Pfisterer Holding AG

Malters, Switzerland

Pfisterer Holding AG

Malters, Switzerland

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A power cable includes an assembly of one or more electrical conductors which are held together with an overall covering by insulator so as to insulate it from the outer atmosphere. Power cable comes in a variety of sizes and material according to their type of application. The main purpose of power cable is to transmit electrical power with minimum losses. The loss of electrical power is more near joining parts of cable. The electrical loss produces heat which can decrease the insulation in the cable and result in more loss of electrical power. To curb this loss, power cable accessories are used. Thus, power cable accessories are special devices aimed to connect cables mechanically and electrically with other device or cable. It consists of a non-conducting and high flexibility material which is covered around the joining parts of cable. This provides a high electrical insulation resistance and heat insulation at cable end. Power cables are rated according to their transmitting voltage that usually ranges from 220V to 500kV. Power cables with low rating of 220V do not require any special cable accessories at joining part. However, power cables with medium voltage (415V to 66kV), high voltage (66kV to 230kV) and extra high voltage (230kV and Above) rating require accessories to join and isolate the cable from the outer atmosphere. Power cable accessories can be categorized based on their application as cable termination and cable joining accessories. Power cable termination accessories are used to connect power cables to different equipment terminals such as switchgear, transformer and electrical poles. In electrical industry, companies need to maintain continuity of power cable especially for long distance. Therefore, power cable joints are used to connect a power cable with another cable. Power cable termination and joining accessories can be classified depending upon its usage such as taped type, pre-moulded type, cold shrinkable type and heat shrinkable type. In heat shrinkable type, the accessory is fitted on power cable and a heat gun is used to shrink the accessory to join with the cable. In cold shrinkable type, the accessory shrinks upon removal of the supporting core and the cable end is quickly inserted in the accessory. The selection of appropriate type of power cable accessory depends upon the consumer site conditions, voltage applications, operating parameters and cable types. Earlier power cable accessories were made of porcelain material. Although, today more preference is given to composite materials such as glass reinforced epoxy and silicon sheds. The growth of power cable accessories market depends on growth of power cable market. The use of power cable is more common in urban areas where there is resistance to overhead transmission lines. Therefore, the market for power cable accessories is more in developed economies such as North America and European region as their economy is more urbanized. Developing economies such as China and India are expected to experience a huge increase in demand for power cable accessories in coming years due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. Power cable accessories find its application mainly in areas of construction, power generation plants, electrical transmission companies, railway and shipping industries. Some of the key manufacturers for power cable accessories are Prysmian Group, Pfisterer Holding AG, Nexans S. A., NKT Group, ABB Ltd., Brugg Kabel AG, Sudkabel GmbH and Taihan electric wire co. Ltd. The report offers a comprehensive evaluation of the market. It does so via in-depth qualitative insights, historical data, and verifiable projections about market size. The projections featured in the report have been derived using proven research methodologies and assumptions. By doing so, the research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every facet of the market, including but not limited to: Regional markets, technology, types, and application


Papailiou K.O.,Pfisterer Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

In contrast to composite long rods, composite post insulators are subjected mainly to loads which act perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the insulator and thus produce bending stresses over the cross-section of the insulator. As a result of this bending load, composite post insulators use FRP rods of substantially greater diameter compared to composite long rods. Typical applications of composite post insulators include distribution insulators, vertical and horizontal line posts, busbar support insulators and railway catenary insulators. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,PFISTERER Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

Partial discharges on the surface of a composite insulator, known as surface partial discharges, are particularly significant because their energy input resulting from an impact and/or heat may damage the solid insulating materials. Whereas air molecules can regenerate themselves, damage to the solid surface is usually permanent and leads to cumulative damage (surface ageing), which may cause the insulation system to fail (fracture, flashover, etc.). Since the term "corona" has been retained in the context of overhead transmission lines, it will also be used here. By the application of some simple mostly empirical rules, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of corona discharges on composite insulator string or sets. Current standards for conventional insulator sets do not differentiate between conventional and composite insulators and are applicable insofar as the occurrence of a continuous corona at hardware components or at the insulator end fitting can be tested directly. The phenomenon of water droplet corona, which depends on numerous factors, should be given special consideration in the case of hydrophobic composite insulators. The composite insulator design (i.e. the material chosen, the stability of the sealing system, etc.) and the stresses that occurs at the service location can play a significant role here. The threshold value 4.5 kV/cm is defined as empirical value and can be regarded as a conservative recommendation, especially in view of the current trend whereby cost pressures are resulting in further developments with a lower fault tolerance. High-grade insulating materials ensure safe operation even when the threshold value for water droplet corona is exceeded. However, this does not apply to insulator sets that are subjected to a continuous corona discharge. Even if acid-resistant (E-CR) glass is used in this scenario, there may be some cumulative damage, which will ultimately cause the composite insulator to fail. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,PFISTERER Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

Composite hollow core insulators (referred to hereinafter as HCI for short) are used primarily as housings for various high-voltage equipment and apparatus. Owing to their conditions for use, they primarily have to withstand bending and compression loads and since a large number of the electrical equipment are gas insulated (with SF6 and SF6 gas mixtures), they are also subject to internal pressure. Today, if the user so desires, it is possible to design complete substations in silicone composite technology. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,Pfisterer Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

High-voltage insulators are of key importance for the operational safety and operating efficiency of transmission systems of electrical power, and it is therefore of no surprise that these components must meet particularly high demands in terms of reliability. In recent years composite insulators have gained great importance in recent years in the field of insulation technology for medium and high-voltage overhead transmission lines and substations. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,Pfisterer Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

This chapter deals with various aspects of standards and tests for composite insulators. The first part lists important IEC standards according to which composite insulators are tested and designed. Since composite insulator strings share functionally-wise many similarities with conventional-especially long rod-insulators, the relevant standards are also listed here for comparative purposes. The second part deals with some testing principles. By using the example of the Inclined Plane Test (IEC 60587), which was initially introduced in 1977 as a material test method for evaluating erosion and tracking resistance, it is possible to show that other properties of polymeric insulating materials can be evaluated using this test principle. The third part discusses analytical methods that can be used to identify the polymeric materials used in a composite insulator. This topic, known as "finger-printing", is also part of the work currently being undertaken by the corresponding CIGRE Working Group. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,PFISTERER Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

Composite long rod insulators are primarily used in suspension strings in straight-line supports and as tension strings in anchor towers and dead-end towers. They are also used in the jumpers or portals of outdoor substations. In some cases, composite long rods are used in the guys of wooden poles, and more rarely in the guys of steel towers. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,Pfisterer Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

This chapter is dedicated to the in-lab evaluation of aged, "old" or failed line composite insulators. The term in-lab evaluation is used, because the state of the insulators or the insulator strings/sets is evaluated as off-line diagnosis, which is different to the inspection method of an on-line diagnosis. It describes various methods, philosophies and resources that make it possible to evaluate their technical state and thus estimate the remaining time of use of composite insulators that are the same type as those being tested. The composite insulators to be evaluated are specifically withdrawn from the line in order to obtain representative results for this generation of insulators. Frequently, analyses are also conducted if old composite insulators are available as part of scheduled replacement schemes. If a certain behaviour has already been identified as being critical to operations, it is recommended to evaluate at least ten insulators. If the line route includes various pollution zones or loads that are otherwise different, a sufficient number of each insulator must be inspected representative for the corresponding in situ conditions. When withdrawing insulators from the network, it is important to ensure that the installation conditions are adequately documented and can be clearly assigned. In many cases, the manufacturer of the composite insulators can provide additional data to identify the product (technical state of a particular generation of insulators, production date, material batches, etc.). In critical cases, it is recommended to perform the evaluation in conjunction with the manufacturer and a specialist independent laboratory. The identification of intensive ageing phenomena that effectively signify the end of service life for an insulator can prompt the withdrawal of other insulators of the same type/generation. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,Pfisterer Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

Compact lines are an interesting alternative to conventional overhead transmission lines where way leaves and also the visual impact on the surrounding landscape are of importance. In addition, compact lines offer further advantages, such as higher power transfer and lower EMC load, and all at a cost which is not necessarily greater than that for conventional lines. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Papailiou K.O.,PFISTERER Holding AG | Schmuck F.,Ruchligrain 5
Power Systems | Year: 2013

This chapter reports on the latest materials and production processes used in the manufacture of composite insulators. It also looks back at the development of rod materials as well as experiences relating to the in-house manufacture of glass-fibre reinforced semi-finished parts. PFISTERER SEFAG AG has more than thirty years of experience in processing low viscosity silicone rubber (namely room temperature vulcanising (RTV) rubber and, more recently, liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as well as high viscosity solid silicone rubber (namely high temperature vulcanising (HTV) rubber). Given this level of experience and silicone rubber's acknowledged importance as a reliable housing material, this chapter will focus on providing a detailed account of this group of materials. As a result of the close interaction between material formulations, applicable manufacturing processes and operation-relevant properties, the results of key material analyses will also be presented here. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

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