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Steinau an der Straße, Germany

Buhre C.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung | Burcky K.,Sudzucker AG | Schmitz F.,Pfeifer and Langen KG | Schulte M.,Nordzucker AG | Ladewig E.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung
Zuckerindustrie | Year: 2011

Since 1994, data on sugar beet production in Germany have been continuously collected in annual sugar beet cultivation surveys based on information given by the German sugar factories. Because of the long-term data set, many developments over the last years as well as short-term adaptations could be described. Cereals, particularly winter wheat, are the main pre-crop before sugar beet (50%), nowadays followed by corn. Intercrops have been cultivated on 40% of the sugar beet area since the beginning of the survey. In soil cultivation, the use of reduced systems has increased. On more than 65% of the sugar beet area the soil is covered by intercrops or pre-crop residues. Since 2006, an increase in nitrogen-fertilization could be observed. On 50% of the sugar beet area, organic fertilizer is applied also. In general, the whole production process from sowing to harvesting is characterized by an increase in technical specialization. The work is often done jointly in cooperation of farmers, or by specialized contractors. Sugar beet are harvested mainly with six-row harvesters and beets are transported increasingly often with semitrailer trucks.

Potthast C.,Sudzucker AG Mannheim Ochsenfurt | Brinker S.,Pfeifer and Langen KG | Maier K.,Verein der Zuckerindustrie e.V.
Zuckerindustrie | Year: 2011

In 2010, German sugar companies1 in cooperation with the "Verein der Zuckerindustrie (VdZ)" collected data regarding feed materials. 67 samples of molasses, pressed-, dried-, molassed beet pulp, tops and tails from 20 German sugar factories were analysed regarding their composition and feed value. One aspect of the analysis was to review if the content of nutrients in the feed materials had changed over the last 20 years. Most data listed in feed tables originates from the 1980s and 1990s and therefore it needed to be validated. A systematic data sampling was carried out in order to establish comprehensive and statistically reliable values and to document changes in feed composition if necessary. It was later necessary to generate data for new parameters, which have been included in feed evaluation for the past few years including structural carbohydrates acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). These fibres allow for an enhanced differentiation of the crude fibre and gas formation from the Hohenheim Feed Test (HFT). Calculated average values should be used in the standard calculation of feed rations, for developing compound feed formulations and as a database for new feed value tables. In most cases average values can be used for the calculation of Weender nutrients, minerals, structural carbohydrates and for gas formation. But the dry matter content, the total sugar content in molasses, the total sugar content in molassed beet pulp and the dry matter content in pressed beet pulp show a higher variability because of the production process. In these cases further information can be obtained from the manufacturer or the declarations in the shipping documents.

Buhre C.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung | Fecke P.,Sudzucker AG | Nelles F.,Pfeifer and Langen KG | Schlinker G.,Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Forderung des Zuckerrubenanbaus in Norddeutschland | Ladewig E.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung
Zuckerindustrie | Year: 2011

Since 1994 data for the application of pesticides in sugar beets for Germany were collected by the Institut for Sugar Beet Research in cooperation with the sugar industry and the sugar beet grower associations in an annual sugar beet cultivation-survey. The herbicide application shifted since 2002 from pre-emergence applications to post-emergence applications with in general three applications. Several weeds that are difficult to control have spread in sugar beets, no increase of herbicide applications though could be observed until now. Foliar diseases, particularly Cercospora beticola, have spread in Germany in the last years, too, resulting in an increased number of fungicide applications. In most German regions, fungicides are applied once. Besides insecticides in the seed coat, insecticides in sugar beet are applied only marginally. The insecticide seed coat protects the juvenile plant development against soil-born pests. Until crop closure the insecticide seed coat also protects the plant against aphids. Only in years with a very high pest density a further application of insecticides is needed. To a high extent the application of pesticides in sugar beet is carried out following the principles of integrated plant protection. The results of the sugar beet cultivation-survey correspond in the majority of cases to the results of the NEPTUN-survey.

An overall view on losses during harvesting shows that the focus on losses due to defoliation has been too narrow. Therefore, next to the effects of defoliation, other harvesting losses will be presented with regard to mass losses, their economic impact and ways to avoid these losses. Comprehensive studies showed that total losses can vary considerably in practice, from approximately 5% at best conditions up to 30%, when all single origins of losses are added. When assessing these figures with the current beet prices, the losses of 15% that could be avoided result in total financial losses of more than EUR300 ha-1. It is therefore of utmost importance to avoid such losses to secure the supply of raw materials. Surveys in practice with regard to harvesting quality indicated that on the one hand field conditions are of importance, but that on the other hand the harvester drivers contribute strongly to a good result. This is where preventive measures have to apply. Both farmers and harvester drivers should be made aware of the increased importance of these losses. In practice, this has encouraged the application of defoliation techniques. As losses due to defoliation account for less than half of the avoidable losses, the awareness of other sources of losses has to be repeatedly increased.

Bruhns M.,Pfeifer and Langen KG | Glavic P.,University of Maribor | Jensen A.S.,EnerDry Aps | Narodoslawsky M.,Graz University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Zuckerindustrie | Year: 2010

The paper is based on the results of international project entitled "Towards Sustainable Sugar Industry in Europe (TOSSIE)". 33 research topics of major importance to the sugar sector are listed and briefly described, and compared with research priorities of the European Technology Platforms: "Food for Life", "Sustainable Chemistry", "Biofuels", and "Plant for the Future". Most topics are compatible with the research themes included in the COOPERATION part of the 7th Framework Program of the EU (2007-2013). However, some topics may require long-term R&D with the time horizon of up to 15 years. The list of topics is divided into four parts: Sugar manufacturing, Applications of biotechnology and biorefinery processing, Sugarbeet breeding and growing, Horizontal issues. Apart from possible use of the list by policy- and decision makers with an interest in sugarbeet sector, the description of each research topic can be used as a starting point in setting up a research project or other R&D activities. sugar industry, research, sustainability.

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