Cheng J.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Ltd Company |
Wu D.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Engineering Company |
Liu W.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Engineering Company |
Meng X.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Engineering Company |
And 4 more authors.
SPE Projects, Facilities and Construction | Year: 2011
Suspended-solid (SS) particles in the produced water of the X2M alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding project were separated by membrane filtration and identified to consist mainly of alkaliearth-metal carbonates and silica precipitates. A compound formulation of chelatants was developed to stabilize the water phase of ASP-flooding produced fluid and prevent or reduce precipitation of both alkali-earth-metal carbonates and silica. The compound chelatant was put into a limited field trial in the surface production system of the X2M ASP-flooding project to evaluate its effects on the quality of treated produced water. The average SS content of treated ASP-flooding produced water was decreased to below the 20-ppm SS specification limit for reinjection by a dosage of chelatant at 480 ppm or higher. Scale-removal performance of the compound chelatant was also observed during the field trial. Copyright © 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Yang Si-Zhong S.-Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Jin H.-J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Yu S.-P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Chen Y.-C.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Engineering Company |
And 3 more authors.
Cold Regions Science and Technology | Year: 2010
The Chinese-Russian Oil Pipeline (CROP), from Mohe to Daqing has a length of about 965 km and traverses the Da Hinggan Mountains and part of Song(hua)-Nen(jiang) Plain in Northeastern China. This paper attempts to estimate some of the important elements concerning the environmental hazards and contingency plans along the pipeline. The first part reviews the potential impacts of the Mohe-Daqing Pipeline on the cold regions environment. It includes 1) the major environmental characteristics such as complicated permafrost, rugged terrain, harsh weather, and the diverse flora and fauna, vegetation the pipeline passes through; 2) the consideration of route selection; 3) potential environmental impacts of the CROP on the environmental factors; 4) countermeasures to alleviate changes to the local environment during the design, construction and operation stages. The second part presents the risk of oil spills, the subsequent environmental challenges after the start of operation of CROP, and contingency plans in response to potential oil spills. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Jin H.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute |
Hao J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute |
Hao J.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Engineering Company |
Chang X.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute |
And 5 more authors.
Cold Regions Science and Technology | Year: 2010
The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP), 813 mm in diameter, is designed to transport 603,000 barrels of Siberian crude oil per day across 1030 km of frozen-ground. About 500 boreholes, with depths of 5 to 20 m, were drilled and cored for analyses, and the frozen-ground conditions were evaluated. After detailed surveys and analyses of the permafrost conditions along the pipeline route, a conventional burial construction mode at a nominal depth of 1.5 m was adopted. This paper discusses the principles and criteria for the zonation and assessment of the frozen-ground environments and conditions of engineering geology for the design, construction, and operation of the pipeline system based on an extensive and in-depth summary and analysis of the survey and exploration data. The characteristics of pipelining crude oil at ambient temperatures in the permafrost regions and the interactive processes between the pipeline and foundation soils were taken into account. Two zones of frozen-ground environment and conditions of engineering geology, i.e., seasonally-frozen-ground and permafrost, were defined on the basis of the regional distribution and differentiations in frozen-ground environments and conditions. Then, four subzones of the permafrost zone were classified according to the areal extent, taking into consideration the temperatures and thicknesses of permafrost, as well as changes in vegetation coverage. In the four subzones, 151 sections of engineering geology were categorized according to the ice/moisture contents of the permafrost, as well as the classes of frost-heaving and thaw-settlement potentials. These 151 sections are comprehensively summarized into four types for engineering construction and operation: good, fair, poor, and very poor, for overall conditions of engineering geology. The zonation, assessment principles and criteria have been applied in the design of the pipeline. They have also been used as the scientific bases for the construction, environmental management, operation and maintenance/contingency plans. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.