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Sacuta N.,Petroleum Technology Research Center | Anderson K.,Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

The publication in 2012 of Best Practices for Validating CO2 Geological Storage: Observations and Guidance from the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project marked the culmination of 12 years of research at the Weyburn and Midale oilfields in south-eastern Saskatchewan, Canada. From 2000 to 2012, close to 23 million tonnes of carbon dioxide were injected into depleted oil reservoirs during enhanced oil recovery operations (EOR); the measurement/ monitoring research conducted with those EOR operations demonstrated that storage in deep geological formations is a safe and effective means of reducing GHG emissions. The wealth of results accumulated and disseminated during the Weyburn-Midale Project (WMP) has been important for CCUS and CCS project managers and researchers alike, but serious public concerns continue worldwide related to the safety of CO2underground storage. In late 2012, the Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute approached the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (managers of the WMP) to produce a "core messages" booklet that would offer answers to questions that persistently arise from the general public about carbon capture and storage, by incorporating the scientific information garnered over the life of the WMP. The booklet, What Happens When CO2 is Stored Underground: Q&A from the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project was published in 2013 and engaged several steps in its development including a review of existing frequently asked questions on CCS; identification of additional questions and answers using WMP results; community focus group analyses of a completed draft of the booklet; a peer review of the booklet and the focus group responses by CCS communications experts; and, finally, a redrafted final publication. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sacuta N.,Petroleum Technology Research Center | Gauvreau L.,Schlumberger | Greenberg S.E.,Illinois State Geological Survey
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

When addressing community engagement and outreach, North American carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects have parameters unique to the continent, including the history of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which goes back over 40 years in some jurisdictions and, aligned with this, the use of landmen and one-on-one dialogue with landowners and community residents that are well versed in oilfield technologies. These variables alone are in marked contrast to the CCS experiences of many global projects, which do not have the tradition of engaging in one-on-one discussion. Even where CCS projects have conducted extensive public consultation and education, significant opposition has shut down some, and put in jeopardy others, in a manner that contradicts the North American hydrocarbon experience. With the increase in North America of integrated CCS projects that go beyond CO2-EOR, a change in community engagement strategies has taken place under the unique auspices of the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE) Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Initiative (RCSP). Part of the planning in each of these seven geographic regions includes significant public education, outreach, and communications programs, particularly in areas unfamiliar with injection and storage technologies (i.e., outside of traditional oil producing areas). The bringing together of different demonstration projects' participants - not just nationally within the US but including projects in Western Canada - has allowed for the sharing of best practices between projects and across international jurisdictions. Such sharing is particularly true where the development of community engagement guidelines and strategies are concerned. The publication in 2010 of the US DOE's Best Practices for Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects is one example where the experiences of several United States demonstration projects were brought to bear on developing communications guidelines, which in turn were used to help develop public outreach strategies for such projects as Aquistore in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada [1]. Another example of such international information sharing is the World Resources Institute's Guidelines for Community Engagement in Carbon Dioxide Capture, Transport, and Storage Projects where, over a period of a year and a half, international experts were brought together for round table discussions to form the basis of the guidelines and provide an international peer review [2]. More recently, the development of an emergency response plan for the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project, led by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, one of the RCSP partnerships, drew upon this international collaborative structure, employing the experience of communicators from Schlumberger Carbon Services, the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (managers of the IEAGHG Weyburn- Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project) and the Illinois State Geological Survey to develop a map of potential crisis points. This planning process brought together the lessons learned from various projects, risk assessments, media experiences, and best practices to help identify potential risks for the project (a list of events and scenarios) with the goal of creating response paths and directions for the management of risks and the mitigation of potential threats. These scenarios involved not only potential external issues - such as leakage or pipeline failure - but also addressed management issues internal to a project such as loss of key personnel or loss of funding. The development of this emergency response plan is an example to other projects of the value of interconnecting communications experiences between projects, and of identifying common high-risk scenarios that require advanced response planning. Source

Wang J.,CANMET Energy | Ryan D.,CANMET Energy | Anthony E.J.,CANMET Energy | Wigston A.,CANMET Energy | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2012

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the major transformative technologies for reducing atmospheric CO2 emissions from large CO2 emitters where a large potential for geological CO2 storage exists. CO2 captured from the emitters contains various impurities, such as N2, O2, Ar, SOx, etc., and allowing these impurities to be stored together with CO2 would reduce the cost of CO2 capture. However, the impurities would have various undesirable effects on CO2 storage. In this work we analyze the impact of non-condensable impurities N2, O2 and Ar, which are present in large quantities in oxyfuel CO2 streams, on CO2 storage capacity of geological formations. A formula for measuring the impact of the impurities on CO2 storage capacity is proposed, and based on the formula important insights are obtained. It has been shown that the impurities in oxyfuel flue gas reduce the structural trapping capacity for CO2 by reducing the density of CO2, and the reduction of the trapping capacity is greater than the volume fraction of the impurities. Particularly, there is a maximum reduction of the storage capacity at a certain pressure, and this pressure changes with temperature. The strategy for alleviating the negative impact of the impurities has been discussed. © 2012. Source

Rostron B.,University of Alberta | Whittaker S.,Petroleum Technology Research Center
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

In July 2000, the IEA-GHG Weyburn CO2 monitoring and storage project was initiated to study the geological storage of CO2 as part of an EOR project planned for the Weyburn Field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Over the period 2000-present, a diverse group of researchers have worked on: assessing the integrity of the geosphere encompassing the Weyburn oil pool for effective long-term storage of CO2; monitoring the movement of the injected CO2, and assessing the risk of migration of CO2 from the injection zone to the surface. Learnings from 10+ years of hydrogeological investigations include: i) low flow rates and favourable flow directions indicate the Weyburn reservoir is an excellent place to store CO 2; ii) shallow groundwater monitoring reveals no significant changes in water chemistry that can be attributed to storage operations (interactions); and iii) co-ordination and integration of multiple hydrogeological research programs on the same site can be rewarding but challenging. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Whittakera S.,Petroleum Technology Research Center | Rostron B.,University of Alberta | Hawkes C.,University of Saskatchewan | White D.,Geological Survey of Canada | And 2 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

Injection of CO 2 into the Weyburn Oil Field, Saskatchewan, Canada, began October 2000 and 10 years later approximately 18 MT of CO 2 will have been stored in the geological reservoir. The CO 2 injection is part of an ongoing enhanced oil recovery effort that will extend to 2035 and likely beyond. Both Weyburn and the adjacent Midale oil field are highly suitable for CO 2-EOR and it is expected that, combined, more than 40 MT CO 2 will eventually be stored in these carbonate reservoirs. Currently about 2.4 MT and 0.4 MT CO 2/year are being stored in the Weyburn and Midale fields, respectively, which now represent the largest site of monitored geological storage of CO 2 globally. The Weyburn Field is operated by Cenovus Energy and the Midale Field by Apache Canada. The anthropogenic CO 2 used at Weyburn-Midale is a by-product of coal gasification at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant in North Dakota, USA. The compressed CO 2 is delivered to the oil fields through a 323 km pipeline that crosses the international boundary. The IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO 2 Monitoring and Storage Project was established prior to the onset of CO 2 injection at Weyburn to assess monitoring methods and subsurface processes associated with the injection of CO 2 into geological storage sites. This research program is now in its second phase of research. Baseline 3D seismic surveys were performed over the Weyburn Field before injection and subsequent repeat 3D seismic surveys have been taken during the course of injection spanning multiple years and have indicated that CO 2 distribution within the reservoir can be imaged seismically. Similarly, repeat reservoir fluid sampling surveys have monitored a range of chemical and isotopic parameters to help identify processes associated with CO 2-rock interaction. In addition, multiple soil gas and shallow hydrology surveys have been performed during the past 10 years with no indication of CO 2 reaching the surface. The current research program is building on many of the results obtained during the first phase of work on the Weyburn Field. For example, some of the current research includes applying stochastic methods to relate fluid chemistry to the seismic data to better characterize the distribution of CO 2 in the subsurface. Additional methods of modeling CO 2 distribution post-injection are also being demonstrated and integrated into several risk assessment methodologies. A detailed well database has been developed to catalogue characteristics associated with wells drilled at various stages of field development using different cementing practices and completion methods to assist with providing parameters for long-term modeling of well behaviour. In addition, a downhole well integrity testing program to examine cement sheath characteristics will be implemented in two wells in each of the fields. In summary, more than 30 research studies are being performed within this phase of the program to examine aspects of site characterization, well integrity, geochemical and geophysical monitoring methods and risk assessment. One of the goals for the work from this research program is to provide a best practices manual for the transition of CO 2-EOR sites into storage sites. This paper provides an overview of the studies and results developing from the research program. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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