, DLC, and mean corpuscular volume, raised body weight, and reduced levels of neutrophils, mean corpuscular Hb content, mean corpuscular hematocrit, granulocytes, uric acid, and platelet concentration. MLT inhibited the hematological effects of APAP. MLT significantly increased activities of renal superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and decreased malondialdehyde content of APAP-treated rats. Apart from these, histopathological changes also showed the protective nature of the MLT extract against APAP-induced necrotic damage of renal tissues. In conclusion, data suggest that the ethanol extract of MLT prevented renal damage from APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and it is likely mediated through antioxidant activities. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Vijay T.,Bharathiar University | Vijay T.,P.A. College | Rajan M.S.D.,P.A. College | Sarumathy K.,Bharathiar University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2011

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. However, it generates free oxygen radicals that result in serious dose-limiting cardiotoxicity. Supplementations with Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) were proven effective in reducing oxidative stress associated with several ailments. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential protective effect of Gmelina arborea (GA) against DOX- induced cardiotoxicity in rats. GA was given orally to rats(250&500mg/kg) and DOX (20mg/kg) was administered on the seventh day. GA protected against DOX-induced increased the levels of marker enzymes. It significantly inhibited DOX-provoked glutathione (GSH) depletion in cardiac tissues. The reductions of cardiac activities of catalase (CAT) ,superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly mitigated. Pretreatment of GA significantly guarded against DOX-induced rise of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). GA alleviated histopathological changes in rats' hearts treated with DOX. In conclusion, GA protects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The study can be attributed, at least in part, to GA's antioxidant activity.

Siva S.,PG Research | Siva S.,Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering And Technology | Sudharsan S.,Dhanalakshmi College of Engineering | Sayee Kannan R.,PG Research
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

The present work showed the synthesis of Ion Exchange Resin-Silver nanoparticles (IER-AgNPs) by impregnating ecofriendly synthesized AgNPs within a IER and its application as a novel polymer based hybrid nanocomposite for highly efficient removal of mercury (Hg2+) from aqueous solution. The nature of the synthesized IER-AgNPs was structurally and thermally characterized. When compared to resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (RFR) and IER, the synthesized nanocomposites revealed tremendous selectivity for Hg2+ removal from aqueous medium in the non-existence and existence of opposing ions Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ at much greater levels than the target poisonous metal. It was found that the potential Donnan membrane effect exerted by the immobilized negatively charged sulfonic acid groups bound to the macroporous cation exchanger of IER result in preconcentration and penetration enhancement of Hg2+ ions prior to their effective segregation by the impregnated AgNPs. Moreover, adsorption isotherms, kinetics, intraparticle diffusion and thermodynamics for the removal of Hg2+ were analyzed. Besides, breakthrough curves were found from column flow studies using the synthetic solution. 10% (w/w) HCl was used as an effective eluting agent for the regeneration of exhausted ion exchangers. Hence, IER-AgNPs cation-exchange resin could be efficiently used for the removal of mercury(ii) ions from aqueous solution. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

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