Wang H.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University |
Wang H.,Scion Research |
Kimberley M.O.,Scion Research |
Wilks P.J.,PF Olsen Ltd.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha-1 every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha-1) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner's economic return. © 2013 Wang et al.
Wilks P.,PF Olsen Ltd
New Zealand Journal of Forestry | Year: 2012
Peter Wilks shares his views about the steps that have been taken to change silvicuttural practices in response to investor and market demand in the forest industry established at Golden Downs forest by the New Zealand Forest Service. The region has developed a good mix of wood processing plants, including one of the country's largest sawmills at Eves Valley. The ownership pattern of the forests in Nelson continues to be dominated by the larger corporate forest owners with a relatively small number of private forest owners whose woodlots are in the size range of five to 100 hectares. The introduction of machine stress grading in 2007 and the start of the Nelson Pine Industries LVL plant in 2002 has created strong demand for quality unpruned logs with high density and stiffness. Density increases directly with age and is helped by maintaining higher final crop stockings.
Richards K.,PF Olsen Ltd.
New Zealand Journal of Forestry | Year: 2013
In this paper, a brief review of the past history of commercial plantation establishment is compared with the situation now. It is suggested that barriers to strengthening the industry relate to domestic structural economics and public and political comprehension not just biological or technical productivity. A case is made that - • New Zealand has 10 million hectares of economically underperforming rural land • Returns on capital from plantation forests are on average higher than for much of our pastoral land. In terms of contribution to GDP, forestry per million hectares occupied has been producing between 161 per cent and 231 per cent that of pastoral agriculture • Expansion in deployment of private capital in commercial plantation forestry is very much constrained by matters of public policy • Science has already told us much about the role of forestry in the landscape, but it is science which integrates economics and enables full assessments of public and private benefits that is needed for change • New policy instruments are needed which address questions of how to avoid penalising the provisions of ecosystems service, how to ensure economic consequences of ecological performance or nonperformance is efficiently and fairly distributed to cost and revenue streams, and how to use evolving science to effectively and efficiently reintroduce native biodiversity and productive system resilience across our lowlands.