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Indore, India

OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional study was done to assess the size of thymus in term healthy infants using sonography and to assess its variation in size, shape, location, echogenicity and echotexture for both male and female reference population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 250 term healthy neonates of either sex were subjected to thymic sonography. The shape, size in maximal anteroposterior, longitudinal, and transverse dimensions of both right and left lobes of thymus was evaluated. Their echotexture and echogenicity were determined and standards for reference population were calculated. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: According to the shape; the thymus was quadrilateral in 156 neonates (62%), round in 37 (15%), bilobate in 32 (13%), and crescent shaped in 25 (10%) in transverse scan. According to the echo texture, the thymus echogenicity was homogeneous and almost similar or slightly less to that of the liver and spleen in most cases 200 [80%] and was coarse in 50 (20%). In all subjects, the echogenicity of the thymus was less than that of the thyroid gland. Variations in location of the thymus were found in 70 (28%) neonates. The range of mean AP diameter was 0.39-2.36 cm (mean 1.43±0.3), that of transverse 1.4-4.3 cm (mean 2.16±0.54) and that of thymic index 1.2-5.1 cm2 (mean 2.98±0.64). CONCLUSIONS: A normative range was calculated for standard population, which can be used as a reference for comparing thymus size for both normal and diseased neonates for various immunological diseases. © 2015 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Kumar R.,PG Institute | Arya V.,Sir Ganga Ram Hospital | Agarwal S.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Advances in Hematology | Year: 2015

Mutation spectrum varies significantly in different parts and different ethnic groups of India. Social factors such as preference to marry within the community and among 1st degree relatives (consanguinity) play an important role in impeding the gene pool of the disease within the community and so in society by and large. The present paper discusses the role of consanguinity in profiling of beta thalassemia mutation, and thus the approach for prenatal screening and prevention based awareness programme. Clinically diagnosed 516 cases of beta thalassemia were screened at molecular level. A detailed clinical Proforma was recorded with the information of origin of the family, ethnicity, and consanguinity. The present study reports that subjects originating from Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Jharkhand have c.92+5G>C and c.124-127delTTCT mutation as the commonest mutation compared to the subjects hailing from Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and Nepal where sickle mutation was found more common. In 40 consanguineous unions more common and specific beta mutations with higher rate of homozygosity have been reported. This consanguinity-based data helps not only in deciding target oriented prenatal diagnostic strategies but also in objective based awareness programmes in prevention of thalassemia major birth. © 2015 Ravindra Kumar et al.

Bajpai T.,PG Institute | Pandey M.,IGNOU | Varma M.,PG Institute | Bhatambare G.S.,PG Institute
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2014

Context: Antimicrobial resistance showed by different uropathogens is one of the barricades that might hinder a successful treatment. Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens is an important marker of endemicity. Aims: The present prospective study was done to identify the trends of uropathogens, to find the prevalence of ESBL isolates and to study the antibiotic resistance profile of the ESBL and non-ESBL uropathogenic isolates. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology of a teaching tertiary care hospital from July 2013 to September 2013. All the uropathogenic isolates were identified up to species level by conventional methods. The prevalence of potential ESBL producers was explored. Antibiotic resistance test of the urinary isolates was done by disc-diffusion method and the results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-2013 guidelines. Results: A total of 670 urine samples from male and female patients visiting the outpatient department (OPD) and inpatient department (IPD) of our hospital were collected. A significantly higher number of IPD and OPD males (55.1% and 55.5%) were found to be culture positive. Escherichia coli (55.3%) was the most frequently isolated uropathogen followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (23%). However, strains of Escherichia coli (41.6%) were the highest ESBL producing isolates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (36.1%). ESBL producing isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant when compared to non-ESBL producers. However, excessive drug-resistance among non-ESBL producing isolates can't be ignored. Conclusion: Our study confirms a global trend toward increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. We emphasize on the formulation of antibiotic policy for a particular geographical area.

Nema N.,PG Institute | Ishrat S.,PG Institute | Verma A.,PG Institute | Kela M.,Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

A 23-year-old man with a history of alcoholism presented with vomiting, fever, and sharp epigastric pain radiating to the back and flanks. He was diagnosed as a case of acute alcoholic pancreatitis on the basis of clinical findings and investigations. On the next day of presentation, he developed sudden bilateral visual loss. His best-corrected visual acuity was finger counting at one-foot distance in both eyes. He had diffuse whitening in the circumpapillary area, haloes around the retinal vessels (Purtscher flecken) and intra-retinal hemorrhages on ophthalmoscopic examination. Optical coherence tomography revealed bilateral macular edema. These findings were characteristic of Purtscher-like retinopathy. The patient showed systemic and visual improvement at 8 weeks follow-up after receiving the conventional treatment for acute alcoholic pancreatitis. This case emphasizes the importance of fundus examination by an ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of this rare under-diagnosed entity. © 2016 Oman Ophthalmic Society | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

Kinger M.,PG Institute | Chakrabarti P.R.,PG Institute | Sharma S.,PG Institute | Kiyawat P.,PG Institute
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2014

Filariasis, a tropical parasite infection, is a common public health problem in the Indian sub-continent. Occurrence of filariasis with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unusual though there are case reports of leishmaniasis, malaria, and other vector-borne diseases seen in association with leukemias. Filariasis co-existing with CML has not been documented to the best of our knowledge and hence definitely needs a space in literature. We report an incidental finding of bancroftian filariasis in a 35-year-old female already diagnosed as CML.

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