Pfizer, Inc. /ˈfaɪzər/ is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City, and with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut, United States. It is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies by revenues.Pfizer develops and produces medicines and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines, including immunology, oncology, cardiology, diabetology/endocrinology, and neurology. Pfizer's products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor , used to lower LDL blood cholesterol; Lyrica ; Diflucan , an oral antifungal medication; Zithromax , an antibiotic; Viagra ; and Celebrex/Celebra , an anti-inflammatory drug.Pfizer was founded by cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles F. Erhart in New York City in 1849 as a manufacturer of fine chemicals. Pfizer's discovery of Terramycin in 1950 put it on a path towards becoming a research-based pharmaceutical company. Pfizer has made numerous acquisitions, including Warner–Lambert in 2000, Pharmacia in 2003 and Wyeth in 2009. The Wyeth acquisition was the largest of the three at US$68 billion. Pfizer is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and its shares have been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since April 2004.In September 2009, Pfizer pleaded guilty to the illegal marketing of the arthritis drug Bextra for uses unapproved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration , and agreed to a $2.3 billion settlement, the largest health care fraud settlement at that time. Pfizer also paid the U.S. government $1.3 billion in criminal fines related to the "off-label" marketing of Bextra, the largest monetary penalty ever rendered for any crime. Called a repeat offender by prosecutors, this was Pfizer's fourth such settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in the previous ten years. Wikipedia.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012
Green Chemistry or Sustainable Chemistry is defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as "the design of chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous substances" In recent years there is a greater societal expectation that chemists and chemical engineers should produce greener and more sustainable chemical processes and it is likely that this trend will continue to grow over the next few decades. This tutorial review gives information on solvents and solvent selection, basic environmental metrics collection and three industrial case histories. All three case histories involve enzymatic chemistry. Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is produced using a lipase based resolution and is extremely unusual in that all four manufacturing steps to make pregabalin are performed in water. Sitagliptin (Januvia®) uses a transaminase in the final chemical step. Finally a rosuvastatin (Crestor®) intermediate is produced using a deoxy ribose aldolase (DERA) enzyme in which two carbon-carbon bonds and two chiral centres are formed in the same process step. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2015
Because of the inability to predict and quantify the risk of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs) and because reactive metabolites (RMs) are thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of some IADRs, the potential for RM formation within new chemical entities is routinely examined with the ultimate goal of eliminating or reducing the liability through iterative design. Likewise, avoidance of structural alerts is almost a standard practice in drug design. However, the perceived safety concerns associated with the use of structural alerts and/or RM screening tools as standalone predictors of toxicity risks may be overexaggerated. Numerous marketed drugs form RMs but do not cause idiosyncratic toxicity. In this review article, we present a critique of the structural alert/RM concept as applied in drug discovery and evaluate the evidence linking structural alerts and RMs to observed toxic effects. Pragmatic risk mitigation strategies to aid the advancement of drug candidates that carry a RM liability are also discussed. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Pfizer | Date: 2015-08-04
The present invention is directed to compounds of Formula I: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the substituents R
Pfizer | Date: 2015-09-24
The present invention provides methyl- and trifluoromethyl-substituted pyrrolopyridines, pharmaceutical compositions thereof, methods of modulating ROR activity and/or reducing the amount of IL-17 in a subject, and methods of treating various medical disorders using such pyrrolopyridines and pharmaceutical compositions thereof.
Pfizer | Date: 2015-01-15
The present invention relates to new immunogenic compositions comprising conjugated