Beijing, China
Beijing, China

PetroChina Company Limited , is a Chinese oil and gas company and is the listed arm of state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation , headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing. It is China's biggest oil producer. Traded in Hong Kong and New York, the mainland enterprise announced its plans to issue stock in Shanghai in November 2007, and subsequently entered trading on the Shanghai index. Wikipedia.

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Duan Y.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Duan Y.,Petrochina
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Leng G.,Petrochina | Hou J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing
Oilfield Chemistry | Year: 2016

When researching plugging and fluid diversion in fractured reservoir by conventional method, pore structures and fluid flow characteristics could not be observe. the artificial fracture was plugged by modified starch gel and the plugging and fluid diversion in fractured reservoir was investigated on basis of computed tomography (CT) scanning technology and laboratory experiment. CT images presented the characteristic of core pores, oil and water distribution, and the process of improving swept volume after fracture was plugged. Experiment results showed that the artificial fracture run through the whole core, with uniform pore distribution and an average porosity of 22.7%. Serious water channeling in artificial fractures resulted in the displacing pressure could not be built up effectively and swept volume in matrix was low. The oil recovery of water flooding was only 10.6%. When the fracture was plugged by the modified starch gel system, the subsequent water was compelled to fluid diversion and started core matrix. Swept volume of subsequent water was more than 2/3 of matrix volume approximately, the total oil recovery was of 46.1%, enhanced by 35.5%. CT scanning technology provided a visual method for mechanism study of plugging fractured reservoir. © 2016, China International Book Trading Corp. (Guoji Shudian). All rights reserved.

Cui W.,Petrochina | Wang C.,Petrochina
Oilfield Chemistry | Year: 2016

During the fracturing process, encapsulated gel breaker with an inert capsule was placed inside a high pressure liquid with several tens megapascal. The release of capsule after the break of rubber was closed through the crack closure in traditional conception, and the effect of liquid column pressure, pump pressure and formation pressure was neglected in fracturing process. In order to reveal the effect of wellbore pressure on the release time of encapsulated gel breaker, the influence of pressure and pressure time on release rate of potassium persulfate encapsulated gel breaker was studied, the situation of clothing package of encapsulated gel breaker before and after compression was compared, the influence of capsule release on the viscosity of fracturing fluid was investigated. The results showed that the capsule package of gel breaker gradually brake and peeled under pressure, the release rate of encapsulated gel breaker increased with increasing pressure and pressure time. The release rate was 62% when the pressure was 35 MPa and the time was 40 min. When the temperature belowed 50°C, the release of encapsulated gel breaker in a short period of time had little effect on the viscosity of fracturing fluid, while that at high temperature would make the viscosity of fracturing fluid decreased rapidly until gel breaking, which effected the sand-carrying of fracturing fluid. © 2016, China International Book Trading Corp. (Guoji Shudian). All rights reserved.

Xu X.,Curtin University Australia | Saeedi A.,Curtin University Australia | Liu K.,Petrochina
Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2017

This research developed a viable and economical foaming formula (AOS/AVS/N70K-T) which is capable of creating ample and robust CO2 foams. Its foaming ability and displacement performance in a porous medium were investigated and compared with the two conventional formulations (AOS alone and AOS/HPAM). The results showed that the proposed formula could significantly improve the foam stability without greatly affecting the foaming ability, with a salinity level of 20,000 ppm and a temperature of 323 K. Furthermore, AOS/AVS/N70K-T foams exhibited thickening advantages over the other formulations, especially where the foam quality was located around the transition zone. This novel formulation also showed remarkable blocking ability in the resistance factor (RF) test, which was attributed to the pronounced synergy between AVS and N70K-T. Last but not the least, it was found that the tertiary oil recovery of the CO2 foams induced by AOS/AVS/N70K-T was 12.5% higher than that of AOS foams and 6.8% higher than that of AOS/HPAM foams at 323 K and 1500 psi, thus indicating its huge enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Through systematic research, it is felt that the novel foaming formulation might be considered as a promising and practical candidate for CO2 foam flooding in the future. Copyright © 2017 by ASME.

Gao D.,Yangtze University | Lin C.,Ocean University of China | Hu M.,Yangtze University | Yang H.,Petrochina | Huang L.,Petrochina
Geological Journal | Year: 2017

The Lianglitage Formation (also named Lianglitag Formation) is an important hydrocarbon reservoir in the Tarim Basin; the reef and shoal facies of this formation have previously been extensively investigated. The paleokarst of the formation related to a tectonic unconformity at the top of the Ordovician (Tg5) has, however, not been widely investigated. In this paper, we undertake a comprehensive study of the paleokarst by an integrated analysis of seismic data, well-logging data, and core data. Several geomorphologic units that formed at the end of the Ordovician period are identified, including a fault-thrust uplift high, inter-uplifts sag, uplift platform, and fault-thrust anticline; these units are controlled by west-east and northwest-southeast striking faults. The thickness of erosion is estimated to be 200 to 700 meters. The paleokarst is characterized by large and small caves, dense vugs, and dissolution fractures. Large caves predominantly developed in exposed areas and on the slopes. Dense vugs and small caves, features that contribute to premium hydrocarbon reservoirs, are generally tens of meters away from the unconformity, whereas dissolution fractures, predominantly filled by mud and silts, are situated in close proximity to the unconformity and faults. Four karst zones can be identified from vertical profiles: weathered crust (1-2 m thick), vertical infiltration zone (tens of meters thick), phreatic zone (tens to hundreds of meters thick), and a bottom zone that is largely unaffected by karstification. The karst of the Lianglitage Formation at the end of the Ordovician was mainly controlled by tectonic movement, paleogeomorphology, lithofacies, faults, and fractures. The karstification process is summarized in a karst model. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Han H.,Petrochina | Li Z.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation | Chen X.,Petrochina | Li S.,Petrochina | Qin J.,Petrochina
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2017

On purpose of studying the regulations and prediction methods of volume expansion of CO2 + crude oil, eleven hydrocarbon components were selected to represent crude oil. Then, Constant Component Expansion (CCE) experiments were carried out with the hydrocarbon components and different molar fractions of CO2. According to the results, it was obviously that hydrocarbon components could expand the volume because of mixing the CO2. However, the expansion degree was largely influenced by the hydrocarbon properties. Therefore, a new parameter named the molar density was proposed to characterize these influences. The study found that hydrocarbon swelling factor and molar density were strict linear relationship. Based on this regulation and additional theoretical derivation, a prediction model was established to calculating volume expansion degree of CO2 + crude oil. With the experimental results of reservoir oil from CQ oilfield, it was turned out that the prediction model could successfully and precisely calculate crude oil swelling degree. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Wang Z.,Southwest Petroleum University | Tu H.,Southwest Petroleum University | Guo P.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zeng F.,University of Regina | Sang T.,Petrochina
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2017

For most gas condensate reservoirs, a high water cut and near-wellbore retrograde condensate pollution are the main problems encountered by engineers. Thus, a good understanding of the influence of water vapor and the complex phenomenon of a near wellbore region on the phase behavior of gas condensate is critical to forecast the performance of reservoir fluids and guide the exploitation of gas condensate reservoirs. In the present work, constant composition expansion (CCE) and constant volume depletion (CVD) measurements are performed to determine the phase behavior of gas condensate samples with and without water vapor. Our experimental results demonstrate that water vapor not only increases the dew point pressure, but it also influences other gas-related properties. Furthermore, several equations are applied to predict the solubilities and gas-related properties. As the predictions are compared to each other, it is obvious that the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EOS) performs very well in all properties with a test fitting interaction parameter. A good agreement between the experimental data and predictions is observed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Li F.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Li W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Yu Z.,Petrochina | Liu N.,Jilin University | And 2 more authors.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2017

Dawsonite is often associated with CO2-rich gas reservoirs, and it is regarded as a "trace mineral" for recording migration and accumulation of CO2. Following accepted petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical principles, we used several methods (described herein) to study the Cretaceous dawsonite-bearing sandstone reservoirs in the Songliao Basin, China. We used the ideas of "sequencing" and "timing" to verify the influx stages of CO2 and hydrocarbons, dividing their influx sequence pattern and building a CO2-influx timeframe. First, we determined the stable isotopic ratios of dawsonite and CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs, and found that the CO2 in? dawsonite is of a mantle-derived magma origin. Second, we differentiated an early/late-stage oil and gas influx and a midmantle source influx through the study of diagenetic paragenetic sequences, formation water, and fluid inclusions in the dawsonite-bearing sandstones. Combining burial/thermal-history curves and illite K-Ar dates from the study area, we determined that the early-stage oil and gas influx, late oil and gas influx, and medium CO2 influx occurred at 85-58.8 Ma, 41-20 Ma, and 58.8-41 Ma (Paleocene and Eocene), respectively. Finally, we observed a coupling relationship between CO2 influx and Shuangliao volcanic activities and material compositions, as constrained by volcanic activity history in the basin since the Late Cretaceous. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Zhang L.,Renmin University of China | Yi W.,Petrochina | Liu X.,Renmin University of China
Xitong Gongcheng Lilun yu Shijian/System Engineering Theory and Practice | Year: 2016

In the present study, an optimization model, which is defined as a problem specified multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time windows (MDVRPTW), is developed for dealing with the large scale routing problem in secondary petroleum product delivery. The MDVRPTW model is subsequently decomposed into two separate sub-problems, and correspondingly a two-stage optimization procedure is proposed. A modified hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to solve demand assigning problem, and an enhanced genetic algorithm is designed to cope with truck allocation problem. For truck allocation, which could be considered as a customer partition problem, a new distance measure named expected saving distance is proposed to comprehensively distinguish the geographical distribution of oil stations with respect to deports. Enhanced genetic operators are also designed based on the new measure to improve the speed, quality, and stability of the convergence of evolutionary processes. Simulated examples are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2016, Editorial Board of Journal of Systems Engineering Society of China. All right reserved.

Lyu W.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zeng L.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang B.,Petrochina | Lyu P.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Dong S.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2017

The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the northwestern Sichuan Basin, China, is a typical tight gas sandstone reservoir that contains natural fractures and has an average porosity of 1.10% and air permeability less than 0.1 md because of compaction and cementation. According to outcrops, cores and image logs, three types of natural fractures, namely, tectonic, diagenetic and overpressure-related fractures, have developed in the tight gas sandstones. The tectonic fractures include small faults, intraformational shear fractures and horizontal shear fractures, whereas the diagenetic fractures mainly include bed-parallel fractures. According to thin sections, the microfractures also include tectonic, diagenetic and overpressure-related microfractures. The diagenetic microfractures consist of transgranular, intragranular and grain-boundary fractures. Among these fractures, intraformational shear fractures, horizontal shear fractures and small faults are predominant and significant for fluid movement. Based on the Monte Carlo method, these intraformational shear fractures and horizontal shear fractures improve the reservoir porosity and permeability, thus serving as an important storage space and primary fluid-flow channels in the tight sandstones. The small faults may provide seepage channels in adjacent layers by cutting through layers. In addition, these intragranular and grain-boundary fractures increase the connectivity of the tight gas sandstones by linking tiny pores. The tectonic microfractures improve the seepage capability of the tight gas sandstones to some extent. Low-dip angle fractures are more abundant in the T3X3 member than in the T3X2 and T3X4 members. The fracture intensities of the sandstones in the T3X3 member are greater than those in the T3X2 and T3X4 members. The fracture intensities do not always decrease with increasing bed thickness for the tight sandstones. When the bed thickness of the tight sandstones is less than 1.0 m, the fracture intensities increase with increasing bed thickness in the T3X3 member. Fluid inclusion evidence and burial history analysis indicate that the tectonic fractures developed over three periods. The first period was at the end of the Triassic to the Early Jurassic. The tectonic fractures developed during oil generation but before the matrix's porosity and permeability reduced, which suggests that these tectonic fractures could provide seepage channels for oil migration and accumulation. The second period was at the end of the Cretaceous after the matrix's porosity and permeability reduced but during peak gas generation, which indicates that gas mainly migrated and accumulated in the tectonic fractures. The third period was at the end of the Eogene to the Early Neogene. The tectonic fractures could provide seepage channels for secondary gas migration and accumulation from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation into the overlying Jurassic Formation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sun Q.,Wuhan University | Cartwright J.,University of Oxford | Ludmann T.,University of Hamburg | Wu S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yao G.,Petrochina
Sedimentology | Year: 2017

This study describes a previously unobserved reflection seismic configuration comprising a honeycomb planform and a repeated erosion/infill cross-section, based on high-resolution three-dimensional/two-dimensional seismic data and bathymetric data. The honeycomb structures cover an area of more than 5000 km2 and are developed within the Late Miocene to recent deep-water sediments of the north-western South China Sea. Linear erosional troughs up to 10 km long and 1 km wide are widely developed in this area, are intimately related to the particular seismic configuration and interpreted to represent a new type of sediment drift that is caused by unsteady bottom current regimes operating since the Late Miocene. The unsteady bottom current regimes are suggested to be triggered by irregular seabed morphologies. Considerable sea-floor topography was generated as a direct result of tectonic movements in the area since the Late Miocene, and this topography then influenced the pathways of strong bottom currents. This study highlights that: (i) an unsteady bottom current regime can be laterally extensive and persist for millions of years; (ii) structurally controlled sea-floor relief plays an important role in controlling the depositional pattern; and (iii) the bottom currents were active since the Late Miocene, flowing from the south-east through the Xisha–Guangle Gateway and crossing the honeycomb structure zone. This study documents a new style of drift and will help to improve current knowledge of palaeoceanography and understanding of the South China Sea deep-water circulation which is at present still poorly understood. © 2016 The Authors.

Lu X.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Yu H.,Petrochina | Bai Z.,Oil and Gas Survey
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2017

There are many examples of oil and gas reservoirs throughout the world that have tight carbonate rock as the caprock. These oil and gas reservoirs are often vertically overlapped (with multiple oil and gas sections) and laterally connected (to many oil and gas reservoirs). The closure of carbonate caprock is affected by many factors, such as the clay content, differential diagenesis and layer thickness. As evaluation parameters, the clay content can be determined by a gamma ray well-logging curve; the differential diagenesis is reflected in filling effects, rupture effects, cement composition and content and can be measured through the displacement pressure; the layer thickness can be obtained from drilling and well-logging data. In different regions or different members, the factors and parameters to be considered or evaluated for the closure are dependent on actual geological conditions. In this study, the clay content, displacement pressure and layer thickness were analysed, determined, calculated and normalized to generate an overall closure evaluation index (λ) for the caprock in wells on Ordovician Liang 3–5 mud-bearing limestone members on the northern slope of the Tazhong uplift. On the plane distribution map, the area with λ ≥ 1 was effectively sealed. The tight carbonate in the inner Yingshan Formation (with high-resistivity, referred to as a high-resistivity layer) was also effectively caprock. Regardless of whether it can seal oil and gas, the sealing capacity mainly depends on the displacement pressure difference between the high-resistivity layer and the underlying carbonate reservoir. Based on drilling results and the comparison of the displacement pressure difference between the two layers (by actual measurements and calculations), we observed that when the pressure difference is more than 1.95 MPa, it is an effective caprock. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Xie T.,Petrochina | Xie T.,China Earthquake Networks Center | Zheng X.,Petrochina | Zhang Y.,Petrochina
Geophysics | Year: 2017

Seismic facies analysis plays an important role in seismic stratigraphy. Seismic attributes have been widely applied to seismic facies analysis. One of the most important steps is to optimize the most sensitive attributes with regard to reservoir characteristics. Using different attribute combinations in multidimensional analyses will yield different solutions. Acoustic waves and seismic waves propagating in an elastic medium follow the same law of physics. The generation process of a speech signal based on the acoustic model is similar to the seismic data of the convolution model. We have developed the mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs), which have been successfully applied in speech recognition, as feature parameters for seismic facies analysis. Information about the wavelet and reflection coefficients is wellseparated in these cepstrum-domain parameters. Specifically, information about the wavelet mainly appears in the low-domain part, and information about the reflection coefficients mainly appeared in the high-domain part. In the forward model, the seismic MFCCs are used as feature vectors for synthetic data with a noise level of zero and 5%. The Bayesian network is used to classify the traces. Then, classification accuracy rates versus different orders of the MFCCs are obtained. The forwarding results indicate that high accuracy rates are achieved when the order exceeds 10. For the real field data, the seismic data are decomposed into a set of MFCC parameters. The different information is unfolded in the parameter maps, enabling the interpreter to capture the geologic features of the target interval. The geologic features presented in the three instantaneous attributes and coherence can also be found in the MFCC parameter maps. The classification results are in accordance with the paleogeomorphy of the target interval as well as the known wells. The results from the synthetic data and real field data demonstrate the information description abilities of the seismic MFCC parameters. Therefore, using the speech feature parameters to extract information may be helpful for processing and interpreting seismic data. © 2017 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

Liu W.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Cao S.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang Z.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Kong X.,Petrochina | Chen Y.,University of Texas at Austin
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters | Year: 2017

Hydrocarbons can cause anomalies in the energy density of seismic signals when seismic waves pass through them. Teager-Kaiser energy (TKE) is an important attribute that can be utilized to depict the energy density of a seismic signal and the energy distribution of a seismic wavefield. In this letter, a novel spectral decomposition-based approach for hydrocarbon detection is proposed that applies the variational mode decomposition (VMD) associated with TKE to seismic data, which is called the VMDTKE algorithm. The proposed method not only possesses the better performance of TKE in focusing instantaneous energy, but also inherits the merit of high time-frequency resolution from VMD. The Marmousi2 example is used to demonstrate that the VMDTKE approach is capable of depicting the location and extent of strong anomalies which correlate to hydrocarbons more clearly. We compare the spectral decomposition results with that from the conventional VMD-based method. Application on field data further confirms the potential of the VMDTKE algorithm in delineating strong amplitude anomalies that are associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs. © 2017 IEEE.

Li H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | He W.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Qu Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Li C.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2017

A benthic microbial electrochemical system (BMES) of 350 L is built for the bioremediation of river sediment (Ashi river, Harbin, China). Carbon mesh anode with honeycomb-structure supports and activated carbon cathodes are applied for the construction. Synthesis wastewater with glucose is added to simulate the natural condition of Ashi River as an intermittent pollutant-holding water body and accelerate the removal of accumulated bio-refractory organic contents in sediment, represented by the concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as the co-metabolic substrate for bacteria. The effluent TOC in the water layer of BMES is stable at 40 ± 2 mg L-1 and further reduced to 19 ± 5 mg L-1 after the addition of synthesis wastewater, while the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene and Benzo(a)pyrene) in sediment samples reaches 74%. A maximum power density of 63 ± 3 mW m-2 is achieved by BMES, which decrease to 42 ± 2 mW m-2 due to cathode degradation and further reduce to 30 ± 3 mW m-2 attributed to substrate limitation at the end of operation. Community analyses show the diversity of anode community is improved during operation and the abundance of Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and exoelectrogenic microbes like G. psychrophilus increase. © 2017.

Yongan Y.,Tianjin University of Commerce | Juntao Y.,Qinghai Company of China Petroleum Engineering Co. | Jingyi L.,Petrochina | Jiajia L.,Henan Development Gas Co.
Advances in Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2017

Because the coal-bed methane field is influenced by factors such as low pressure, slow velocity, terrain, and condensed water, which lead to the fact that the design is different from gathering design of conventional gas field, how to make full use of wellhead pressure and maximize the wellhead pressure ability is an important link of surface engineering optimization. Therefore, we need to analyze the factors which influence the pressure drop of the gas-gathering pipe network to improve the efficiency of the coal-bed methane field surface gathering. We first contrasted the two hydraulic analysis software (PIPEPHASE and TGNET) for the analysis of coal seam gas field adaptability. By comparing the simulation results with the actual data, we found that the PIPEPHASE software is better to analyze the hydraulic situation of pipe network in the coal-bed methane field. Then, using PIPEPHASE for network simulation and contrasting the 9 state equations and 26 kinds of pressure drop formula calculation results, SRK state equation and BBM pressure drop formula are recommended. We analyze the inlet temperature, pressure, and other nine factors affecting gas extraction pipeline pressure drop according to the practical experience and put forward the suggestions as follows: (1) in order to reduce the pressure drop and increase the ability of pipeline, burying pipeline under the permafrost and improving the inlet pressure are suggested; (2) The higher the inlet pressure, the more obvious the pipeline efficiency influences the pipeline pressure drop, so the inlet pressure and pipeline efficiency should be reasonably controlled in order to reduce the pressure drop; (3) The higher the pipeline pressure, the greater the wall roughness influences the pipeline pressure drop, also the greater the pressure can damage, so we should try to use small wall roughness materials. © The Author(s) 2017.

Xiong L.,Xiangtan University | Peng B.,Petrochina | Ma Z.,Xiangtan University | Wang P.,Xiangtan University | Pei Y.,Xiangtan University
Nanoscale | Year: 2017

The atomic structure of a ten-electron (10e) thiolate-protected gold cluster, denoted as Au29(SR)19, was theoretically predicted. Based on the prediction of the atomic structure of the 10e Au29(SR)19 cluster, we proposed a novel 'gold-atom insertion, thiolate-group elimination' mechanism to understand the structural evolution of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) thiolate-protected gold clusters. The key step of structural evolution from Au28(SR)20 to Au29(SR)19 and then to the Au30(SR)18 cluster, i.e. the growth of triangle-Au3 units in the gold cores, is understood from the first insertion of an exterior Au(0) atom into the ligand shell and then cleavage of μ3-SR groups. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017.

Lu Z.-G.,Petrochina | Liu Y.,Northeast Petroleum University | Li C.-S.,Northeast Petroleum University
Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Information System and Artificial Intelligence, ISAI 2016 | Year: 2016

In the process of appling data integration in building an intelligent platform, in order to improve accuracy and effectiveness in data linkage model, we describe radiation relationship refer to classification analysis method, and formulate rules of behavior response for different situations. At the same time, bringing in RD-TCO model to optimize the time cost of response, finishing the response mechanism of data behavior based on radiation relationship. To achieve the purpose that increase the accuracy of data, improve the efficiency of the data integration platform. Finally, in combination with the three oil recovery operation platform of a production plant in Daqing Oilfield to accomplish the design of data integration system in the platform via RDBR mechanism. © 2016 IEEE.

Jiang D.,Shantou University | Gong J.,Petrochina | Garg A.,Shantou University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2017

Chemical equipment failure, toxic leaks and other abnormal conditions often have significant impact on the production line and moreover there is a risk of life safety. Therefore, detection of early warning for abnormal states and stifling the risks are of prime importance. In this context, time series prediction method is the commonly used one for building models for early warning. The early warning forecasting problem in petrochemical industry could be a very complicated one because the large number of multi-nature processes takes place in the industry. This work presents a methodology to predict the alarms of catalytic reforming unit in a petrochemical industry. Based on the refinery time series data obtained by monitoring production status, a complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) is used to decompose the complex nonlinear time series. The best parameters for classification model were explored for the effective prediction. The results show that, the early warning model for production safety based on the AI7005 in the catalytic reforming unit, have a reasonable correlation and accuracy under the proper data preprocess, features extraction and parameters selection. The experimental validation shows the forecasting accuracy of 75.9%, which is acceptable and valuable for the practice of enterprise's production and management. This study not only provides effective and feasible path for practical application, but also gives a complete program and valuable reference for other similar studies based on time series data analysis. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Li J.,Yangtze University | Zheng B.,Petrochina | Ji L.,Yangtze University
Shenzhen Daxue Xuebao (Ligong Ban)/Journal of Shenzhen University Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Based on the established random fractal pore network model and mechanics model of condensate film and slug at the deformation status in gas-liquid-solid boundary, the microscopic distribution feature of condensate oil was simulated to determine condensate critical flow saturation in porous medium. The result shows that it is an efficient method to characterize condensate oil micro distribution and calculate condensate critical flow saturation. The critical condensate saturation decreases with an increase in the average pore radius, but increases with an increase in fractal dimension. There exists a critical gas/oil interfacial tension. At an interfacial tension below the critical value, the critical condensate saturation increases drastically with an increase interfacial tension, while it keeps almost unchanged at an interfacial tension above this critical value. A higher capillary number results in a smaller critical condensate saturation. It is indicated that static and dynamic parameters have effects on condensate critical flow saturation. Therefore, it is an effectual approach to properly control production pressure drop to reduce negative impact of gas well production capacity in the producing process. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.

Feng J.,Petrochina | Zhou Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Che H.,China University of Geosciences
International Geology Review | Year: 2017

The Daolundaba Cu–polymetallic deposit is a newly discovered Cu–W–Sn deposit on the western slopes of the southern Great Xing’an Range, and its mineralization was related to an early Permian coarse-grained biotite granite. However, there is little information on the age of formation of the deposit. In this article, we present the results of our investigation into the age of the Daolundaba Cu–polymetallic deposit, which involved the selection of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite samples for Rb–Sr isochron dating. A Rb–Sr isochron defined by the chalcopyrite samples yielded a Rb–Sr isochron age of 290.0 ± 11 Ma (MSWD = 1.2) with an initial Sr isotopic composition (ISr) of 0.71446. The pyrrhotite samples yielded a Rb–Sr isochron age of 283.0 ± 2.6 Ma (MSWD = 1.16) with an initial Sr isotopic composition (ISr) of 0.71447. The Rb–Sr isochron age determined from the chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite is 282.7 ± 1.7 Ma (MSWD = 1.13). These results indicate that the Daolundaba Cu–polymetallic deposit formed during the early Permian (282.7–290.0 Ma). The Rb and Sr contents of the chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite range from ~0.1325 to ~3.6810 ppm and from ~0.1219 to ~9.5740 ppm, respectively, and the initial Sr isotope ratios (ISr) range from 0.71047 to 0.71869, with an average of 0.714723. These isotopic characteristics indicate the ore-forming minerals of the Daolundaba Cu–polymetallic deposit originated mainly from the crust, but with small amounts of mantle material involved. The copper was derived from the associated magma whereas the W and Sn was derived from the surrounding strata. The Permian mineralization of the Xing’an–Mongolia region occurred in an active continental margin setting during subduction of the Palaeo-Asian oceanic plate beneath the Siberian Plate. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Ma N.,Petrochina | Wei F.-Q.,Petrochina | Guo J.-R.,Affiliated Hospital of Chende Medical College
Biomedical Research (India) | Year: 2017

Present investigation evaluates the anti tumor activity of stachydrine by inhibiting histone diacetylase enzyme in gastric cancer. Gastric cancer was induced by chronic administration of 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) for 40 weeks. Thereafter rats were treated with stachydrine (5 and 10 mg/kg, IP) for 8 week. Antitumor activity was assessed at the end of protocol by estimating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration in the serum and Cell cycle, apoptosis ratio, HDAC activity, expression of acetylated H3&4 proteins, markers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD) & glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], cytokines and histopathological study of gastrointestinal tissues was also done in MNNG induced gastric cancerous rats. There were significantly (p<0.01) decreases the concentration of LDH in serum of stachydrine treated rats compared to MNNG induced gastric cancerous rats. It was observed that alteration in the cell cycle and apoptosis in the gastrointestinal tissues with the stachydrine treatment compared to cancerous rats. Moreover, activity of HDAC, markers of oxidative stress and level of cytokine significantly (p<0.01) decreases in the gastrointestinal tissues of stachydrine treated rats compared MNNG induced gastric cancerous rats. Histopathology of gastric tissue suggested that stachydrine treatment reverse the hyperplasia, metaplasia in MNNG induced gastric cancerous rat. Present study concludes that stachydrine ameliorates the gastric cancer induced MNNG in rats on the virtue of its HDAC inhibition activity. © 2017, Scientific Publishers of India. All rights reserved.

Kong L.,Petrochina | Gurevich B.,CSIRO | Zhang Y.,Petrochina | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2017

In fractured reservoirs, seismic wave velocity and amplitude depend on frequency and incidence angle. Frequency dependence is believed to be principally caused by the wave-induced flow of pore fluid at the mesoscopic scale. In recent years, two particular phenomena, i.e., patchy saturation and flow between fractures and pores, have been identified as significant mechanisms of wave-induced flow. However, these two phenomena are studied separately. Recently, a unified model has been proposed for a porous rock with a set of aligned fractures, with pores and fractures filled with two different fluids. Existing models treat waves propagating perpendicular to the fractures. In this paper, we extend the model to all propagation angles by assuming that the flow direction is perpendicular to the layering plane and is independent of the loading direction. We first consider the limiting cases through poroelastic Backus averaging, and then we obtain the five complex and frequency-dependent stiffness values of the equivalent transversely isotropic medium as a function of the frequency. The numerical results show that, when the bulk modulus of the fracture-filling fluid is relatively large, the dispersion and attenuation of P-waves are mainly caused by fractures, and the values decrease as angles increase, almost vanishing when the incidence angle is 90° (propagation parallel to the fracture plane). While the bulk modulus of fluid in fractures is much smaller than that of matrix pores, the attenuation due to the "partial saturation" mechanism makes the fluid flow from pores into fractures, which is almost independent of the incidence angle. © 2017 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Xin B.S.,Mitsubishi Group | Xin B.S.,Petrochina | Sato N.,Mitsubishi Group | Tanna A.,Mitsubishi Group | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2017

Ni(II) complexes bearing an o-bis(aryl)phosphinophenolate ligand were synthesized as catalysts for copolymerization of ethylene and alkyl acrylates. When the P-bound aryl group was 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl group, one of the oxygen atoms in the methoxy groups coordinated to the nickel center on its apical position. This complex was a highly active catalyst without any activators to give highly linear and high molecular weight copolymers. The structures of the copolymers were determined by 1H and 13C NMR to clarify that the alkyl acrylate comonomers were incorporated in the main chain and that the structures of the copolymers were significantly influenced by the structure of the aryl group in the ligand. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Yu C.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Zhao J.,China University of Mining and Technology | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Qiu Z.,Petrochina
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering | Year: 2017

Seismic diffractions carry valuable information from subsurface small-scale geologic discontinuities, such as faults, cavities and other features associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, seismic imaging methods mainly use reflection theory for constructing imaging models, which means a smooth constraint on imaging conditions. In fact, diffractors occupy a small account of distributions in an imaging model and possess discontinuous characteristics. In mathematics, this kind of phenomena can be described by the sparse optimization theory. Therefore, we propose a diffraction imaging method based on a sparsity-constraint model for studying diffractors. A reweighted L 2-norm and L 1-norm minimization model is investigated, where the L 2 term requests a least-square error between modeled diffractions and observed diffractions and the L 1 term imposes sparsity on the solution. In order to efficiently solve this model, we use an adaptive reweighting homotopy algorithm that updates the solutions by tracking a path along inexpensive homotopy steps. Numerical examples and field data application demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method and show its significance for detecting small-scale discontinuities in a seismic section. The proposed method has an advantage in improving the focusing ability of diffractions and reducing the migration artifacts. © 2016 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

Yang L.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Xu T.,Jilin University | Liu K.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Peng B.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Sedimentology | Year: 2017

The Cretaceous sandstone reservoir in the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, western China, was investigated with reference to its reservoir property evolution during diagenesis. Six general diagenetic stages were recognized through petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analyses. Fluid-rock interaction experiments were conducted under these six continuous diagenetic conditions, that is with a simulation sequence of compaction → early diagenesis → organic acid incursion I → elevated temperature/pressure → organic acid incursion II → late diagenesis. Corresponding to these six experimental stages, a total of six models were constructed. Finally, an extended model of fluid-rock interaction during diagenesis at a geological timescale (from 30 Ma to present) was constructed after various parameters had been validated. Results demonstrate that the diagenetic stages from both the experimental and numerical simulations generally matched findings obtained from the petrographic and geochemical analyses: (i) With compaction becoming weakened, cementation by various minerals was gradually increased. (ii) Quartz overgrowth occurred because the contemporaneous sedimentary water was alkaline. (iii) Most minerals (for example, calcite and feldspar minerals) displayed dissolution owing to the first organic acid incursion, resulting in the visual porosity increasing to 29·26%. (iv) Increases in temperature and pressure caused a minor fluctuation of the porosity change. (v) The cement that formed during earlier stages largely dissolved with the second organic acid incursion. (vi) During the last stage, the reservoir fluid was diluted by sedimentary alkaline water and most minerals precipitated under an alkalic environment. The present porosity simulated is about 11·4%, comparable with the actually measured data. This study demonstrates that the combination of petrographic observations, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations can not only reconstruct the diagenetic process, but also provide a quantitative evaluation and prediction of reservoir petrophysical properties. © 2017 International Association of Sedimentologists.

In the paper a new permeability model based on matchstick model accounting for stress change and matrix shrinkage and swelling caused by gas mixture (CH4 and CO2) is proposed. Finally, a history matching exercise is carried out using field data and experimental data and several models are compared to determine the accuracy of the new model. The modeling results show that the new model can fit the experimental results well. With the exchange of CH4 on coal matrix with CO2, the coal matrix tends to swell and the coal permeability will decrease. So the fracture pressure has better to be high enough to guarantee the easy flow of gases in coal seam. Only when we know the coal permeability change during CO2 injection, can we have better knowledge about the ECBM performance and CO2 sequestration feasibility for a certain coal seam. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Mo Z.,Petrochina | Tao H.,Petrochina
Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Robots and Intelligent System, ICRIS 2016 | Year: 2016

Paper presents the basic principle and application of ARIMA model, and this model is nsed to analyze crnde oil price time series and obtain the second order linear regression model. The model is nsed to predict the price of crnde oil. On this basis, according to the residnal error after fitting the existing nonlinear ARIMA model, the fitting residnal error is analyzed by nsing the artificial nenral network. Finally, through the combination of ARIMA and RBF nenral network, the prediction of crnde oil price series ontside of the sample. The experimental results show that the combined model is better. © 2016 IEEE.

Han W.-X.,Petrochina | Tao S.-Z.,Petrochina | Yao J.-L.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Ma W.-J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2016

Tight sandstone reservoirs develop extensively in Chang 7 member in Longdong area, Ordos Basin, and tight oil is abundant. Unconventional tight sandstone reservoirs need special experimental techniques and analytical methods, which is different from the conventional reservoirs of high porosity and permeability. This paper adopted tight rock analysis, NMR, core and thin section observation, and FMI materials, in order to characterize the reservoirs precisely. The results of the experiments show that: (1)Destructive diagenesis is very strong, and effective porosity, bounded hydrocarbons (% of BV) decrease with depth; (2)According to the centrifugal experiment, this paper sets 0.1μm as the lower limit of pore throat of tight sandstone reservoirs, which is consistent with high pressure mercury data; (3)The movable fluid saturation is high and the correlation between movable fluid saturation and porosity and permeability is poor. The micro-cracks develop widely and they greatly improve the oil and gas migration and accumulation capacity. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Zhu W.-Y.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ma D.-X.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhu H.-Y.,Petrochina | An L.-Z.,Petrochina | Li B.-B.,University of Science and Technology Beijing
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2016

To study the shale reservoir stress sensitivity and its effect on productivity, four shale samples of Longmaxi Formation of Lower Silurian in southern Sichuan Basin were carried out sensitive experiment. The reservoir porosity was measured using mercury injection capillary pressure. The mineral content of rock was studied through XRD analysis. The experimental results show that, the shale reservoir has the characteristics of strong stress sensitivity, effective stress and permeability change rate showed a good exponential relationship. The high content of clay minerals in shale is important factor for strong stress sensitivity, which will cause the clay minerals to be more easily closed and not easy to recover under the action of external force. Through the Knudsen number calculation under reservoir conditions of reservoir, the Longmaxi reservoir flow with multi scales. Based on multi-scale flow model, the stress sensitive productivity model is established. Through case analysis, shale reservoir production declines sharply with increase production pressure. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Wang Y.-M.,Petrochina | Huang J.-L.,Petrochina | Wang S.-F.,Petrochina | Dong D.-Z.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2016

Changning and Jiaoshiba gas fields are two different types of marine shale gas "sweet spot". Based on the analysis of eight key geologic parameters, the commonalities and differences between the two gas fields were uncovered in this paper as follows: (1) The two gas fields share the geologic characteristics including positive structural setting, great thickness of organic-rich shale (>30 m), high organic matter abundance (average TOC>3%), favorable lithofacies association (dominated by siliceous shale and calcareous-siliceous shale), well-developed matrix pores (porosity>4%), high gas reservoir pressure (pressure coefficient>1.4), and excellent per well production (initial test production of horizontal well generally exceeds 100000 m3/d). However, they differ in development degree of fractures, pore types, and in-situ stress. (2) Changning gas field, characterized by well-developed interlaminated fractures, dominant matrix pores, and great difference between maximum and minimum horizontal in-situ stress (>10 MPa), is a highly productive area with relatively great development difficulty. This gas field is broadly representative of the confined area in the Sichuan Basin, thus providing a significant reference for the resource assessment and analogy in syncline area and Yanshanian-Himalayan folding area within the basin. (3) Jiaoshiba gas field is a fractured shale gas reservoir in general, which features special structural setting, well-developed macro-netted fractures and fracture pores, small difference between maximum and minimum horizontal in-situ stress(<10 MPa), great resource abundance, relatively less development difficulty, and high production. The basic geologic parameters of shale gas occurrence in this gas field can be used as a useful reference for the shale gas resource evaluation in some areas of east Sichuan. The study suggested that the Wufeng-Longmaxi shale gas reservoirs are of two distinct types: One with both matrix pores and fractures, and another with only matrix pores, providing two types of important calibrated area for shale gas resource evaluation. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Wu S.-J.,Petrochina | Wei G.-Q.,Petrochina | Yang W.,Petrochina | Xie W.-R.,Petrochina | Zeng F.-Y.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2016

Research of Tongwan Movement gradually became popular for its multi-episode tectonics in Sinian-Early Cambrian.It arrived at a common view that the Tongwan Movement was closely related to the karst reservoirs in Dengying Formation of Sinian.However, it is still controversial on the relationship between the Tongwan Movement and Sinian-Early Cambrian paleo-tectonics.Therefore, a study on the Tongwan Movement is meaningful for its tight connection with hydrocarbon geological conditions.Based on drilling core, outcrop and seismic data in central Sichuan area and combined with geological materials, the stages, the motion of Tongwan Movement and its impact on the Sinian-Early Cambrian paleo-tectonics were studied, leading to the results as follows: (1)The 3-episode Tongwan Movement appeared episodic uplift as a whole.Tongwan I and Ⅱ episode influenced the whole of Yangzi Plate, while the effect of Tongwan Ⅲ episode was restricted in limited areas.Even the same episode of Tongwan Movement showed different magnitudes in different areas, which reflected the existence of differential vertical motion in some areas.(2)Tongwan episodic uplifting resulted in differential elevation and subsidence, which accelerated the formation of uplift-depression patterns.The Sinian-Early Cambrian tectonic evolution of Sichuan Basin could thus be divided into 7 stages, including uplift-depression differentiation embryonic stage, uplift-depression differentiation stage, intense uplift-depression differentiation stage, uplift-depression forming stage, uplift-depression adjusting stage and uplift-depression filling-up stage.(3)The interaction of paleohighs and Tongwan episodic uplifting motivated the uplifting and exposure of sedimentary mound-beach in uplifting area, which was beneficial for the development of karst reservoirs.The unconformity of Tongwan Movement could act as dominant channels for migration of ancient oil reservoirs in Sinian and present gas reservoirs.In conclusion, Tongwan multi-episode movement has a great influence on the tectonic evolution, reservoir formation and migration and accumulation of hydrocarbon in Sinian-Early Cambrian. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Geng M.,Petrochina | Chen H.,Petrochina | Chen Z.-H.,Petrochina | Li G.-Z.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2016

The enrichment regularity of CBM in different coal rank is described. The characteristics of the medium-high coal rank sedimentary controlled reservoir and hydrodynamic gas control and structural adjustment are investigated. Sufficient gas source supply and good sealing conditions are keys to the enrichment of low-rank coal. With further exploration and development of CBM, more and more detailed resource evaluation parameters and rich and reliable research methods, as well as the accuracy and reliability of the results of the evaluation of resources have been further exactituded. Combined with China's CBM resources classification and distribution results, this study summarized the coal seam gas resources in our country as a whole "North and South Division, East and South Area". From east to west, it changes from a relatively rich gas into relatively poor gas zone, and from north to south it changes from pressure type area to gradient force type region. In the middle zone of North China, Ordos Basin is easy to form a high yield zone. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Wu X.-Z.,Petrochina | Zhao Y.-M.,Research Institute of Exploration & Development of Xinjiang Oil Field Company | Wang S.-J.,Petrochina | Zheng M.,Petrochina | Liu D.-G.,Research Institute of Exploration & Development of Xinjiang Oil Field Company
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2016

The unconventional tight sandstone gas resources in the Jurassic coal measures in the west of China have great potential, becoming a major exploration area in the future. As the largest coal bearing basin, the Junggar Basin is rich in Jurassic coal measures. Thus, the tight sandstone gas with good exploration prospects should be an indisputable fact. The Lower-Middle Jurassic unconventional tight sandstone gas in the hinterland of Junggar Basin is derived from the source rocks of the Lower-Middle Jurassic Badaowan and Xishanyao Formations, forming a self-generation and self-preservation assemblage with deep basin gas features. The burial depth is mainly 4 500-6 000m. The coal measure source rocks and sandstone reservoirs are characterized by combination types of "up and down" or "sandwich". The typical tight sandstone gas reservoir has characteristics of tight reservoir sand body, high pressure, complex gas and water relations, low productivity and quasi continuous distribution. According to a preliminary estimate, the gas geological resources of tight sandstone gas in the Jurassic coal measures are (13 630-11 740)×108m3, and the technical recoverable resources are (6 140-5 280)×108m3. The Jurassic coal measures tight sandstone gas in the hinterland of Junggar Basin has enormous potential and a promising prospect for exploration. The main exploration directions are the north and south wings and structural binding part of the central uplift belt (Mosuowan-Baijiahai Uplift), the southern pitching end of Chepaizi Uplift in the west, and the southwestern pitching end of Santai uplift in the northeast. The favorable exploration target areas are the south-wing of Mosuowan uplift, the south-wing of Baijiahai Uplift, the east side of the structural binding part of Mosuowan-Mobei uplift, the structural binding part of Muosuowan-Baijiahai Uplift, the Shamenzi nose uplift of Chepaizi Uplift, and the Xiquan nose uplift in the Beisantai area. The Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation should be the main exploration target. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Shen A.,Northeast Petroleum University | Liu Y.,Northeast Petroleum University | Qiu X.,Petrochina | Lu Y.,Petrochina | Liang S.,Northeast Petroleum University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2017

This paper presents the results of an analytical model for the capillary rise in nano-channels considering the effect of inherent surface roughness. The model was derived using the classical Lucas-Washburn model and the momentum conservation equation, while considering the inherent surface roughness of an equivalent porous medium layer (PML). The calculated frictional resistance due to the PML reflects the friction of fluid flowing through nano-channels. The capillary imbibition in the nano-channels is in the range of low-Reynolds-number flow, and because of its low flow-rate, the inertia force can be ignored in this study. This analytical model was validated by comparing it with nano-capillary rise experiments and other simulated values such as the classical Lucas-Washburn (LW) model and the classical LW model with a 40% fluid viscosity increment. The analytical model produces the closest results to those obtained in the experiments, and it can explain the lower-than-expected (using the LW equation) height of capillary rise obtained in the experiments. © 2017 Author(s).

Global Mining Lubricant market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Mining Lubricant in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into Mineral Oil Lubricants Synthetic Lubricants On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of Mining Lubricant for each application, including Coal Mining Iron Ore Mining Bauxite Mining Rare Earth Mineral Mining Precious Metals Mining Others At any Query @ Table of Contents Global Mining Lubricant Market Research Report 2017 1 Mining Lubricant Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Mining Lubricant 1.2 Mining Lubricant Segment by Type (Product Category) 1.2.1 Global Mining Lubricant Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category) (2012-2022) 1.2.2 Global Mining Lubricant Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016 1.2.3 Mineral Oil Lubricants 1.2.4 Synthetic Lubricants 1.3 Global Mining Lubricant Segment by Application 1.3.1 Mining Lubricant Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2012-2022) 1.3.2 Coal Mining 1.3.3 Iron Ore Mining 1.3.4 Bauxite Mining 1.3.5 Rare Earth Mineral Mining 1.3.6 Precious Metals Mining 1.3.7 Others 1.4 Global Mining Lubricant Market by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.1 Global Mining Lubricant Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.2 North America Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Mining Lubricant (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global Mining Lubricant Revenue Status and Outlook (2012-2022) 1.5.2 Global Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2012-2022) 7 Global Mining Lubricant Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis 7.1 Royal Dutch Shell PLC 7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.1.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.1.3 Royal Dutch Shell PLC Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.2 BP PLC 7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.2.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.2.3 BP PLC Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.3 Chevron Corporation 7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.3.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.3.3 Chevron Corporation Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.4 Exxonmobil Corporation 7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.4.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.4.3 Exxonmobil Corporation Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.5 Total S.A. 7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.5.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.5.3 Total S.A. Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.6 Fuchs Petrolub SE 7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.6.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.6.3 Fuchs Petrolub SE Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.7 Petrochina Company Limited 7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.7.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.7.3 Petrochina Company Limited Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.8 Quaker Chemical Corporation 7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.8.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.8.3 Quaker Chemical Corporation Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.9 Sinopec Limited 7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.9.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.9.3 Sinopec Limited Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.10 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. 7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.10.2 Mining Lubricant Product Category, Application and Specification Product A Product B 7.10.3 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Mining Lubricant Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.11 Lukoil 7.12 Bel-Ray Company, LLC 7.13 Whitmore Manufacturing Co. 7.14 Schaeffer Manufacturing Co. 7.15 Kluber Lubrication For more information, please visit

Tian W.,Peking University | Tian W.,Australian National University | Campbell I.H.,Australian National University | Allen C.M.,Australian National University | And 5 more authors.
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2010

We report major and trace element composition, Sr-Nd isotopic and seismological data for a picrite-basalt-rhyolite suite from the northern Tarim uplift (NTU), northwest China. The samples were recovered from 13 boreholes at depths between 5,166 and 6,333 m. The picritic samples have high MgO (14.5-16.8 wt%, volatiles included) enriched in incompatible element and have high 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios (εNd (t) = -5.3; Sri = 0.707), resembling the Karoo high-Ti picrites. All the basaltic samples are enriched in TiO2 (2.1-3.2 wt%, volatiles free), have high FeOt abundances (11.27-15.75 wt%, volatiles free), are enriched in incompatible elements and have high Sr and low Nd isotopic ratios (Sri = 0.7049-0.7065; εNd (t) = -4.1 to -0.4). High Nb/La ratios (0.91-1.34) of basalts attest that they are mantle-derived magma with negligible crustal contamination. The rhyolite samples can be subdivided into two coeval groups with overlapping U-Pb zircon ages between 291 ± 4 and 272 ± 2 Ma. Group 1 rhyolites are enriched in Nb and Ta, have similar Nb/La, Nb/U, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to the associated basalts, implying that they are formed by fractional crystallization of the basalts. Group 2 rhyolites are depleted in Nb and Ta, have low Nb/La ratios, and have very high Sr and low Nd isotopic ratios, implying that crustal materials have been extensively, if not exclusively, involved in their source. The picrite-basalt-rhyolite suite from the NTU, together with Permian volcanic rocks from elsewhere Tarim basin, constitute a Large Igneous Province (LIP) that is characterized by large areal extent, rapid eruption, OIB-type chemical composition, and eruption of high temperature picritic magma. The Early Permian magmatism, which covered an area >300,000 km2, is therefore named the Tarim Flood Basalt. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Hou Q.,Peking University | Hou Q.,Petrochina | Zhao Z.,Petrochina | Huang Z.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

To further understand the accumulation mechanism and distribution rules of deep basin oil, the laboratory physical simulation experiment is conducted for water-sealed oil in sand columns of different grain sizes, and the water-sealed oil mechanism and the accumulation threshold of deep basin oil are analyzed. Stable deep basin oil can be formed under laboratory conditions. The accumulation threshold of deep basin oil mainly depends on the pore throat radius of oil-bearing sand layer as well as the oil/water interfacial tension and strata dip under such conditions. The accumulation threshold and its main controlling factors of the deep basin reservoir in the Fuyang oil layer are studied, and the prediction model of deep basin reservoir boundaries is established: the porosity is less than 11%, the permeability is less than 1×10 -3 μm 2, the largest pore throat radius is less than 6.2 μm, and the burial depth is 1800-2100 m, located at the lower positions of syncline or slope, and good source rock in Qing-1 Member is developed, with obviously abnormal pressure. Three " sweet spot" areas favorable for deep basin oil in the Songliao Basin are determined, namely south Liangjing area, east Haituozi area, and west Qian'an area. The predicted deep basin oil potential in these three areas is 0.317 billion tons. The total proved resources of deep basin oil in the Songliao Basin are 1.575 billion tons, with good exploration potential. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Jia L.,Beijing Normal University | Xie J.-C.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang J.,Beijing Normal University | Sun H.-L.,Beijing Normal University | Li Z.,Petrochina
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2012

Two isostructural compounds [M(hpmc)(phen)(H 2O)] [M = Mn (1), Co (2); H 2hpmc = 6-hydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] were synthesized by the in-situ hydrothermal reactions of 6-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (Clpmc) with Mn II and Co II ions, in which the metal centers are bridged by pyrimidine ring to form 1D chain. Magnetic studies indicate pyrimidine can transmit antiferromagnetic coupling and the Co II complex shows spin-canting behavior below 3.5 K. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li Y.,Petrochina | Li Y.,Peking University | Jia A.,Petrochina | He D.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

Among widely-distributed low-permeability and low-porosity tight sand gas reservoirs, there usually develop some local reservoirs with relatively higher qualities. In order to understand control factors on the genesis of favorable tight gas reservoirs, we comparatively studied tight gas reservoirs in two intracratonic basins(Sichuan and Ordos Basin) in the sense of depositional fractionation and diagenesis. Sedimentary and diagenetic characteristics of the Xujiahe Formation in Guang'an, Sichuan Basin and the He-8 and Shan-1 members in Sulige, Ordos Basin were examined in detail. The results showed that: (1) the sedimentary heterogeneity determined by differences in provenance and hydrodynamic environments affects diagenesis significantly, which forms a basis for the formation of effective reservoirs. "Coarse-lithofacies" sandstones in stacked high-energy channels are thought to be favorable to forming high-quality reservoirs; (2) compaction and cementation are the main causes of reservoir quality reduction; (3) rigid and coarse grains such as quartz may contribute to retaining more initial intergranular pores by resisting compaction during early diagenesis, which can be pathways for diagenetic fluids in late diagenesis, but quartz overgrowth in a coal-measure acidic diagenetic environment may largely reduce the reservoir quality during late diagenesis; (4) authigenic clay minerals may reduce the permeability of reservoirs, while clay coatings may help retain initial intergranular pores by preventing quartz overgrowth; and (5) secondary dissolution controlled by dissolvable minerals, diagenetic fluids and fluid pathways is the main cause for enhancing reservoir quality. As for the studied tight gas reservoirs, sandstone diagenesis is strongly controlled by the initial heterogeneity derived from sedimentation process, which consequently controls the formation of favorable reservoirs as well. In order to predict the distribution of favorable reservoirs, sedimentary characteristics should be carefully studied.

Chen C.,Zhejiang University | Zhu J.,Zhejiang University | Chen F.,Zhejiang University | Meng X.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2013

Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has recently been attracted much attention, and catalytic combustion is one of good methods for solving this problem. In this research, we show a successful preparation of mesoporous Beta zeolite-supported Pt catalyst (Pt-R/Beta-H) and its superior performance in the catalytic combustion of toluene. N2 sorption isotherms show that the mesopore volume of Pt-R/Beta-H reaches 0.18cm3/g, and TEM images exhibit that the Pt particles exist in both micropores and mesopores of the sample. Interestingly, the Pt particles on Pt-R/Beta-H have higher dispersion than the Pt particles on conventional Beta zeolite (Pt-R/Beta). XPS spectra also reveal that Pt-R/Beta-H has higher Pt0/Pt2+ ratio than Pt-R/Beta. Very importantly, Pt-R/Beta-H exhibits much higher catalytic activities and longer catalyst life as well as lower apparent activation energy in the catalytic combustion of toluene than Pt-R/Beta. The extraordinary performance in the catalytic combustion of toluene over Pt-R/Beta-H catalyst is of great importance for obtaining clean environment and enhancing human health. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Guo R.,Peking University | Liu S.,Peking University | Wyman D.,University of Sydney | Bai X.,Peking University | And 3 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2015

We report on volcanic rocks of the Qinglong-Zhuzhangzi area in northeastern Eastern Hebei Province, North China Craton. The supracrustal rock associations in the study area consist of amphibole/biotite plagioclase gneiss, mica (plagioclase) gneiss/schist, biotite K-feldspar gneiss, (pyroxene) plagioclase amphibolite and amphibolite. Twenty-five new mafic, intermediate to felsic samples can be geochemically classified into four groups. Group 1 is similar to fore arc low Ti tholeiite and is characterized by low SiO2 (49.7wt%) and TiO2 (0.43wt%), slightly depleted LREE and MREE pattern with (La/Yb)N ratio of 0.74, (Gd/Yb)N ratio of 0.82. It most likely derived from depleted mantle in a subduction initiation environment. Group 2 is akin to primitive arc tholeiites with low SiO2 (49.7-51.8wt%), slight enrichments of LREE ((La/Sm)N: 1.06-1.53) and negative Nb anomalies ((Nb/La)PM: 0.50-0.76). Group 3 resembles evolved arc tholeiites and displays pronounced enrichments of LREE ((La/Yb)N of 2.38-11.3, (La/Sm)N of 1.70-2.86) and negative Nb, Ta anomalies ((Nb/La)PM: 0.14-0.34, except sample 11JD28-4 with that ratio of 1.00). Group 2 and 3 formed by partial melting of sub-arc depleted mantle wedge modified by differing quantities of slab flux addition. Group 4 comprises K-rich andesite-dacites, which are distinguished by the highest SiO2 (54.0-71.8wt%), K contents (up to 5.03wt%), strong enrichments of LREE ((La/Yb)N ratios of 4.83-19) and negative Nb-Ta anomalies, analogous to shoshonitic rocks marking late stage of subduction.LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses of evolved arc basalts and K-rich andesite-dacites display crystallization ages of 2511-2604. Ma and single stage Hf model ages of 2534-2927. Ma (most focus on 2650-2800. Ma). In contrast to ~2510-2560. Ma arc associations, ~2604. Ma shoshonitic dacites most plausibly represent an older orogenic event. Collectively, supracrustal rocks in the Qinglong-Zhuzhangzi area constitute a series of volcanic arc associations that correspond to an entire subduction cycle ranging from orogen to primitive arc-evolved arc and back to an orogenic setting, which further demonstrate that, by the late Archean, plate tectonic and subduction processes already closely resembled modern counterparts. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Chen W.L.,Chengdu University of Technology | Zhou W.,Chengdu University of Technology | Luo P.,Petrochina | Deng H.C.,Chengdu University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2013

The shale thickness in the Longmaxi Formation, Lower Silurian is approximately 147m in Changxin 1 well, Changning structure, southeastern region of the Sichuan Basin. Longmaxi Formation lithofacies include laminated mudstone/shale, laminated lime mudstone/shale, laminated and silty mudstone/shale, alcareous concretions and pyrite band. The bottom 30m of which is organic-rich laminated mudstone/shale, whose quartz, feldspar and pyrite average content is 51. 9%, the clay mineral average content is 24. 7% and the calcite and dolomite average content is 23. 4%, which is similar with the typical American shale reservoirs. The average porosity of Changxin lwell is 5. 68% and the average permeability is 5. 96 × 10-3μm 2. They are positively correlated. The micropores in the shale observed in the SEM are dominated the minerals intergranular (dissolution) pores, intergranular gaps, intragranular pores, the organic matter micro-pores and micro-fractures. Based on the Mercury intrusion porosimetry, The max of the radius of the pore throat is 33nm, the average is lOnm. The study shows that the development of micro-pores of marine shale gas reservoir in the Longmaxi Formation in Changxin 1 well are controlled by lithology, diagenetic evolution and the characteristic of organic matter. The organic-rich shale porosity is better than the organic-lean shale, silty shale and calcareous mud stone/shale. In the late diagenetic stage, arrangement of clay minerals is changed, the montmorillonite changes to illite, which forms new micro-pores to increase the porosity. TOC is one of the main factors to control the shale gas reservoir in the Longmaxi Formation and also is the important material to provide the storage space to shale gas.

Wang D.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Qin Z.,National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service | Spence G.,University of Victoria | Lu F.,Petrochina
Marine Geology | Year: 2013

Mass transport deposits (MTDs) occur in the South China Sea region, within the Qiongdongnan Basin, north of Guangle Uplift and west of Xisha Uplift. The MTDs (termed the Huaguang MTDs) are widely distributed in the late Miocene sedimentary strata, which belong to the upper Huangliu Formation (8.2-5.5Ma). Their general flow direction is from south to north. As a large-scale buried MTD system, it covers an area of more than 18,000km2. The system must be closely related to regional tectonic events, climate change, and variations in sedimentation rate. The dominant period when the Huaguang MTDs developed corresponds to the phase when the Red River Shear Zone reversed from left- to right-lateral slip. This event may have a close relationship with local uplift of Indochina, volcanism, and fault activation or re-activation within the surrounding area. Later in the Miocene, the accelerated onshore denudation and offshore basin subsidence of eastern Vietnam, and development of a mountainous river system, led to filling of the Yinggehai Basin and rapid accumulation of sediment which formed the regional steep bathymetry and weak cementation within the sediments. The sediment characteristics provide the critical conditions for forming MTDs. Polygonal faults within the MTDs and underlying strata show that fluid leakage took place following deposition of the MTDs. We suggest that the dominant trigger mechanism for large-scale MTDs was the activation or re-activation of major faults and associated volcanism in the late Miocene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang Z.,Petrochina | Gao C.,Yangtze University | Gao Y.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

Because of the many factors influencing the resistivity of carbonate reservoir and the complex conductive mechanism, it is difficult to identify the reservoir and interpret the property of fluids. On the basis of pore-structure physical model, we simulated the resistivity of reservoir, and analyzed the factors which affect the resistivity of reservoir. The factors include the throat size, the resistivity of formation water, and the resistivity of matrix, and the vuggy size, and so on. At last, the influencing degree to resistivity of reservoir is discussed and the reason of abnormal resistivity in carbonate is interpreted in this paper. The resistivity of reservoir gradually reduces with the throat diameter increasing, and increases as the resistivity of matrix and formation water increases. Vuggy extension influence on resistivity along the direction of the current is higher than that along the vertical current direction. With the vuggy size along current direction increasing, the resistivity reduces. The effect of throat diameter on the resistivity of reservoir is bigger than vuggy size. The effect of throat diameter on the resistivity of completely water-saturated rocks is bigger than on completely oil-saturated rocks, but for the resistivity of the matrix and the formation water, the extended direction and size of the vuggy, the condition is opposite.

Jian X.,Peking University | Guan P.,Peking University | Zhang W.,Peking University | Zhang W.,Petrochina | Feng F.,Peking University
Chemical Geology | Year: 2013

Whole-rock geochemical data of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the northern Qaidam basin were used to reconstruct the provenance and chemical weathering history. Based on the fairly uniform REE patterns and trace element ratios, both the Mesozoic (LaCN/YbCN=10.37±1.75; Eu/Eu*=0.68±0.07; Th/Sc=1.11±0.38) and Cenozoic (LaCN/YbCN=9.77±0.62; Eu/Eu*=0.69±0.03; Th/Sc=0.97±0.14) mudstones were derived from a similar source area with acidic-intermediate rocks as dominant contributors, and two modeled mixtures composed of 60% granite, 35% quartzdiorite and 5% mafic rocks, and 55% granite, 40% quartzdiorite and 5% mafic rocks can be deduced as the potential source compositions for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, respectively. This conclusion is reinforced by the mudstone major element composition and sandstone petrography. The Early-Middle Jurassic mudstones have relatively high K-corrected CIA (84-93) and PIA (88-99) values, indicating intense chemical weathering conditions; while the Late Jurassic to Cenozoic sediments have variable corrected CIA (51-85) and PIA (50-92) values, implying predominantly mild to moderate weathering conditions. The chemical weathering history suggests that a warm and humid climate prevailed during the Early-Middle Jurassic, whereas a cool and semiarid to arid climate prevailed from the Late Jurassic up to now. This dramatic transition of climate may be attributed to multiple likely factors, including the restructuring of global atmospheric circulation patterns in response to the breakup of Pangea since Late Jurassic, and the orogenic rejuvenation and high elevation of the Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Furthermore, the decreasing chemical weathering intensity over time indicates the increase of aridification and cooling of the climate culminating in the Late Cenozoic. copy; 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zhou Y.,Nanjing University | Liu Q.,Petrochina | Lv W.,Petrochina | Pang Q.,Peking University | And 5 more authors.
Organometallics | Year: 2013

A novel series of Indy-N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (Indy = indazolin-s-ylidene) have been developed and investigated. Via a mild Ag carbene transfer route, these new carbene ligands reacted with rhodium, palladium, and gold salts to yield the corresponding air-stable metal complexes. The product complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electronic properties of these complexes were modified by the introduction of different substituents at the coordinated NHC ligands. Catalytic properties of the gold complex were evaluated in the hydration of alkynes to give the corresponding ketone products. This new type of gold N-heterocyclic carbene complex showed a high catalytic activity in the hydration of alkyne at room temperature. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Sun Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Sun Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Hovland M.,University of Bergen | And 4 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2011

Pockmarks are normally regarded to be manifestations of fluids escape through the seabed. Kilometer-wide depressions, here called mega-pockmarks occur as widespread features near the Xisha Uplift, northern South China Sea. Most of the pockmarks observed in this area are multi-kilometers and much larger than normal-pockmarks reported worldwide. The maximum diameter observed is 3210 m and the maximum depth observed is 165.2 m based on multibeam data and 2D seismic data. The pockmarks are circular, elliptical and crescentic in plan view. Seismic profiles show that the genesis of pockmarks is related to fluid (gas and/or pore water) escape. According to the fluids pathways, the pockmarks fall into four types: (1) gas chimney-related; (2) depositional boundary-related; (3) gas chimney and inclined structure (fault)-related; (4) inclined structure-related. Bottom currents are strong and complex in the study area. The multibeam data and seismic profiles indicate that they may play an important role on extension, maintenance and shaping of pockmarks. The research of the study area is in its initial stage, and the identification of these features as indicators of fluid flow is probably useful for hydrocarbon exploration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhao L.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | He G.-Q.,Peking University | Zhu Y.-B.,Petrochina
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2013

Chagantaolegai ophiolite was discovered from the south of Xiemisitai Mountain, north to Heshituoluogai valley in West Junggar, Xinjiang. The ophiolite is represented by a ca. 18km long, north-northeast-striking serpentinite-matrix melange, which encloses serpentinized peridotite, gabbro, basalt, spilite, chert blocks and homologous pyroclastic rocks. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb datings of gabbro in Chagantaolegai ophiolite are 517Ma+3Ma and 519Ma+3Ma, suggesting Early-Middle Cambrian. The REE patterns, trace element variation diagram and Nb/Yb-Th/Yb diagram show geochemical characteristics of Mid-ocean ridge ophiolite. Chagantaolegai ophiolite could be correlated well with Tarbagatai (Kujibai) ophiolite, Hongguleleng ophiolite in northern part of West Junggar and Zhaur ophiolite, Barkbek ophiolite in northern part of East Kazakhstan, thus providing more constraints for spatiotemporal characteristics of Chingiz-Tarbagatai Belt.

Huang C.,Sichuan University | Retallack G.J.,University of Oregon | Wang C.,China University of Geosciences | Huang Q.,Petrochina
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

A dramatic change in atmospheric composition has been postulated because of global carbon cycle disruption during the Cretaceous (K)-Tertiary (T) transition following the Chicxulub impact and Deccan Trap eruptions. Here, pedogenic carbonates were collected from drill core of a borehole (SK-1 (N)) straddling the Late Cretaceous and early Paleocene strata in the Songliao Basin, northeast China, to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 concentrations using a paleosol paleobarometer. Our estimates for atmospheric pCO2 from paleosol carbonates range between 277±115ppmv and 837±164ppmv between 67.8Ma and 63.1Ma. One large (~66-65.5Ma) and several small CO2 spikes (~64.7-~64.2Ma) during the latest Maastrichtian to earliest Danian are reported here and incorporated with previously published pCO2 estimates also estimated from paleosol carbonates. These CO2 spikes are attributed to one-million-year-long emplacement of the large Deccan flood basalts along with the extraterrestrial impact at the K-T boundary. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wang X.,Peking University | Zhang J.,Peking University | Santosh M.,Kochi University | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences | And 4 more authors.
Lithos | Year: 2012

The granitic gneisses in the cores of north Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD) and at the crest of the high Himalayas form part of the greater Himalayan crystalline complex (GHC). These rocks are characterized by the assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, muscovite and minor garnet. Here we present results from LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating of six granitic gneiss samples, which reveal formation ages of ca. 500-473Ma and suggest a long-lived magmatism during early Paleozoic in the GHC. Geochemical data show that these rocks are characterized by high SiO 2 (70.93-74.59wt.%), K 2O (4.22-5.91wt.%), A/CNK values (>1.1) and low Na 2O/K 2O (0.42-0.83), and enrichment in Rb, Th, U, depletion in Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, Zr, and strong negative Eu anomalies. These features suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses are high potassium calc-alkaline and peraluminous S-type granites derived from partial melting of crustal materials. The high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (>0.706) and negative ε Nd(t) (-6.2 to -10.6) of the granitic gneisses compare with those of the metasedimentary rocks in the GHC, indicating that the granites were generated from partial melting of the sedimentary protoliths. Based on the geochronological, whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data presented in this study, we suggest that the granites formed in a back-arc setting with a continental arc-affinity related to the subduction of the Proto-Tethyan Oceanic lithosphere. The mafic magmatic underplating, triggered by the subduction, rollback and the break off of Proto-Tethyan Ocean slab, resulted in partial melting of the crust in the GHC. Integrating results from previous studies, we propose an Andean-type orogeny along the margin of the Gondwana. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Wang L.,Shanghai Institute of Technology | Chen Y.,Shanghai Institute of Technology | Li S.,Shanghai Institute of Technology | Cai H.,Petrochina | Liu W.,Shanghai Institute of Technology
Fuel | Year: 2013

Heteropolyacids used as active phase precursors, a kind of desulfurization catalysts which was promoted by nickel and supported on silica gel was prepared. The prepared catalysts were then characterized by XRD and N2 physisorption, and evaluated in terms of the removal of sulfur compounds (thiophene, alkyl thiophene, BT and DBT) under the condition of Ultrasound and Ultraviolet irradiation (ODSUU). The effect of the catalyst amount on the desulfurization rate for fuel, as well as that of the reaction time, the oxidant dose, the reaction temperature and the Ultrasound and Ultraviolet irradiation time, was investigated. Under the optimized conditions for ODSUU, sulfur removal rate, up to 100% for model compounds and 99.5% for fuel, was achieved. However, sulfur removal rate under the same conditions without Ultrasound and Ultraviolet irradiation was lower than 100% for model compounds and 99.5% for fuel, which represented that catalysts assisted by Ultrasound and Ultraviolet showed better performance in the highly efficient deep removal of sulfur compounds than those of the traditional ODS procedure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cheng L.S.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Luo Y.Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Luo Y.Y.,Petrochina | Ding Z.P.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2013

A new method for estimating casing damage with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is developed on the basis of a comprehensive analysis on development factors affecting casing failure. The six leading factors affecting casing damage are steam injection cycle, sanding, shooting density, bore diameter, phase angle, and cement job quality. How to ascertain the weigh of all factors attaches directly to the evaluation preciseness of casing damage. The authors introduce the Delphin method and expert inquiry method. Then the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to ascertain the weighing for all factors affecting casing damage.With the data coming from actual heavy oil reservoir, the casing damage is predicted. The calculated results fit well with the field observations, indicating the reliability of the model. The model overcomes the shortcoming of the single element limitation evaluation and can be widely used in the prediction of casing damage in heavy oil reservoir. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Gong B.,Peking University | Liang H.,Petrochina | Xin S.,Petrochina | Li K.,China University of Geosciences | Li K.,Stanford University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

The effects of injection rate and the temperature of injected (or re-injected) water on reservoir temperature during power generation by utilizing hot fluids co-produced from oil and gas field were studied using a numerical simulation approach. The chosen target reservoir was LB oil reservoir from Huabei oil field. The reservoir temperature was about 120 °C. It has been found that there was significant temperature decline if the water injection rate was greater than a specific value and the temperature of injected water was less than a specific value. Also studied were the effect of water injection rate on oil production and water cut in LB oil reservoir. The results demonstrated that the oil production increased with the water injection rate, which is reasonable and would be helpful to conduct the power generation project in LB oil reservoir from the economic point of view. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hou Q.,Peking University | Hou Q.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2011

Volcanic reservoirs in the southern Songliao Basin are characterized by various types of accumulation space and complex structures, they are porous reservoirs composed of different media, including different pores, fractures and holes, and their physical properties vary greatly in space, with strong heterogeneity and changeful facies. The most important issue that needs to be solved in exploration is to make main controlling factors for the formation of volcanic reservoirs clear. Combined geological, logging and seismic data with current exploration results, we proposed a three-grade rule that controls the development of volcanic reservoirs in the southern Songliao Basin. (1) Types of the volcanic edifice control the development degree of reservoirs and a reservoir with the rhyolitic volcanic edifice has the best physical property. (2) A volcanic edifice-facies belt controls the distribution of reservoirs and a crater-near crater facies (CNCF) belt shows the best physical property. (3) Diagenesis and tectoclase jointly control the effectiveness of reservoirs, and the cryptoexplosion brecciation and weathering-leaching coupled with fractures bring about a better physical property. The different volcanic edifice has different pore spaces and physical properties of reservoirs. It is significance in predicting reservoirs and effectively exploiting gas accumulations to clearly recognize controlling factors for the development of volcanic reservoirs.

Cui Z.-H.,Petrochina
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2011

An intensive analysis of the characteristics of main gas fields in central and northwest Sichuan basin such as the components and migration indicators of natural gas shows that natural gas of Xujiahe Formation in central Sichuan basin was mainly generated from source beds in the hydrocarbon generation sags, and the natural gas of T3x2, T3x4, T3x6 was respectively generated from hydrocarbon source rocks of T3x1, T3x3, T3x5. It is pointed out that even if the gas generation intensity of hydrocarbon source rocks in the hydrocarbon generation sag is lower than 20×108m3/km2, the reservoir which has good physical properties and beneficial tectonic background and is close to the hydrocarbon generation sag could also form a large or medium sized gas field.

Qin J.,Petrochina | Qin J.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Han H.,Petrochina | Han H.,China National Petroleum Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2015

The application and characteristics of CO2 flooding in the USA were analyzed and summarized. Supporting techniques of CO2 flooding were generalized, and then the enlightenment was expounded for CO2 flooding in China. The development process and forming reasons of CO2 flooding technology were analyzed and summarized based on systematic tracking of EOR survey data all over the world and sufficient investigation of CO2-EOR technology application. With the number of CO2 flooding projects, scale and annual production as indicators, the current situation of American CO2-EOR technology was evaluated. The characteristics of the projects and development-driving force of CO2 flooding in America were also summed up. The characteristics of formation properties, crude oil properties and project timings of American CO2 miscible flooding projects were outlined emphatically. Meanwhile, the application scale and reservoir adaptability differences between American CO2 miscible and immiscible flooding were comparatively analyzed. A series of supporting techniques were illuminated with the SACROC CO2 flooding project as an example. The challenges, technical bottlenecks and suggestions were analyzed and proposed for the promotion of CO2 miscible flooding technology in China. © 2015 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Yu X.,Peking University | Guo Z.,Peking University | Fu S.,Petrochina
Terra Nova | Year: 2015

Based on isostasy, this paper elegantly explains the differential modern elevations of the large-scale cratonic basins around the Tibetan Plateau. The Qaidam and Tarim basins are endorheic regions with thick Cenozoic deposits, and they uplifted dramatically during the Cenozoic. In contrast, the Sichuan basin is exorheic and most Cenozoic sediments flowed out of the basin; no visible Cenozoic uplift is observed. We suggest that whether a basin is endorheic or exorheic significantly influences its modern elevation, illustrating how exogenic geological processes impact endogenic geological processes. In addition, a new method of estimating paleoelevation is proposed, which predicts successively accelerating uplift of the Qaidam basin during the Cenozoic and provides good constraints on the geological evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Liu Y.,Zhejiang University | Liu Y.,East China Institute of Technology | Zhou X.,Zhejiang University | Pang X.,Petrochina | And 5 more authors.
ChemCatChem | Year: 2013

ZSM-5 zeolite crystals with controllable b-axis length (sheet-like, S-ZSM-5; chain-like, C-ZSM-5) have been synthesized by using urea and starch as additives in the starting aluminosilicate gels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that these zeolite samples have good crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that there is a strong chemical interaction between the stacked crystals in C-ZSM-5 samples. N2 sorption isotherms indicate that C-ZSM-5 crystals are mesoporous. Catalytic tests for the formation of p-xylene from m-xylene isomerization show that, compared with other zeolite catalysts, C-ZSM-5 catalysts give both high conversion and improved p-xylene selectivity, which are attributed to the combination of relatively long b-axis length and the present mesoporosity in the crystals. The improvement of p-xylene selectivity in catalytic m-xylene isomerisation is of great importance for selective industrial production of p-xylene in the future. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Yang L.,Peking University | Yang L.,Petrochina | Qun L.,Petrochina | Xiangui L.,Petrochina | Hanmin X.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Take the flow characteristics of fluid in micro tube as the object, the characteristics of nonlinear filtration in low permeability reservoirs were studied using micro scale method by simulating the micro pore throat of reservoir with the micro tube which has the similar scale pore throat of low permeability reservoirs. The flow characteristics of de-ionized water flowing through fused silica capillary tubes with radius of 10.0 μm, 7.5 μm, 5.0 μm and 2.5 μm were investigated in experiments. Relationship between average flow rate and pressure gradient, effect of pressure gradient on fluid boundary layer, and relationships between flow resistance coefficient and Reynolds number were analyzed respectively in these experiments with different micro tubes. The flow of fluid through micro tubes with low velocity has nonlinearity, and the extent of nonlinearity increases with the tube radius decreasing. Nonlinear flow experimental points can be matched by quadratic curve. In micro flow, the percentage of effective fluid boundary layer thickness to micro tube radius decreases with the pressure gradient increasing. Research results indicated that Reynolds number can be used as the criteria of nonlinear flow. Flows with Reynolds number less than 10-3 have nonlinear features. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Liu Z.,Petrochina | Liu Z.,Peking University | Li J.,Peking University
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Salt basins along the passive continental margin of West Africa are becoming one of the most attractive areas for hydrocarbon exploration. The oil and gas discovered recently are related to salt structures. The salt structures are widespread in Anglo-Cameroon, the thickness of salt is up to 1 500 m and the average width is 300 km. These basins can be divided into two parts in horizontal direction: extensional zone and compressional zone, which extend 100-150 km and 100-200 km respectively. The extensional zone includes sealed titled zone, growth fault zone and diapir zone, and is characterized by tilted block, rollover structure and turtle structure anticline. The compressional zone is characterized by salt sheet, salt tongue, thrust fault and small folds. Oil and gas are distributed in both zones, oil and gas reserves in the extensional zone are a little larger than reserves in the compressional zone. Several types of salt related traps can be recognized, such as salt anticline, salt diapir and fault related trap, unconformity and structural-lithologic traps. Salt anticlines are the most potential exploration targets. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Luo C.,Peking University | Luo C.,Petrochina | Yang H.,Petrochina | Yang H.,China University of Geosciences | And 3 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

The exploration during recent years in the northern slope of the Tazhong area, Tarim Basin, indicates that the Ordovician strata have two sets of high quality reservoir, i.e. the Upper Ordovician reef-beach body and the Yingshan Formation weathering crust of the Lower Ordovician, which were respectively controlled by high energy facies at platform edges and early Ordovician weathering crust in the early period and modified by faulting in the later period. Comprehensive research shows that the types and distribution rules of Ordovician reservoirs in the northern slope of the Tazhong area are related to faulting. This paper demonstrates the controlling effects of three periods of faulting on the above two sets of Ordovician high quality reservoirs: (1) The Early Ordovician regional extension laid the foundation for the formation of Tazhong No.1 slope break and led to the formation of the Yingshan weathering curst karst reservoirs in Lower Ordovician and the subsequent sedimentation of Upper Ordovician reef-beach bodies; (2) The intense compression at the end of Early Ordovician promoted the development of salt related structures in the northern slope (the detachment and salt arch occurred in the Middle Cambrian gypsum), and faults modified the reservoirs of reef-beach bodies and weathering crust; (3) The Late Silurian strike-slip faulting had limited modification to the Ordovician reservoir, but controlled the location of gas cutting in Ordovician reservoirs in the Tazhong area in the Himalayan period.

Liu D.,Peking University | Guo Z.,Peking University | Jolivet M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cheng F.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Situated in the southwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the South Tian Shan (STS) Block is a key area for understanding the final accretion of the CAOB. A suite of volcanic rocks interbedded with continental sediments from the Xiaotikanlike Formation lies along the southwestern edge of the Tian Shan orogen. Laser-ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer U-Pb dating provided a crystallization age of 295.0 ± 2.8 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), suggesting an Early Permian magmatic event. The volcanic rocks show a variable composition, with dominant rhyolites and dacites, subordinate basaltic andesites and few basalts. The felsic rocks are enriched in K and exhibit remarkably negative anomalies in Ba, Sr, Eu, P and Ti. These anomalies associated with their high negative ε Nd(t) values and old Nd model ages suggest that they are most likely sourced from ancient lower crustal rocks. The mafic rocks are characterized by high Mg#, Cr, Ni contents, negative Nb, Ta anomalies and pronounced enrichment in light rare earth elements as well as mild enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements. The mafic rocks are thus inferred to derive from enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the Xiaotikanlike Formation volcanic rocks indicate that they were generated under a post-collisional regime. Therefore, the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane took place before Early Permian, most probably at Late Carboniferous. Differing from other tectonic units of the CAOB, the recycling of ancient lithospheric crust played a significant role in the continental growth of the STS Block. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yu S.,Petrochina | Yu S.,State Engineering Laboratory of Low Permeability Oil | Liu Y.,Petrochina | Wu L.,Petrochina | Jia Z.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

The Ordos Basin contains two kinds of gas reservoirs lying respectively in the Upper and Lower Paleozoic formations, and they are both featured by complex geological characteristics and great heterogeneity. Although there have been technical know-how to support the large-scale horizontal drillings for highly effective development of low-permeability gas reservoirs, the way of improving single well production remains unclear. In view of this, an overall study was made of the structures, depositions, reservoir strata, seismic features, drilling features and possible further EOR stimulation treatment of 282 wells located respectively on the Sulige Gas Field representing the Upper Paleozoic gas reservoirs and on the Jingbian Gas Field representing the Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs. The result indicates that the 5 acquired techniques for horizontal wells on the Changqing Gas Field such as reservoir prediction and refined description are effectively viable, but there are still three technical difficulties remained unsettled, which, however, can be tackled for mitigating the risk in the development of low-permeability reservoirs and improving single well production by utilizing 17 techniques in the following aspects: reservoir quantitative characterization, identification and description of low-amplitude structure, measures of optimizing the pattern and enhancing the recovery rate of horizontal wells, horizontal well reconstructing techniques, and new strategies of cutting down development cost.

Li J.,Petrochina | Xu X.,Petrochina | Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ren T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Tribology International | Year: 2010

A novel borate ester derivative containing benzothiazol-2-yl and disulfide group (BTSB) was synthesized and characterized. Its tribological properties used as EP and multifunctional additive in rapeseed oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, and its action mechanisms were investigated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results show that the BTSB possesses comprehensive tribological properties in load-carrying, friction-reducing, antiwear, corrosion-inhibiting, and anti-oxidation, which probably has a chance to replace ZDDP partially. Moreover, the decomposed borate esters, organic sulfide and nitrogen adsorbed on worn surface were detected, and S element in BTSB reacted with metal and generated FeSO4, both of which contributed to the formation of boundary lubricating film. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jin X.,Beihang University | Shi B.,Petrochina | Zheng L.,Petrochina | Pei X.,Petrochina | And 8 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Nature is a school for scientists and engineers. Inherent multiscale structures of biological materials exhibit multifunctional integration. In nature, the lotus, the water strider, and the flying bird evolved different and optimized biological solutions to survive. In this contribution, inspired by the optimized solutions from the lotus leaf with superhydrophobic self-cleaning, the water strider leg with durable and robust superhydrophobicity, and the lightweight bird bone with hollow structures, multifunctional metallic foams with multiscale structures are fabricated, demonstrating low adhesive superhydrophobic self-cleaning, striking loading capacity, and superior repellency towards different corrosive solutions. This approach provides an effective avenue to the development of water strider robots and other aquatic smart devices floating on water. Furthermore, the resultant multifunctional metallic foam can be used to construct an oil/water separation apparatus, exhibiting a high separation efficiency and long-term repeatability. The presented approach should provide a promising solution for the design and construction of other multifunctional metallic foams in a large scale for practical applications in the petro-chemical field. Optimized biological solutions continue to inspire and to provide design idea for the construction of multiscale structures with multifunctional integration. Inspired by the optimized biological solutions from the lotus leaf with superhydrophobic self-cleaning, the water strider leg with durable and robust superhydrophobicity, and the lightweight bird bone with hollow structures, multifunctional metallic foams with multiscale structures are fabricated, demonstrating low adhesive superhydrophobic self-cleaning, striking loading capacity, stable corrosion resistance, and oil/water separation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sun B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Guo C.,Petrochina | Yao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Che S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Mesoporous silica materials with hydrophobic pore channels have been fabricated by using an ABC copolymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-graft- (poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-block-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO)) (PDMS-g-(PEO-b-PPO), PSEP) as a template. The PSEP molecule integrated the hydrophobic functional groups, the hydrophobic chain for pore formation and the hydrophilic part for silica wall formation. The hydrophobic functionalization was achieved by being calcined at low temperature to selectively remove the PPO and the PEO segments. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Yao H.,Petrochina | Feng W.,Petrochina | Zhang Z.,Petrochina | Wei D.,Beijing Ke Li Hua An Geological Disaster Monitoring Technology Co.
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

This paper aims to effectively monitor and predict the geological hazards of the Line One of the West-East Gas Pipeline so as to reduce the operation cost. First, by use of the historical data and the concept of "accident hazard coefficient", it visually demonstrates the necessity of the monitoring, the changing characteristics of geological hazards, the mechanical criteria for pipeline failures, and the feasibility of monitoring and early warning in terms of theory and technology. Therefore, a monitoring and early warning system for geological hazards along the long-distance pipeline, the so-called pre-disaster monitoring network, is established based on the following four principles: hazard-affected body is prior to hazard-formative body, pre-disaster monitoring is prior to post-disaster monitoring, long-term monitoring is prior to short-term monitoring, and cost-effectiveness is prior to technical superiority. In this network, there are approximately 100 monitoring points established at such areas with high potential of geological hazards along the arterial and branch lines of the Line One. As a result, this pre-disaster monitoring network has successfully completed the tasks of early warning three times, triggering contingency plans twice, and supporting hidden trouble solutions at seven locations. From the field application, it can not only release early warning, support the disaster treatment program, and adjust the disaster treatment process, but evaluate the treatment effect, reasonably allocate the disaster prevention resources, truly implement the pipeline integrity management, and effectively reduce the pipeline operation costs.

Bompard E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Lu W.,Petrochina | Napoli R.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Jiang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2010

The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pei Y.,Fudan University | Zhou G.,Fudan University | Luan N.,University of Notre Dame | Zong B.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Amorphous alloys structurally deviate from crystalline materials in that they possess unique short-range ordered and long-range disordered atomic arrangement. They are important catalytic materials due to their unique chemical and structural properties including broadly adjustable composition, structural homogeneity, and high concentration of coordinatively unsaturated sites. As chemically reduced metal-metalloid amorphous alloys exhibit excellent catalytic performance in applications such as efficient chemical production, energy conversion, and environmental remediation, there is an intense surge in interest in using them as catalytic materials. This critical review summarizes the progress in the study of the metal-metalloid amorphous alloy catalysts, mainly in recent decades, with special focus on their synthetic strategies and catalytic applications in petrochemical, fine chemical, energy, and environmental relevant reactions. The review is intended to be a valuable resource to researchers interested in these exciting catalytic materials. We concluded the review with some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities about the future developments of metal-metalloid amorphous alloy catalysts. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hao L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li J.,Petrochina | Xu X.,Petrochina | Ren T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology | Year: 2012

Purpose - Nanoparticles are not well dispersed in non-polar organic solvents due to their hydrophilic property which limits their applications in lubricant oils. To improve the oil-solubility of nanoparticles, a novel technology was used to prepare a kind of lubricant containing calcium borate nanoparticles. Design/methodology/approach - The microstructures of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and infrared spectra (IR). Tribological properties of calcium borate nanoparticles used as additive in base oil were evaluated using four-ball tribotester and SRV tribotester, and the worn surface of the steel ball was investigated by Polarized microscope (PM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, the dispersing stability and antioxidation property of lubricant containing nanoparticles were also studied. Findings - The results indicate that the average size of the prepared nanoparticles is in the range of 50-100?nm, and the surface of the nanoparticles was altered from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity. At the same time, the nanoparticles can be well dispersed in the base oil totally under novel process which has no significantly negative effect on the antioxidation property. The results of tribological tests show that calcium borate nanoparticles under the novel process (CBNN) show better antiwear property and friction-reducing property in base oil compared to calcium borate nanoparticles under tradition process (CBNT). Based on the results of PM and XPS, it can be deduced that a continuous resistance film containing depositions and the tribochemical reaction products such as BDN2/DNODN3/DN, FeB, FeDN2/DNODN3/DN and CaO formed during the sliding process. Originality/value - The main innovative thought of this work lies in dealing with the oil-solubility problem through the combination effect of surface modification and special blend process of lubricating oil, and this method was first used to prepare lubricant containing calcium borate nanoparticles. It should be helpful for the borate nanoparticles used as additives in engine oil, gear oil and other industrial lubricants. © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

You J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou L.,Petrochina | Yu W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2013

Long chain branching (LCB) of polylactic acid (PLA) was successfully prepared by melt radicals reaction with pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) and bis (1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) peroxide (DCP). The topological structure of the LCB was investigated by rheology and branch-on-branch (BOB) model was used to estimate the exact chain structures of the products, where comb-like LCB structures were generated due to the complex coupling between different macro-radicals. LCB structure was found to affect the crystallization of PLA products. In the temperature range of 110-130°C, the crystallization rate parameter (k) was improved sharply and the half crystallization time was decreased significantly after the grafting of PETA, which was ascribed to the enhanced hydrogen bonding in PETA-grafted long chain branching PLA. By comparing with the LCB PLA made from chain extension using multifunctional monomer, it shows that the crystallization becomes slower in a highly branched material with extremely long relaxation time if the effect of hydrogen bonding is similar. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pingping S.,State Key Laboratory of EOR | Pingping S.,Petrochina | Xinglong C.,State Key Laboratory of EOR | Xinglong C.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

In the initial period of CO2 flooding, formation pressures of reservoirs do not increase noticeably. Physical simulation experiments were designed to study this phenomenon. In the 1-D infill-sand model, it was found that, under the same pressure conditions, the densities of distilled water, salt water and crude oil increased with CO2 dissolution, and then reached stability. By the volume decrease calculation of the liquid and the distilled water dissolution experiment, it was confirmed that the effects of CO2 dissolved in oil and water are the main reasons for any pressure decrease. In the 2-D sand plate model, injection pressure also decreased. By analyzing production PV (pore volume) and injection PV curves, it was found that the main reason for the pressure decrease is that the injected CO2 can flow into the minute pores that are unavailable to oil and water, and comparatively speaking, dissolution of CO2 can be neglected. The result is also proven by porosity calculations and CO2 flooding experiments using different production control methods and by using carbonate cores. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Sun H.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Sun H.,Petrochina | Zheng Z.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chen J.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Lyu M.R.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing | Year: 2013

With the increasing amount of web services on the Internet, personalized web service selection and recommendation are becoming more and more important. In this paper, we present a new similarity measure for web service similarity computation and propose a novel collaborative filtering approach, called normal recovery collaborative filtering, for personalized web service recommendation. To evaluate the web service recommendation performance of our approach, we conduct large-scale real-world experiments, involving 5,825 real-world web services in 73 countries and 339 service users in 30 countries. To the best of our knowledge, our experiment is the largest scale experiment in the field of service computing, improving over the previous record by a factor of 100. The experimental results show that our approach achieves better accuracy than other competing approaches. © 2008-2012 IEEE.

Tang S.-H.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang J.-P.,Petrochina | Wu M.-J.,China Coal Technology and Engineering Co.
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2013

Mercury injection and low temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption experiments were carried out to examine pore structures of the sapropelic coal in this paper. The results of mercury injection demonstrated the pore structure of sapropelic coal with different maturity and revealed the pore change regulation with maturity. Micropore is dominant during the stage before anthracite, while macropore and mesopore are dominant during the peranthracite stage. Compared to the humic coal of the same maturity, the sapropelic coal has relatively lower porosity and smaller pore size. Furthermore, it is found that micropore with diameter of 1.5 nm and 3.6 nm are the most dominant. Adsorption hysteresis loop demonstrates the morphological diversity of the micropore, which mainly dominated by airtight pore with one end closed, ink-bottle pore, parallel plate slit pore and inclined slit pore. These findings have great significance on the understanding of physical property of the shale reservoir that is also mainly composed of sapropelic organic matter.

Pan H.,Petrochina | Pan Q.,Yancheng Institute of Technology | Zhao Y.,Petrochina | Luo Y.,Sinopec | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2010

A green and efficient route toward the synthesis of ZSM-5 is developed, which is characterized by using silica gel powder as silica source and NaY as seed, low synthesis H2O/SiO2 ratio, high zeolite yield, mother liquid recycling, and organic template free. ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized with silica to alumina ratios from 30 to 70 under autogenous pressure using NaY as seed. By fine-tuning the chemical composition, ZSM-5 with high crystallinity was obtained. Compared with the conventional synthesis method using waterglass as silica source, this method considerably improves zeolite yield and silica source utilization. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, NH3-temperature programmed desorption, and pyridine infrared spectrum analysis. Besides creating less waste, mother liquid recycling has a positive effect on crystallization rate and crystal morphology. Crystallization mechanisms for silica powder as silica source with and without mother liquid recycling were also discussed. Catalytic cracking results show that ZSM-5 prepared by this method is a promising catalytic material. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Sun B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Guo C.,Petrochina | Yao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Che S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2012

Using the ABC copolymer silicone surfactant polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-graft-(polyethylene oxide (PEO)-block-propylene oxide (PPO)) (PSEP, Scheme 1a) as a template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a silica source, silica particles with various structures and morphologies (i.e., disordered spherical micellar aggregation, two-dimensional p6. mm mesostructure, asymmetric multi-layer non-equilibrium vesicles and symmetric monolayer vesicles) were synthesized by changing the synthesis temperature from 30 to 80 °C. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the surfactant by increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the surfactant packing parameter g, which led to the mesophase transformation from micellar to cylinder and later to a lamellar structure. The good compatibility between the PDMS and the TEOS, the different natures of the hydrophobic PDMS and PPO segments, and the hydrolysis and condensation rates of TEOS enabled the variation of silicification structures. This novel silicone surfactant templating route and a new type of materials with highly ordered mesostructures and asymmetric morphologies provide a new insight into the molecular factors governing inorganic-organic mesophase and biosilicification for fabricating functionalized materials. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Ni Y.,Petrochina | Ma Q.,EPRI | Ellis G.S.,U.S. Geological Survey | Dai J.,Petrochina | And 3 more authors.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using δD values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the δ13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that δD values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that δD values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang R.,Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology | Zhang R.,Petrochina | Yao G.,Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology | Shou J.,Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology | And 2 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Taking the Cretaceous Bashijiqike sandstones in the Kuqa foreland basin as an example and starting from the analyses of the tectonic evolution, ancient stress, sedimentary system distribution, diagenesis type and intensity of the basin, the authors studied the porosity formation mechanisms and changes of the main pay zones in the Kuqa Depression and built a porosity forecast model integrating deposition, diagenesis and structure based on a large number of experimental data (cuttings, thin core slices, mineral composition, ancient tectonic stress, particle size) and logging test data and using a multi-disciplinary knowledge of geology, mathematics and statistics. The predicting results of the model in the sandstones of the Bashijiqike Formation matches well with the logging integration porosity, providing a basis for the space evaluation and forecast of deep, effective, high-quality reservoirs of different pore types in the Kuqa Depression.

Global Cationic Polyacrylamid Market 2016 BASF SE, Mitsubishi Rayon Co.Ltd, Kemira Oyj, SNF Floerger Group. A market study based on the Cationic Polyacrylamid market across the globe, recently added to the repository of QY Market research, is titled Global Cationic Polyacrylamid Market 2016. The research report analyzes the historical as well as present performance of the global Cationic Polyacrylamid market, and makes predictions on the future status of Cationic Polyacrylamid market on the basis of this analysis. Major Manufacturers covered in Cationic Polyacrylamid Market are: BASF SE Mitsubishi Rayon Co Ltd Kemira Oyj SNF Floerger Group Petrochina Daqing Refining & Chemical Company Anhui Tianrun Chemicals Co.,Ltd Shadong Polymer Biochemicals Co. Ltd. Xitao Polymer Co Ltd Beijing Hengju Chemical Group Corporation The report studies the market for Cationic Polyacrylamid across the globe taking the existing industry chain, the import and export statistics in Cationic Polyacrylamid market & dynamics of demand and supply of Cationic Polyacrylamid into consideration. Do Inquiry About This Report Here: The Cationic Polyacrylamid industry research study covers each and every aspect of the Cationic Polyacrylamid market globally, which starts from the definition of the Cationic Polyacrylamid market and develops towards Cationic Polyacrylamid market segmentations. Further, every segment of the Cationic Polyacrylamid market is classified and analyzed on the basis of product types, application, and the end-use industries of the Cationic Polyacrylamid market. The geographical segmentation of the Cationic Polyacrylamid market has also been covered at length in this report. The competitive landscape of the global market for Cationic Polyacrylamid is determined by evaluating the various market participants, production capacity, Cationic Polyacrylamid market's production chain, and the revenue generated by each manufacturer in the Cationic Polyacrylamid market worldwide. The global Cationic Polyacrylamid market 2016 is also analyzed on the basis of product pricing, Cationic Polyacrylamid production volume, data regarding demand and Cationic Polyacrylamid supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. Various methodical tools such as investment returns, feasibility, and market attractiveness analysis has been used in the research.

— Market Highlights Transformer Oil is used as insulator and coolant in transformers by energy and Power industry. Globe is facing rise of demand for electricity which will lead to the installation of new transformer, replacement of old transformer, installation of grid infrastructure which will lead the market for transformer oil market. Moreover, old and existing networks are not able to meet the new demand for power demand has resulted to modification of the transmission and distribution grid infrastructure. This will impact the growth of the transformer oil market in the forecasted year. Transformer Oil Market is projected to grow at a moderate pace of 7.5% in the next six years. “Ask for your specific company profile and country level customization on reports.” Key Players • Nynas AB • Ergon Inc. • Petrochina Company Limited • APAR Industries Limited • Calumet Specialty Products Partners L.P. • Sinopec Corporation • Hydrodec Group PLC • Cargill Incorporated • Engen Petroleum Limited • Valvoline • San Joaquin Refining Co. Inc. • Gandhar Oil Refinery India Limited North America held the largest share within the Transformer Oil market in 2015, and is expected to continue being a major market during the forecast period. European market is expected to grow at a comparatively slow pace, driven by steady demand from countries such as Russia, U.K., Norway, and the Netherlands. Middle East market is expected to grow a good pace during the forecast period. List of Figures FIGURE 1 Global Transformer oil market segmentation FIGURE 2 Forecast Methodology FIGURE 3 Five Forces Analysis of Global Transformer Oil Market FIGURE 4 Value Chain of Global Transformer Oil Market FIGURE 5 Global Transformer oil Market: By Type, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) FIGURE 6 Global Transformer oil Market: By Application, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) FIGURE 7 Global Transformer oil Market: By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) FIGURE 8 Asia-Pacific Transformer oil Market: By Country, 2016 (%) FIGURE 9 North America Transformer oil Market: By Country, 2016 (%) FIGURE 10 Europe Transformer oil Market: By Country, 2016 (%) FIGURE 11 Rest of the World Transformer oil Market: By Country, 2016 (%) FIGURE 12 Transformer oil, by Region, 2016 (%) FIGURE 13 Transformer oil, by Key players, 2016 (%) FIGURE 14 Market Development Analyses, 2014-2016 (%) Continue……… Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 80 market data tables and figures spread in more than hundred pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Transformer Oil Market Information from 2016 to 2022" Target Audience o Transformer Oil manufacturers o Transformer Oil dealers and supplier o Grid Infrastructure player o Energy and power sector o Industry Associations and Publications o Investment bankers and M&A Consultants List of Tables Table 1 Global Transformer Oil Market: By Type, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 2 Naphthenic: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 3 Paraffinic: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 4 Silicone based Transformer Oil: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 5 Bio based Transformer Oil: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 6 Global Transformer Oil Market: By Application, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 7 Small transformer: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 8 Large Transformers: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 9 Utility: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 10 Others: Transformer Oil Market, By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 11 Global Transformer Oil Market: By Region, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 12 North America: Transformer Oil Market, By Type, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 13 North America: Transformer Oil Market, By Application, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 14 North America: Transformer Oil Market, By Country, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Table 15 U.S.: Transformer Oil Market, By Type, 2014-2022 (USD Billion) Continue…….. Scope of the report This study provides an overview of the global Transformer Oil industry, tracking market segments across the categorized four geographic regions. The report provides a six-year forecast for the market size in terms of value for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World. Table of Content 1. Report Prologue 2. Introduction 2.1. Definition 2.2. Scope of the Study 2.2.1. Research Objective 2.2.2. Assumptions 2.2.3. Limitations 2.3. Market Structure 2.4. Market Segmentation 3. Research Methodology 3.1. Research Process 3.2. Primary Research 3.3. Secondary Research 3.4. Market Size Estimation 3.5. Forecast Model 4. Market Dynamics 4.1. Drivers & Opportunities 4.2. Challenges & Restraints 4.3. Value Chain Analysis 4.4. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis 5. Transformer Oil Market, By Type 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Mineral- Naphthenic 5.3. Paraffinic 5.4. Silicone Based Transformer Oil 5.5. Bio Based Transformer Oil 6. Transformer Oil Market, By Application 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Small Transformer 6.3. Large Transformer 6.4. Utility 6.5. Others Continue……… Related Report Global Artificial Lift Market Information by Type (Electric Submersible Pump, Rod Lift, Progressive Cavity Pumps, Gas Lifts, and others), and Region - Forecast to 2022 About Market Research Future: At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. For more information, please visit

Wang Y.,Petrochina | Li Y.,Shuyu Construction and Installation Engineering Co. | Jiang R.,Petrochina | Fu J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

The pipeline integrity management will maintain the risk within an acceptable and reasonable range, prevent and reduce any possible accidents, and guarantee the safe operation of pipelines in a cost-effective way. During the 11th Five-Year plan, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, based on the characteristics of flow and transport lines and according to the concepts and requirements of the integrity management of the piping system, has accumulated research achievements in the aspects of management system of pipelines and stations, risk evaluation of pipelines under different working conditions, pipe integrity detection, pipe integrity evaluation, pipe repair and maintenance, the supporting techniques of integrity management of stations, and so on. On this basis, a complete integrity management system as well as its implementation mode is thus built and completed for the pipelines operated by this company. These research achievements and successful practices will provide not only technical support for improving the management level and ensuring the safe operation of pipelines and stations, but a reference for the wide application of pipe integrity management in other oil and gas companies.

Sun W.,Tsinghua University | Ba J.,Petrochina | Muller T.M.,CSIRO | Carcione J.M.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS | Cao H.,Petrochina
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2015

Wave-induced oscillatory fluid flow in the vicinity of inclusions embedded in porous rocks is one of the main causes for P-wave dispersion and attenuation at seismic frequencies. Hence, the P-wave velocity depends on wave frequency, porosity, saturation, and other rock parameters. Several analytical models quantify this wave-induced flow attenuation and result in characteristic velocity-saturation relations. Here, we compare some of these models by analyzing their low- and high-frequency asymptotic behaviours and by applying them to measured velocity-saturation relations. Specifically, the Biot-Rayleigh model considering spherical inclusions embedded in an isotropic rock matrix is compared with White's and Johnson's models of patchy saturation. The modeling of laboratory data for tight sandstone and limestone indicates that, by selecting appropriate inclusion size, the Biot-Rayleigh predictions are close to the measured values, particularly for intermediate and high water saturations. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Liu D.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xiao S.,Petrochina | Chen X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Bu C.,Nanjing Southeast University
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012

Solid mixing has a great influence on heat transfer and reaction processes in fluidized bed reactors; however, a review shows that the quantitative results are scattered. In this work, the mechanisms of solid mixing in a bubbling fluidized bed are investigated by numerical simulation. A three-dimensional discrete element model (DEM)-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation tool is developed and employed to investigate solid mixing behaviors due to the passage of isolated bubbles, continuous bubbles, and interacting bubbles. The vital role of bubbles on solid mixing has been clearly demonstrated. The results show that: (a) solid mixing in the vertical direction is dominant; (b) when a bubble forms near the air distributor, the continuous jet directly penetrates into the bubble, leading the bubble growing up; (c) lateral solid transport is promoted by bubble interaction, especially when the bubble sizes are different. © 2011 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tan F.-Y.,Yangtse River Scientific Research Institute | Tan F.-Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics | Wang R.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics | Zhao L.,Petrochina
Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics | Year: 2011

The bearing performances of the composite foundation improved by single-flexible-pile or multi-flexible-pile are calculated by using the FEM software ANSYS. Factors such as load, pile area replacement ratio, pile's length-diameter ratio and pile's distance-diameter ratio, have been taken into the consideration. Results show that in the composite foundation improved by single-flexible-pile, the distance of pile's axial stress peak point to the pile's top is about 0.1 time of pile's length with the increasing of load and pile's length-diameter ratio, while, the settlement tendency both pile and soil are similar. The pile's bearing performance is increased with the increasing of pile area replacement ratio; but the settlement tendency both pile and soil are opposite, which affects the composite foundation's settlement. In the composite foundation improved by multi-flexible-pile, the changes of load and pile's distance-diameter ratio have no influence on loads shared by piles and result in the same tendency for the pile and soil's settlement. The change of pile's distance-diameter ratio has more influence on loads shared by piles and results in the soil's settlement more than the piles' one, which has the obvious influence on the composite foundation's bearing performances.

Yang C.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics | Wang T.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics | Li Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics | Yang H.,Petrochina | And 5 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Rock salt in China is primarily bedded salt, usually composed of many thin salt layers and interlayers (e.g. anhydrite, mudstone, and glauberite). Thus, the feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns located in salt beds to be used as Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facilities is full of challenges. In this paper, we introduce the feasibility analysis of China's first salt cavern gas storage facility using an abandoned salt cavern. The cavern is located in Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China. The mechanical properties and permeability of the bedded salts are obtained by experiments. Based on the results of the analyses, it appears to be quite feasible to convert the abandoned salt caverns of Jintan city to UGS facilities. The stability of the cavern is evaluated by the 3D geomechanical numerical simulations, and the operating parameters are proposed accordingly. Results indicate that the maximum volume shrinkage of the cavern is less than 25% and the maximum deformations are less than 2% of the caverns' maximum diameters after operating for 20. years. It is recommended that the weighted average internal gas pressure be maintained as 11. MPa to control the extent of the plastic zones to a safe level. Safety factors decrease with operating time, especially those of the interface between rock salt and mudstone layers decrease significantly. Effective strain is generally greater than 2%, and locally is greater than 3% after operating 20. years. The maximum pressure drop rate should be kept to less than 0.55. MPa/day. Based on above proposed parameters, China's first salt cavern gas storage facilities were completed, and gas was first injected, in 2007. To check the status of the caverns after operating for 6. years, the volumes of the caverns were measured in 2013 by Sonar under working conditions. Measurement results show that the cavern shapes did not change much, and that volume shrinkages were less than 2%. Comprehensive results show that the feasibility analysis method proposed in this paper is reliable. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Vincent C.J.,British Geological Survey | Poulsen N.E.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Rongshu Z.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Shifeng D.,China University of Mining and Technology | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2011

The storage potential of selected sites within the Bohai Basin was assessed for the COACH project. The Gangdong oilfield is considered to have a small potential storage capacity (23. Mt) and to be possibly suitable for an enhanced oil recovery or small-scale storage pilot rather than large-scale storage. The Shengli oilfield province is considered to have a great potential storage capacity (472. Mt in eight selected fields), however, these fields, like those of the Gangdong oilfield province, are compartmentalised by faulting and stratigraphy and likely to be quite challenging for injection. Unmineable coal seams in the Kailuan mining area were also considered for storage, the estimated capacity is 504. Gt adsorbed onto the coal and 38,100. Mt void storage capacity. However, the coals have low porosity and permeability, so they would be expected to have poor injectivity. This is also an active mining area and so any storage site would have to be chosen carefully to avoid affecting future energy resources. The Huimin sub-basin within the Jiyang Depression was identified for consideration as an aquifer storage site; the Guantao Formation has good porosity and permeability in this region, and the regional-level storage capacity of these areas was estimated to be 0.7. Gt. The aquifers in the Huimin sub-basin appear promising for storage, however, less data are available than for the oilfields and the sealing formations are not directly proven to trap buoyant fluids, though in adjacent oilfield in the Shengli oilfield province, the Minghuazhen Formation forms a regional seal for the Guantao Formation. © 2010 Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Tian Y.,Harbin Normal University | Pan X.-F.,Petrochina | Liu Y.-J.,Harbin Normal University | Zhao J.-X.,Harbin Normal University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2014

It is well known that pristine hexagonal boron nitride sheet (h-BN sheet) exhibits large insulating band gap, thus hindering its application to some extent. In this regard, surface chemisorption of certain groups on h-BN sheet is shown to be the most popular method to tune its band gap and thus modify its electronic properties. In the present work, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the adsorption of CHO radicals with different coverages on h-BN sheet. Particular attention is paid to explore the effects of CHO adsorption on the geometrical structures and electronic properties of h-BN sheet. The results indicate that the adsorption of a single CHO radical on pristine h-BN sheet is very weak with a negligible adsorption energy (-0.09 eV). In contrast, upon adsorption of more CHO radicals on h-BN sheet, these adsorbates prefer to adsorb in pairs on the B and the nearest N atoms from both sides of h-BN sheet. An energy diagram of the average adsorption energy of CHO radicals on h-BN sheet as a function of its coverage indicates that up to 20 CHO radicals (40%) can be attached to h-BN sheet with the adsorption energy of -0.29 eV. More importantly, the adsorption of CHO radicals can induce certain impurity states within the band gap of h-BN sheet, thus reducing the band gap and enhancing its electrical conductivity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ye L.,Sichuan University | Zhang Y.,Sichuan University | Zhang X.,Sichuan University | Hu T.,Sichuan University | And 3 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2013

Triple-layer broadband abrasion-resistant antireflective (AR) coatings with excellent transmittance at 400-800 nm were designed with the aid of thin film design software (TFCalc™). SiO2, TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films with refractive indices of 1.44, 2.20 and 1.71 for the up, middle and bottom layers, were dip-coated from SiO2, TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 hybrid sols by sol-gel process, respectively. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. These designed triple-layer broadband AR coatings with an average transmittance as high as 98.4% at visible region were successfully obtained. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was further used to modify the surface of the AR coatings, which greatly improved the hydrophobicity of the coatings, and thus gave the AR coatings some self-cleaning property. These triple-layer abrasion-resistant broadband AR coatings with excellent transmittance in the visible region have potential value in the field of solar cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Xie D.,China Ship Development And Design Center | Wu G.,Petrochina
2015 IEEE 6th International Symposium on Microwave, Antenna, Propagation, and EMC Technologies, MAPE 2015 | Year: 2015

The determination method of immunity limits of electronic information equipment to high RF interference was given out. Aimed this method, the verification experiment is designed accordingly. By use of the method mentioned above, the immunity limits, sensitivity, and safety margin of electronic information equipment in high intensity RF electromagnetic environment (EME) may be determined in the present laboratory condition. The results can provide good reference for the research on the sensitive mechanisms of electronic information equipment and the limit meaning of GJB 151A/152A. © 2015 IEEE.

Ba J.,Petrochina | Carcione J.M.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS | Nie J.X.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2011

We derive the equations of motion of a double-porosity medium based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and on a generalization of Rayleigh's theory of fluid collapse to the porous case. Spherical inclusions are imbedded in an unbounded host medium having different porosity, permeability, and compressibility. Wave propagation induces local fluid flow between the inclusions and the host medium because of their dissimilar compressibilities. Following Biot's approach, Lagrange's equations are obtained on the basis of the strain and kinetic energies. In particular, the kinetic energy and the dissipation function associated with the local fluid flow motion are described by a generalization of Rayleigh's theory of liquid collapse of a spherical cavity. We obtain explicit expressions of the six stiffnesses and five density coefficients involved in the equations of motion by performing "gedanken" experiments. A plane wave analysis yields four wave modes, namely, the fast P and S waves and two slow P waves. As an example, we consider a sandstone and compute the phase velocity and quality factor as a function of frequency, which illustrate the effects of the mesoscopic loss mechanism due to wave-induced fluid flow. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wang Y.,Sichuan University | Xiong J.,Sichuan University | Yan J.,Petrochina | Fan H.,Sichuan University | Wang J.,Sichuan University
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2011

Aluminizing is an effective method to protect alloys from oxidation and corrosion. In this article, the microstructure, morphology, phase composition of the aluminized layers and the oxide films were investigated by SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. The high temperature oxidation resistance and electrochemical behavior of hot dip aluminizing coatings on commercial-purity titanium had been studied by cyclic oxidation test and potentiodynamic polarization technique. The results show that the reaction between the titanium and the molten aluminum leads to form an aluminum coating which almost has the composition of the aluminum bath. After diffusion annealing at 950°C for 6h, the aluminum coating transformed into a composite layer, which was composed of an inner layer and an outer layer. The inner layer was identified as Ti3Al or Ti2Al phase, and the outer layer was TiAl3 and Al2O3 phase. The cyclic oxidation treatment at 1000°C for 51h shows that the oxidation resistance of the diffused titanium is 13 times more than the bare titanium. And the formation of TiAl3, θ-Al2O3 and compact α-Al2O3 at the outer layer was thought to account for the improvement of the oxidation resistance at high temperature. However, the corrosion resistance of the aluminized titanium and the diffused titanium were reduced in 3.5wt.% NaCl solution. The corrosion resistance of the aluminized titanium was only one third of bare titanium. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the diffused titanium was far less than bare titanium. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Yang S.,Beihang University | Jin X.,Beihang University | Jin X.,Petrochina | Liu K.,Beihang University | And 2 more authors.
Particuology | Year: 2013

Through billions of years of evolution, nature has optimized the programmed assembly of the nano- and micro-scale structures of biological materials. Nanoparticle assembly provides an avenue for mimicking these multiscale functional structures. Bio-inspired surfaces with special wettability have attracted much attention for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this review, we focus on recent progress in nanoparticle assembly-induced special wettability, including superhydrophilic surfaces, superhydrophobic surfaces, superamphiphobic surfaces, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and self-healing surfaces. A brief summary and an outlook of the future of this research field are also provided. © 2013 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang B.,Chengdu University of Technology | Zheng R.,Chengdu University of Technology | Wang X.,Chengdu University of Technology | Luo Y.,Sichuan University | And 3 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

According to the combination of surficial geology, drilling data, and the isotope geochemical characteristics of carbon, oxygen and strontium, the identification markers of paleokarst were described in detail, and the relationships between the vertical zoning, plane distribution and karstification degree of paleokarst and the reservoir development were further analyzed. The study shows that karst breccias are the direct sign of paleokarst. Karst of different genetic types and dissolution intension and its cements have different stable isotope geochemical characteristics, and their formation and evolution are significantly influenced by fluid sources, fluid nature and isotope fractionation. The identification markers of small scale pinholes are quite different from those of large scale holes. The development and evolution of palaeokarst are mainly controlled by structure, palaeoclimate and lithology. The best lithology for the development of reservoir is dolomite in the C2hl2, the best zones for the development of reservoir are located in the upper and lower dissolution sections of C2hl2, and the best positions for the development of reservoir are located in the karst highland, remnant hills and sloping fields in the karst slope.

News Article | November 4, 2016

EPDM or Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer is a high-density synthetic rubber and is very durable in nature. EPDM is mainly suitable for use in electrical insulation, gaskets and for lamination. It has high resistance to tearing, solvents, abrasives and temperatures. EPDM can be finished to a particularly smooth surface. It has excellent elasticity at low and high temperatures. It has superb electrical insulating properties and good resistance to ordinary diluted acids, ketones and alkaline. EPDM is used in various industries including building & construction, plastic modification, tires & tubes, automotive, wires & cables and lubricant additives. The global automotive industry is a major consumer of EPDM. In automotive industry, EDPM is used in manufacturing of brake parts, windshield wipers, radiator, glass-run channel, body sealing, tubing, belts, weather-stripping, engine mounts, roofing membrane, motor oil additive applications and thermoplastic vulcanisates. EPDM is also used in making vehicle glazing systems, moisture barriers, o-rings, valves and pumps. Asia Pacific is the largest and fastest growing market for EPDM across the world. EPDM is used for manufacturing of many automobile interiors parts. Growth in automobiles industry in China, India, Japan, South Korea and Thailand further boost the EPDM market in Asia Pacific region. EPDM is used as a substitute of thermoplastic vulcanisates (TPV) and thermoplastic olefins (TPO) in plastic manufacturing industry. Upgrading technology in manufacturing of plastic modification further helps in the growth of EPDM market. LANXESS AG (a specialty chemicals based German company) focuses on manufacturing of innovative EPDM by including various materials, which reduces their negative impact on environment. Such innovation by the company leads to increase the demand of EPDM. Due to environmental concern in Germany, many industries such as automobiles and plastics prefer to use innovative EPDM. This leads to further fuels the EPDM market in European region. Major companies operating in global EPDM (Ethylene propylene diene monomer) markets are Carlisle Companies Incorporated, Dow Elastomers, Exxonmobil Chemical Company, JSR Corporation, Johns Manville Incorporated, Kumho Polychem Co. Ltd., Lanxess AG, Lion Copolymer Llc., Mitsui Chemicals Inc, OAO Nizhnekamskneftekhim, Petrochina Co. Ltd., SK Global Chemical Co. Ltd., Versalis (Polymer Europa Spa) and Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin Market 2016 Tianjin Dagu, Newsolar, Petrochina, JSR, Shanghai Huayi, Shanghai Gaoqiao. A market study based on the  Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market  across the globe, recently added to the repository of QY Market Research, is titled ‘Global Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin Market 2016’. The research report analyzes the historical as well as present performance of the global Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market, and makes predictions on the future status of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market on the basis of this analysis.  Major Manufacturers Analysis of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin -     JSR Kumho Petrochemical commercial IRPC Petrochina Shanghai Gaoqiao China North Shanghai Huayi Grand Pacific Tianjin Dagu CNOOC & LG PetroChina Jinlin North Huajin PetroChina Daqing Newsolar PetroChina Lanzhou   The report studies the market for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin across the globe taking the existing industry chain, the import and export statistics in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market & dynamics of demand and supply of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin into consideration. The ' Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin 'research study covers each and every aspect of the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market globally, which starts from the definition of the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market and develops towards Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market segmentations. Further, every segment of the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market is classified and analyzed on the basis of product types, application, and the end-use industries of the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market. The geographical segmentation of the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market has also been covered at length in this report. The competitive landscape of the global market for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin is determined by evaluating the various market participants, production capacity, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market's production chain, and the revenue generated by each manufacturer in the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market worldwide. The global Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin market 2016 is also analyzed on the basis of product pricing, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin production volume, data regarding demand and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. Various methodical tools such as investment returns, feasibility, and market attractiveness analysis has been used in the research to present a comprehensive study of the market for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin across the globe.

Jia Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhang Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Wang R.,Jilin University | Yi J.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

A new kind of inorganic-organic hybrid zirconium phosphonate material (NTAZP) with mesoporous structure was synthesized using nitrilotris(methylene)- triphosphonic acid (ATMP) and zirconium dichloride oxide octahydrate. The sample possesses a spherical morphology, and the spheres are composed of lobular lamellae. The lobular lamellae have the structure of a worm-like mesoporous (about 2.7 nm) framework and a high surface area (about 160.4 m 2/g), which were characterized by SEM, TEM, N 2 sorption, XRD, TG-DTA, elemental analysis, TOC (total organic carbon), XPS, and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared NTAZP was used as adsorbent for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions (e.g., Pb 2+, Cu 2+, and Cd 2+). Our results indicate that the material has good prospects for application as an adsorbent in wastewater processing. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Shi F.,Changchun University of Technology | Mu L.,Changchun University | Yu P.,Petrochina | Hu J.,Changchun University of Technology | Zhang L.,Changchun University of Technology
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2014

A series of divalent metal (Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pd) crosslinked alginate dry beads catalysts were prepared using metal chloride and sodium alginate. The resulting catalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analyses and nitrogen physisorption measurements. The characterization results showed that a series of ion-crosslinked metal-alginate dry beads were synthesized through ion exchange, followed by the coordination of alginate and metal ions. These materials have been assessed as catalysts for liquid-phase hydroxylation of phenol to dihydroxybenzenes using H 2O2 as an oxidant. The results showed that Cu-based catalyst exhibited higher activity than other metal-based catalysts for phenol hydroxylation. The influence of key reaction parameters, including the reaction temperature, solvent, reaction time, initial pH, molar ratio of phenol/H 2O2 and the amount of catalyst on the reactivity and selectivity were also investigated. Finally, the reusability of Cu-based catalyst illustrated that it could be recovered and reused without notable loss of activity. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Yang H.,Petrochina | Li K.K.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Pan W.Q.,Petrochina | Xiao Z.Y.,Petrochina | Cai C.F.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Detailed studies of homogenizalion temperatures of fluid inclusions, distribution and geochemistry characters of hydrothermal minerals provide insights into chemical, distribution and flowing characteristics of hydrothermal/burial dissolution fluid in Central Tarim. Result shows that the activity of the fluid was prevalent in Ordovician strata, which significantly improved the carbonate reservoirs associated and broaded petroleum exploration prospect. In addition, the aforementioned fluid was inclined to inject into the reservoirs at ME-SW trending strike-slip fault zones, i. e., TZ45 and TZ82-16 well areas. The current study further claims that the prior karst cavity systems would have been destroyed by intensely compaction during the burial process. However, the surviving cavity systems may have also been preferential channels for the flow of hydrothermal/burial dissolution fluid, which would have expanded pore spaces. Therefore, great attention shall be paid to the activities of tensional faults under the compression set such as strike-slip fault zones, as well as their conduction effect of hot fluid. By interpolation, it should be attached importance to the superimposition effect of multiple stages of distinctive fluids on the reservoirs, which may be the potential exploration targets.

Yang H.,Petrochina | Yang H.,National Engineering Laboratory for Exploration | Fu J.,Petrochina | Fu J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Exploration | And 4 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Through lithological analysis of reservoirs, fluid inclusion test and simulation experiment, combined with geochemical, seismic, well logging and formation testing data, this paper studies the favorable geological conditions for tight gas accumulation in the Upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin, specifies the characteristics of tight gas reservoirs, and summarizes the key techniques for tight gas exploration and development. The gas source conditions of large area hydrocarbon generation and continuous hydrocarbon injection, widespread delta facies sandstone reservoirs, and the accumulation mode of short-distance migration facilitate the formation of the large-scale tight gas reservoirs in the Upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin. The Upper Paleozoic tight gas reservoirs in the Ordos Basin cover a large area and have many gas-bearing formations and multiple pressure systems. The tight reservoirs, which were formed before gas accumulation, are of high heterogeneity. Full digital seismic prediction technique for thin reservoirs, fine logging evaluation technique for tight gas reservoirs, and integrated supporting techniques for gas development provide technical support for further exploration and development. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Wang F.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wang F.,Petrochina | Li C.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

In low-permeability gas reservoir, reservoir pressure decline causes irreversible permeability damages as well as the productivity impairment due mostly to the great lithologic compaction high flow resistance and poor pressure conductivity. At present, the permeability stress sensitivity is evaluated by lab physical simulation experiment. This paper takes Longshen low permeable gas reservoir of Jilin Oilfield as research subject. Based on the experimental research, this paper studies the rock hardness, fracture distribution, clay mineral content and water saturation, and understands the stress sensitivity and rock deformation mechanism of low permeable gas reservoir. The results show that Longshen gas field have strong stress sensitivity and the reason of the phenomenon is that rock of the field have stronger clay grounting. That is high content of clay minerals is the main reason of stress sensitivity. Forming a deformation mechanism regularity understanding of Reservoir. In order to reduce the harm of stress sensitivity, the fracturing fluid of reducing the swelling of the clay minerals has been applied to fracturing and we have optimized the reasonable production pressure difference, and got the desired results. The results provided a powerful theoretical support for establishing the reasonable development techniques of this type of gas reservoir and gas reservoir protection.

Wu G.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wu G.,Petrochina | Li H.,Petrochina | Zhang L.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Based on the seismic and drilling data, the characteristics and reservoir controlling factors, as well as oil and gas distribution law and exploration direction, are analyzed in the Ordovician weathered crust in the Maigaiti slope and its periphery with paleo-uplift background in the Tarim Basin. Structure mapping and analysis reveal that the largest carbonate weathered crust is developed around the Maigaiti slope which forms a favorable reservoir-seal assemblage with the overlying Silurian/Carboniferous mudstone. The Ordovician carbonates experienced multi-stages of karstification and are dominated by small-size fracture-vug reservoirs which are controlled by the karst palaeo-geomorphology, tectonism and lithology. Drilled wells are located mainly in the northern karst depression which has weak karstification and heavy filling. Palaeo-geomorphology reconstruction and seismic reservoir prediction suggest that reservoirs be well-developed in the southern karst slope. The comprehensive analysis of structure revolution and hydrocarbon generation history demonstrates that the hydrocarbon migration and accumulation is controlled by the evolution and migration of the palaeo-uplift. There are two charging stages: large scale oil accumulation in the late Hercynian period and adjustment and re-accumulation of oil cracked gas in the late Himalayan period. The Manan and Maixi slopes in the eastern and western sides of the palaeo-uplift are the favorable areas for hydrocarbon accumulation and adjustment over a long period of time, have the conditions of forming large-scale carbonate fracture-vug type pools, and are important strategic relay exploration areas in the Tarim Basin.

Li X.,Petrochina | Liu X.,Petrochina | Zhou S.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Liu H.,Petrochina | And 4 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

According to the comparison of biomarkers in source rocks and crude oil, fluid inclusion analysis, and basin modeling, this paper discusses the oil source, hydrocarbon accumulation period and reservoir forming model of the Chang 9 and Chang 10 oil-bearing formations, Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin. The crude oil of Chang 9 in the Longdong and Jiyuan areas can be divided into two types, type I crude oil originated from the source rocks within Chang 7, while type I crude oil came from the source rocks within Chang 9. The crude oil of Chang 10 in Northern Shaanxi originated mainly from the source rocks of Chang 9. The Chang 9 oil reservoirs in both the Longdong and Jiyuan areas experienced two periods of hydrocarbon injection. The former reached the peak period of hydrocarbon injection in the first period (the depositional period of Middle Jurassic Zhiluo Formation), while the latter in the second period (the depositional period of Lower Cretaceous Zhidan Formation). There are two periods of continuous hydrocarbon injection in Chang 10 of Northern Shaanxi, generally from the early depositional period of the Middle Jurassic Zhiluo Formation to the middle-late depositional period of the Cretaceous Zhidan Formation. There are three types of hydrocarbon accumulation models in Chang 9 and Chang 10, i.e. "upper generation and lower storage", "adjacent generation and lateral storage" and "self-generation and self-storage" © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Cheng Y.,Tsinghua University | Zhai X.,Tsinghua University | Zhang Z.,Petrochina | Jin Y.,Tsinghua University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

A comprehensive study on the catalytic performance of Ni catalyst to implement millisecond steam reforming of methane (SRM) reaction in micro-channel reactors was conducted in this work. A new method to manufacture the metal-ceramics complex substrate as catalyst support was presented, that is, a layer of nano-particles, α-Al2O3, was thermally sprayed on a metallic substrate, usually FeCrAlloy. Ni or Rh catalyst was then impregnated on the substrate, forming firm and active catalyst coatings. The fall-off rate of the catalyst can be neglected after the plates experienced the high-temperature SRM reaction, showing the reliability in long-term use and the excellent catalytic performance for SRM reaction in micro-channel reactors. In comparison with the expensive Rh catalyst, Ni also showed wonderful performance to catalyze the SRM reaction in micro-reactors within milliseconds. Using the appropriate reactor design, CH4 conversion reached above 90% when the residence time was as short as 32 ms for catalyst loading of 6.8 g/m 2. When the residence time was longer than 100 ms, CH4 conversion was above 98%. Besides, catalyst deactivation was not detected for 500 h on stream with S/C ratio of 3.0, and for 12 h with S/C of 1.0 as well. Extensive characterizations on these Ni catalyst plates using XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS demonstrated that Ni catalysts prepared in this work did not show any sign of deactivation after being used in the micro-channel system under high-temperature operation. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Han Y.Q.,Jilin University | Zeng J.,Jilin University | Qiao C.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

For recycling complementary energy efficiently, WM's latent heat of vaporization is made full use of in a free piston based organic rankine cycle exhaust gas energy recovery (ORC-FP) system. In this paper, the model of ORC-FP system has been established by the software GT-suite 7.0. Three sensitive factors (WM's gas ratio, piston damping coefficient and power WM's pressure) will be discussed by simulation results. The conclusions are shown as follows: Firstly, when WM state is 450K, 1.1MPa (Power WM) and 320K, 1.1MPa (Cooling WM) at inlet, the system's single cycle efficiency is highest about 69.21%, and the lowest is about 42.32%. Certain fluctuation of single cycle (SC) efficiency exists between two adjacent cycle, and the highest difference can reach 26.89%. Secondly, the system's total cycle (TC) efficiency decreases along with the increasing of damping coefficient (piston load). At the minimum piston damping coefficient (about 7500 N- s/m), the system's highest total cycle efficiency is 46.53%, and at the maximum (about 8750 N - s/m), the lowest total cycle efficiency is 35.66%. Thirdly, when damping coefficient is 7500 N- s/m, the higher pressure of WM is, the higher the system's total cycle efficiency is. In the pressure of 1.1MPa, the system reaches the highest efficiency which is about 46.53%, and in the pressure of 0.9 MPa reaches the lowest which is about 26.74%. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Xu P.,Petrochina | Xu P.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Cheng Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Liu X.,Petrochina | And 3 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2013

Based on the explosive fracturing simulation experiment for low permeability reservoir, growths of the cracks produced by the explosive fracturing in the samples were analyzed. And associated with fractal geometry theory, the cracks fractal characteristics were studied and the influences of explosive quantity and confining pressure on the cracks fractal dimension were analyzed. Different explosive quantities and confining pressures under which the simulation experiment was carried out were designed. After the experiment, the fractal dimension of the cracks produced by explosive fracturing in different samples was got by the box dimension calculation method. The results show that: With the increase of explosive quantity, the amount, length and width of the cracks on the surface of the sample produced by explosive fracturing simulation experiment under the same confining pressure increase. The amount and length of the cracks produced by explosive fracturing under the same explosive quantity decrease with the increase of confining pressure. Under the same confining pressure, the cracks fractal dimension increases with the increase of explosive quantity, and the relationship between them is approximately linear when the confining pressure is relatively low and approximately nonlinear when the confining pressure is relatively high. Under the same explosive quantity, the cracks fractal dimension decreases with the increase of confining pressure. It is suggested that site operation should match the explosive quantity with the confining pressure, and the charge pattern of axial coupling and radial uncoupling should be applied.

Yang H.,Petrochina | Yang H.,National Engineering Laboratory for Exploration | Deng X.,Petrochina | Deng X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Exploration
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2013

A large area of deep-water sandstone was formed under the combined action of delta and gravity flow in the central Ordos Basin during the depositional period of the Ch6 and Ch7 oil-bearing formations of the Yanchang Formation. According to U-Pb dating of zircons by the method of LA-ICP-MS, the ages of the tuff layers at the base and upper parts of the Ch7 oil-bearing formation are 228.2±6.0 Ma and 222.2±2.0 Ma, respectively. Based on the ages of the tuff layers, it is suggested that the gravity flow complexes at the middle-upper Ch7 and lower-middle Ch6 oil-bearing formations were formed 215 to 224 Ma. The timing of deposition of the tuff and gravity flow is roughly the same as the period when tectonics are most active in the Qinling area, i.e. middle Indosinian period. Therefore, the even, widespread tuff at the bottom of the Ch7 oil-bearing formation and the thick deep-water sandstone of the Ch6 oil-bearing formation deposited during an early lake regression period, are the direct outcomes of the tectonic event. Tuff layers are deposited under the influence of the middle Indosinian tectonic events, and the clastic composition of the top and base tuff layers vary greatly. The events control the formation of large-area deep-water depressions, change of depositional system, migration of the depo-center, and occurrence of gravity flows. © 2013 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Sun Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Sun Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Cartwright J.,University of Cardiff | And 2 more authors.
Basin Research | Year: 2013

In this article, we document a large number of focused fluid escape structures using high quality 2D seismic reflection data and multibeam bathymetry data from a poorly known area at the intersection of the northern South China Sea (SCS) and the western SCS. Three types of focused fluid escape systems are identified and described: mud volcanoes, pipes and associated pockmarks. The mud volcanoes occur singly or as clustered groups. The overpressure driving the mud volcanism is argued herein to be related to the generation of thermogenic hydrocarbons. The clustered distributions are related to localized tectonic uplift in the basin. Pipes mainly occur within the Guangle Uplift or accompany the mud volcano clusters. The pipes located within the Guangle Uplift are attributed to carbonate dissolution caused by hydrothermal fluids. Fluids ascended through these structures and were expelled at the palaeo-seabed or present seabed forming palaeo-pockmarks and present-day pockmarks. Some 'mega-pockmarks' show evidence of enlargement due to bottom currents. The marginal basins of the SCS are petroliferous, with attention gradually shifting to the deep-water area. Our results show that fluid migration must be taken into account when assessing seabed stability. This analysis also improves our understanding the petroleum geology in the study area, and is also useful for predicating where chemosynthetic ecosystems may be located. © 2013 The Authors. Basin Research © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers and International Association of Sedimentologists.

Jian Y.,Northwest University, China | Jian Y.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Jian Y.,Petrochina | Yajuan Y.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

The Late Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin experienced three transgression periods of Chang 9, Chang 7 and Chang 4+5. Based on the drilling and logging data, the types of sedimentary facies and the evolvement of sediments are analyzed in the transgression periods. It is concluded that the reservoir sandstones are mainly semi-deep to deep lacustrine turbidites in the west of the lake basin, and are deep-water delta front distributary channel sands in the east. Distribution characteristics of sandstones are distinct in every transgression period. In particular, the Chang 9 sandstones are wide, intensive, and thick in monolayer; the Chang 7 sandstones are small, with turbidite sandstones developed, and stacked and connected locally; the Chang 4+5 sandstones in the northeastern delta of the basin are far extended, with good horizontal connection, thin monolayer of deep-water delta front distributary channel sands, and multiplayer superimposition vertically. The study also shows that in the transgression periods, good source rocks were developed, sandstones had good reservoir space, and the source, reservoir and seal rocks had good relationships, prone to form primary hydrocarbon reservoirs, and they are targets for exploration. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Zheng N.,Xiamen University | Zhao Y.,Petrochina | Song Q.,Xiamen University | Jia L.,Xiamen University | Fang W.,Xiamen University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

A simple and novel process has been proposed to synthesize alumina using gardenia extract and aluminum salts in an aqueous solution. The alumina sample notated as "bio-Al2O3" was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment. The results indicated that the existence of the gardenia biomass enlarged the surface area of alumina and reached 256m2/g. The thermo gravimetric (TG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that gardenia biomass bound to the surface of the alumina has substantially improved the adsorption capacity of Ni(II) and the adsorption behavior of nickel ion was related to the biomass functional groups. The results of three adsorption-desorption cycles showed that the bio-Al2O3 using as the adsorbent for Ni(II) was relatively stable. The kinetic of the Ni(II) adsorption by the bio-Al2O3 followed pseudo-second-order equation. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental data and the result demonstrated that the adsorption isotherms followed Langmuir isotherm model. © 2013 .

Pan S.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Luo H.,Petrochina | Guo Z.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

The interlayer has an important influence on the distribution of remaining oil in the late period of oilfield development. In order to find out the the distribution of remaining oil of the 1st-3rd sandstone in Es2, the 3D distribution modeling of interlayer is established with the different variation function range based on the fine description of the lithology, physical property and electrical property. Then, different random seeds are used to develop the 3D distribution modeling with the same variation function range. At last, all the models of interlayer are tested to find out the best model of which the predicted values of all indexes are the closest to the actual values. The results of interlayer modeling show that too big or too small variation function range will cause the uncontinuity of modeling with the same random seed and that the impact on modeling with different random seeds is very small in the case of denser well network. The interlayer modeling of the 1st-3rd sandstone in Es2 has an important significance on the confirmation of its 3D distribution.

Yang H.,Petrochina | Yang H.,National Engineering Laboratory for Exploration | Liu X.,Petrochina | Liu X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Exploration
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2014

Based on practices of gas exploration and development in the Ordos Basin, this paper analyzes the controlling factors of large-scale accumulation conditions and distribution characteristics of coal-derived gas, and makes conclusions on the exploration progress of coal-derived gas based on present exploration situations. The approach has proven coal-derived gas reserves of 5.24×1012 m3 in the Ordos Basin. Twelve coal-derived gas fields have been found so far, mainly distributed in Upper Paleozoic Carboniferous-Permian clastic rocks and Lower Paleozoic Ordovician marine carbonate reservoirs. Tight sandstone gas reservoirs are developed in the Upper Paleozoic. The features of widely-distributed hydrocarbon-generation, interlayered with large-scale distribution of sandstones, where the reservoirs have become tight and followed by natural gas accumulation later, close range migration and efficient hydrocarbon accumulation, has resulted in a large area of distribution of tight sandstone gas zones. The Sulige large gas field has been found with proven coal-derived gas reserves of 3.49×1012 m3, and two large-scale gas reserve replacement fields have been developed and implemented in the eastern part of the basin and in the Longdong area. Marine carbonate gas reservoirs are developed in the Lower Paleozoic. Gas generated from overlying source rocks have migrate downwards and accumulated in Ordovician weathering crust karst and dolomite reservoirs. The Jingbian gas field was discovered, with proven coal-derived gas reserves of 7000×108 m3, meanwhile, several gas-rich regions have been found in the eastern side of the dolomite. © 2014 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Huang Y.,China University of Geosciences | Yang G.,Beijing University of Technology | Gu J.,China University of Geosciences | Wang P.,Oil and Gas Survey | And 3 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

Songliao Basin in NE China developed the most productive oilfield in the world sourced from terrestrial rocks. The main source rock of the basin includes member 1 of the Qingshankou (K2qn1) and members 1 and 2 of the Nenjiang Formation (K2nj1-2). However the exact reasons for the formation of the source rock, especially the K2qn1 are still controversial. Former paleontological and organic geochemical research suggested that organic matter was deposited during marine incursion events of K2qn1 but further geochemical evidence is needed. This paper explores the distinct sulfate levels that distinguish marine from fresh waters of the Songliao paleo-lake. We undertook a systematic investigation the sulfur geochemistry of the sediments from top of member 4 of the Quantou Formation (K1q4) to top of member 1 of the Qingshankou (K2qn1). The ratio of organic carbon to the pyrite sulfur (TOC/PYS) proved the previously suggested saline conditions during the deposition of K2qn1; and the pyrite sulfur isotope indicated that marine incursion may not only have occurred for K2qn1, but also for top of K1q4. The exact time for the beginning of marine incursion is to be determined. The marine incursion within K2qn1 is not strong and partially controlled by the fluctuation of paleo-lake level. The present study will be helpful for understanding the contribution of marine incursion events to the burial of organic carbon in the Songliao paleo-lake, although further studies are still needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yue W.,Beijing University of Technology | Wang S.,Beijing University of Technology | Fu Z.,Beijing University of Technology | Gao X.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2013

A series of sulfurizedWdoped diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coatings were prepared using a two-step method as depositing W-DLC coating firstly, and then treated by low temperature ion sulfuration. A designing thought of a composite DLC with sulfide coating with optimized mechanical and tribological properties was realized. The structural analyses were performed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), scanning Auger microprobe (SAM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscope. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by the nanoindenter and ball-on-disk friction and wear tester. The results show that the microstructures, mechanical and tribological properties of sulfurized W-DLC coatings exhibited a significant dependence on the W concentration. A high fraction of W in W-DLC coating promoted the formation of WC which could prevent the S diffusion and the extent of graphitization for sulfurized W-DLC coatings. The hardness of sulfurized W-DLC coating gradually increased with higher W concentration, and it was lower than that of the untreated W-DLC coating. The coefficient of friction and wear rate of sulfurized W-DLC coating were reduced with the increase ofWcontent. The best tribological properties with the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate were achieved on sulfurized 27.7% W-DLC coating. The tribological mechanism was attributed to the graphite-rich and sulfide composite top layer with lower shear strength and combining a support of the sublayer W-DLC coating with better mechanical property. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Shi X.,Tsinghua University | Wu Y.,Tsinghua University | Yi H.,Petrochina | Rui G.,Tsinghua University | And 3 more authors.
Energies | Year: 2011

Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 materials were prepared using the co-condensation and grafting methods, respectively, and their catalytic performance in the dehydration of xylose to furfural was examined. SBA-15-SO3H(C) prepared by the co-condensation method showed 92-95% xylose conversion and 74% furfural selectivity, and 68-70% furfural yield under the given reaction conditions. The deactivation and regeneration of the SBA-15-SO3H(C) catalyst for the dehydration of xylose was also investigated. The results indicate that the used and regeneration catalysts retained the SBA-15 mesoporous structure, and the S content of SBA-15-SO3H(C) almost did not change. The deactivation of the catalysts is proposed to be associated with the accumulation of byproducts, which is caused by the loss reaction of furfural. After regeneration by H2O2, the catalytic activity of the catalyst almost recovered. © 2011 by the authors.

Yang Z.,Tsinghua University | Tang J.,Tsinghua University | Li J.,Tsinghua University | Yang W.,Petrochina
IEEE Intelligent Systems | Year: 2011

Formalizing social networks in a factor graph model and using a learning algorithm to estimate the pairwise social influence between nodes can help inform multilevel social community analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

Yang X.-F.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | He D.-F.,China University of Geosciences | Wang Q.-C.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Tang Y.,Petrochina
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

The Junggar Basin in northwest China is located in the southern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The tectonic mechanisms controlling sedimentary fill through space and geologic time within dynamic subduction environments remains poorly understood in the Junggar Basin. This paper presents an integrated tectonostratigraphic and tectonic evolution of Carboniferous volcanic arcs and associated basin in the East Junggar Basin using multichannel seismic reflection data, well-line data, geochronological and geochemical data. We propose a new tectonic-sedimentary model for the East Junggar Basin during the Carboniferous time based on geochemistry of volcanic rocks and four seismic tectonostratigraphic sequences. The Carboniferous succession of volcanogenic sediments represents progradational sequences mainly supplied from the northeast. The negative Ta, Nb and Ti anomalies, low Rb/Ba ratios (0.01-0.15) and high incompatible trace element (such as Th, U) abundances of the basalts suggest that metasomatism may have occurred during the Late Carboniferous subduction. The northeastward increase of the Ba/La ration, K, Ca and decrease of Na, Ti and Fe indicate the northeast-dipping subduction polarity in the East Junggar Basin. During the Early Carboniferous, tectonism in the East Junggar Basin took place in two stages. Deep marine sediments widely covered the Junggar region, and then the depocenter slightly shifted towards southwest, which probably resulted from the northeast-dipping subduction that led to the southwestward tilting of the Dinan area. During the early stage of the Late Carboniferous, mixed marine and nonmarine deposits initially onlapped the volcanic arc towards the northeast, and then gradually downlapped to the southwest. At the end of the Late Carboniferous, subduction of the Junggar Ocean continued towards northeast and depositional environment became nonmarine. The main axis of the depocenter rapidly migrated towards southwest that resulted from the southwestward tilting of the Luliang region. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Liu H.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Li B.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Tong X.,Beijing Geostar Science and Technology Co. | Liu Q.,Beijing Geostar Science and Technology Co. | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2012

Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) is a very useful tool for seismic imaging but has mainly three bottlenecks: highly intensive computation cost, low-frequency band imaging noise and massive memory demand. Traditionally, PC-clusters with thousands of computation nodes are used to perform RTM but it is too expensive for small companies and oilfields. In this article, we use Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) architecture, which is cheaper and faster to implement RTM and we obtain an order of magnitude higher speedup ratio to solve the problem of intensive computation cost. Aiming at the massive memory demand, we adopt the pseudo random boundary condition that sacrifices the computation cost but reduces the memory demand. For rugged topography RTM, it is difficult to deal with the rugged free boundary condition with the finite difference method. We employ a simplified boundary condition that avoids the abundant logical judgment to make the GPU implementation possible and does not induce any sacrifice on efficiency. Besides, we have also done some tests on multi-GPU implementation for wide azimuth geometries using the latest GPU cards and drivers. Finally, we discuss the challenges of anisotropy RTM and GPU solutions. All the jobs stated above are based on GPU and the synthetic data examples will show the efficiency of the algorithm and solutions. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Yang X.-F.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | He D.-F.,China University of Geosciences | Wang Q.-C.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Tang Y.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

The modern Junggar Basin was located in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) during the Devonian and Carboniferous. Few data concerning the weathering, provenance and tectonic setting of the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in the Junggar Basin have been published. The recent discovery of an oil-gas field in the East Junggar Basin provides the impetus for this study. Twenty-eight sediment samples were recovered from eight boreholes, and all were analysed for major and trace element geochemistry. Two samples of sedimentary rocks were selected for zircon U-Pb dating. Low chemical index of alteration (CIA) values (44-71) and relatively high index of compositional variability (ICV) values (0.72-1.83) suggested weak chemical weathering and an immature source for these samples. The relatively low Th/U (2.16-10.55) and Rb/Sr (0.03-5.44) ratios of the drill core samples reflect a simple recycling history. Two samples indicated upper Carboniferous ages (314.6. Ma) and a lower-middle Devonian age (397.9. Ma). Geochemistry and detrital zircon geochronology from the East Junggar Basin reveal a distinct difference in the composition and source rock ages of clastic rocks from the lower and the upper Carboniferous. Major and trace element compositions of the lower Carboniferous sedimentary rocks (LCRs) were derived from typical mafic rocks and an intermediate ocean island arc of early to middle Devonian age, whereas the upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks (UCRs) were derived from a continental island arc or active continental margin setting with a dominantly felsic to intermediate late Carboniferous age. The current data provide little support for tectonic models that show a passive continental margin of a Precambrian crystalline basement; our study suggests that a volcanic arc accretion or archipelago (early Carboniferous to early-middle Devonian) model for the East Junggar Basin is more viable. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Tang G.,Tsinghua University | Tang G.,Petrochina | Ma J.-W.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Yang H.-Z.,Tsinghua University
Applied Geophysics | Year: 2012

The transform base function method is one of the most commonly used techniques for seismic denoising, which achieves the purpose of removing noise by utilizing the sparseness and separateness of seismic data in the transform base function domain. However, the effect is not satisfactory because it needs to pre-select a set of fixed transform-base functions and process the corresponding transform. In order to find a new approach, we introduce learning-type overcomplete dictionaries, i. e., optimally sparse data representation is achieved through learning and training driven by seismic modeling data, instead of using a single set of fixed transform bases. In this paper, we combine dictionary learning with total variation (TV) minimization to suppress pseudo-Gibbs artifacts and describe the effects of non-uniform dictionary sub-block scale on removing noises. Taking the discrete cosine transform and random noise as an example, we made comparisons between a single transform base, non-learning-type, overcomplete dictionary and a learning-type overcomplete dictionary and also compare the results with uniform and nonuniform size dictionary atoms. The results show that, when seismic data is represented sparsely using the learning-type overcomplete dictionary, noise is also removed and visibility and signal to noise ratio is markedly increased. We also compare the results with uniform and nonuniform size dictionary atoms, which demonstrate that a nonuniform dictionary atom is more suitable for seismic denoising. © 2012 Editorial Office of Applied Geophysics and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhao Y.,Tsinghua University | Li X.,ENN Science and Technology Development Co. | Li Q.,Petrochina | Deng C.,Tsinghua University
Journal of Materials Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Modified TiO2 films have been prepared by combining commercial titania powders (Degussa P25) with sol-gel made by titanium chloride (Ti-sol). The result shows that clusters are formed by nanoparticles and large pores can be seen on the surface of the TiO2 films. The short circuit photocurrent density and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells are obviously enhanced compared with those without modification. The relationship between the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the amount of Ti-sol was investigated. With the addition of 30 wt% Ti-sol, the photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 9.75% is achieved, increasing by 28.3% compared with the solar cells without modification. © 2011 The Chinese Society for Metals.

In order to fine the description and prediction the sedimentary microfacies of Qingshankou-Formation high-frequency sequence stratigraphic framework and search for new sandbody reservoir in the northern Songliao Basin, based on 3D seismic operation area, the principles of seismic sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy in North Songliao Basin Qingshankou-Formation isochronal strata frameworks are established, and then the seismic sedimentology is studied, the sedimentary packing and evolving histories are restored in Qingshankou-Formation various types of gravity flow reservoirs are on the basis of gravity flow sedimentary structure identification of sliding rock, sandy debris flow, turbidite rock, storm and other types of sedimentary gravity flow, study finds deposition and depositional slope break and earthquake triggering mechanism, mountain torrents and other related. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Jiang G.,Petrochina | Huang L.,Petrochina | Li B.,Petrochina | Lv C.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

Octylphenol polyoxyethylene acrylate (OP-10-AC) was synthesized, and then OP-10-AC was copolymerized with acrylamide (AM) to form hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide P(AM/OP-10-AC) through micellar copolymerization. OP-10-AC content and rheology behavior of P(AM/OP-10-AC) were investigated in detail. Especially, under the conditions of different test methods, P(AM/OP-10-AC) showed interesting shear responsive behavior. The results of rheology study show that OP-10-AC content, polymer solution concentration, salt solution concentration, and different test methods powerfully influenced shear viscosity of aqueous solutions of P(AM/OP-10-AC). In addition, according to the dynamic shear experimental results, the critical hydrogel concentration range (CHCR) could be confirmed for aqueous solutions of P(AM/OP-10-AC). Above CHCR, these polymer solutions were essentially a kind of microhydrogels, which could explain the effect of concentration and hydrophobe content on their shear viscosity and viscoelasticity from the microstructure's point of view. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Shi X.,Tsinghua University | Wu Y.,Tsinghua University | Li P.,Tsinghua University | Yi H.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2011

Al-promoted SO4 2--/ZrO2/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared and characterized by XRD, BET, ICP and NH3-TPD techniques. The influence of introducing aluminum on the structure and surface properties of the catalyst and the catalytic activity for dehydration of xylose to furfural has been investigated. The introduction of the Al stabilizes the tetragonal phase of the ZrO2 and thus increases the number and intensity of acid sites. Based on the characterization of the deactivated catalyst, the accumulation of byproducts is the main reason for the deactivation of the catalyst. Regeneration with H2O2 can completely recover the catalytic activity of the deactivated catalyst. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yu Z.,Jilin University | Liu L.,Jilin University | Yang S.,Petrochina | Li S.,Petrochina | Yang Y.,Petrochina
Chemical Geology | Year: 2012

A detailed investigation of CO 2-brine-rock interactions, through a core flooding laboratory experiment, was carried out under simulated reservoir conditions (100°C and 24MPa). Changes in the ionic chemistry of the outlet solution, combined with core scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bulk-rock X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the core pre- and post-experiment reveal new insights into CO 2-brine-rock interactions. Minerals such as potassium (K) feldspar, albite, calcite, and ankerite are variably dissolved after the experiments. Calcite is the mineral most affected by dissolution, followed by ankerite, whereas dissolution of feldspar minerals is minimal. Small amounts of kaolinite and solid phases were generated as a result of the experiment. The solid phases are mainly comprised of C, O, Na, Cl, Al, and Si, and are presumed to be the transitional products in the formation of carbonate minerals. The very low fluid penetration rate in the experiment resulted in significantly reduced contact area between the acidic CO 2 fluid and minerals in the cores, resulting in low rates of feldspar dissolution. Core permeability decreased substantially throughout the experiment, although core porosity remained unchanged. The permeability reduction is the result of precipitation of new mineral phases (e.g., kaolinite and solid phases), and potentially also the presence of clay particles released by the dissolution of carbonate cement, which have then been transported in the fluid flow path and accumulated at pore throats. The results provide new insights into CO 2 trapping mechanisms in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and into the potential formation damage that may result from massive injections of CO 2 into reservoirs during enhanced oil recovery programs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Zhu Y.,Anshan Normal University | Lin Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Zhang B.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | And 3 more authors.
ChemCatChem | Year: 2015

Nitrogen-doped nanocarbon materials as metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have attracted great attention, owing to their catalytic activity close to Pt/C in alkaline media. Annealed nanodiamonds (AND) possess a special structure, because we can finely control the carbon sp2/sp3 ratio. This provides a good opportunity to study the relationship between ORR performance (activity and stability) and the special structure of AND. We have used nitrogen-doped annealed nanodiamonds (NAND) with varied carbon sp2/sp3 ratio as metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in alkaline media. NAND showed higher catalytic activity for ORR with higher content of sp2 carbon and larger amount of nitrogen species present as pyridinic groups. More importantly, NAND displayed stability superior to other nitrogen-doped nanocarbon materials as a result of transformation of carbon from sp3 to sp2 during electrochemical cycling. Logical by name logical by nature: Nitrogen-doped annealed nanodiamonds (NAND) showed high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. More importantly, NAND displaying stability is extremely superior to other nitrogen-doped nanocarbon materials due to transforming carbon from sp3 to sp2 during the electrochemical cycling test. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Jiang G.,Petrochina | Liu F.,Jilin University
Gaofenzi Cailiao Kexue Yu Gongcheng/Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

Hydrophobic association hydrogels (HA-gels) were successfully prepared through micellar copolymerization of acrylamide and a small amount of octylphenol polyoxyethylene acrylate in an aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate. HA-gels exhibited excellent mechanical properties and remolding property. In order to study the remolding property, the stress-relaxation behavior of HA-gels was characterized. The result shows that the stress-relaxation behavior of HA-gels can be divided into four stages: stress relaxation of hydrophilic polymer chains between cross-linked points (I); hydrophilic polymer chains between cross-linked points have a high level of orientation (II); structural reorganization of the cross-linked network (III); stress of HA-gels is gone entirely (IV). Therefore, for HA-gels, the capability of remolding results mainly from their unique network. Due to the network of HA-gels is a reversible three-dimensional physical cross-linked network, the structure rearrangement of cross-linked network can be achieved through dissociation and reassociation of cross-linking points under the condition of external forces. Therefore, this unique network endows remolding property of HA-gels.

Liu N.,Jilin University | Liu L.,Jilin University | Qu X.,Jilin University | Yang H.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2011

Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2), as a trace mineral of CO2, is abundant in the upper Cretaceous Reservoir of the Honggang Anticline, southern Songliao Basin. Petrologic and isotopic geochemical characteristics have been investigated by a polarizing microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cathode luminescence (CL), fluid inclusions and carbon-oxygen isotopic analysis. The diagenetic sequence indicated that dawsonite, late-generation microcrystalline quartz, late-generation kaolinite, late-generation calcite and ankerite was formed after CO2 flooding. Meanwhile, as a function of analysis on carbon-oxygen isotope, the mantle-magmatic CO2 provided a carbon source for the precipitation of dawsonite, late-generation calcite and ankerite. The three kinds of carbonate minerals mentioned earlier grew in a progressively evolved condition. Using a basic thermodynamic fraction equation, the total quantity of natural CO2 captured by dawsonite-bearing sandstones per cubic meter was calculated to be 99.51kg. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nie J.-X.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Yang D.-H.,Tsinghua University | Ba J.,Petrochina
Chinese Journal of Geophysics (Acta Geophysica Sinica) | Year: 2010

In order to describe the effect of the clay content on the viscoelastic mechanism, a correction factor of anisotropic viscoelastic parameters was defined and introduced into our viscoelastic model. At the same time, viscoelastic mechanism and two flow mechanisms of pore fluids ( Biot-flow and squirt-flow mechanism ) were simultaneously included in a united viscoelastic Biot/squirt (BISQ) model which describes the wave propagating in the porous viscoelastic anisotropic media with the low permeability/porosity and bearing with clay. Numerical results show that the effects of angle of wave propagation, anisotropic permeability and the clay content on wave dispersion and attenuation are obviously anisotropic for wave propagating in complex porous media saturated with fluids. The viscoelastic mechanism is mainly responsible for energy loss of wave propagation in low frequency range (seismic exploration).

Guo T.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Guo T.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang S.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Qu Z.,China University of Petroleum - East China | And 3 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2014

"Stimulated reservoir volume" (SRV) makes it possible for commercial production of shale gas by means of multistage fracturing of horizontal wells. However, the formation mechanism of effective fracture network has not been well understood. The mechanism of fracture propagation in shale with hydraulic fracturing needs to be further explored, in order to realize the control on morphology of fracture network with SRV and increase the single well production of shale gas. In this article, the true triaxial test system was deployed for horizontal well hydraulic fracturing simulation experiments of shale outcrops for the first time. The effects of multiple factors on propagating rules of fractures of horizontal well in shale with SRV were studied, and the fracture morphology of post-fracturing rock cores was observed for the first time by high-energy CT scanning using the large-scale non-destructive testing system based on linear accelerator. The results show that the influence of flow rate (for SRV) on fracture complexity differs when its value falls in different intervals. When the horizontal in situ stress difference is less than 9 MPa, the hydraulic fracture easily propagates along the natural fractures, forming a fracture network. In this range, when the stress difference is increased, the appearance of the main hydraulic fracture contributes to interconnecting more natural fractures, forming a relatively more complex fracture system. Under the condition of the same horizontal stress difference, if the coefficient of stress difference Kh > 0.25, there is an obvious trend to form single main fracture. The effects of viscosity of fracturing fluid and flow rate on the fracture propagation can be expressed by the parameter q·μ. When the order of magnitude of q·μ-value is 10-9 N m, it is favorable to the generation of fracture network, but too small or too large values are both harmful. The development and cementing strength of depositional beddings seriously affect the propagating complexity of fracture network with hydraulic fracturing. Refracturing helps to produce some new fractures which are different from the initial ones, and better fracturing effect is achieved. The fracture initiation morphology in perforation fracturing is closely related to the distribution of natural fractures (depositional bedding) around the perforations. If the pressure curve fluctuates significantly, it is indicated that the shale core contains a large number of opened natural fractures or depositional beddings before fracturing, which causes the serious loss of fracturing fluid in the propagation process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiang G.,Jilin University | Jiang G.,Petrochina | Liu C.,Jilin University | Liu X.,Jilin University | And 4 more authors.
Polymer | Year: 2010

Hydrophobic association hydrogels (HA-gels) were successfully prepared through micellar copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and a small amount of octylphenol polyoxyethylene acrylate (OP-4-AC) in an aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). HA-gels exhibited excellent mechanical properties and transparency. Especially, HA-gels possessed the capability of re-forming, such as self-healing and molding. From Fourier transform infrared, swelling behavior and re-forming capability of HA-gels, the network structure was established. On the basis of the micellar copolymerization theory, the statistical molecular theory of rubber elastic, and using uniaxial stretching data, the length of the hydrophobic microblocks, the effective network chain density and the molecular weight of the chain length between cross-linking points were evaluated for all HA-gels; furthermore, they were also evaluated for the region of medium deformation by the Mooney-Rivlin theory. For HA-gels, we investigated in detail the effects of the content of compositions in the initial solution, OP-4-AC, SDS and AM, on their tensile mechanical properties on the basis of the proposed network structure. The results clearly indicate their tensile strength, fracture energy, elastic modulus, and elongation strongly depended on their composition content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Liu H.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Diao J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Gu X.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2015

Nitrogen-containing mesoporous carbon nanospheres with tunable sizes have been prepared through an aqueous self-assembly process with F127 as a template and morphological control agent, and 3-aminophenol as carbon and nitrogen sources. The sphere sizes could be simply tuned by optimizing the concentration of F127 and ammonia. Compared with a traditional nanocasting method and a hydrothermal process, the present one-step method has the striking features of a simple synthesis process and easy introduction of the nitrogen atom into the carbon nanospheres. The feasibility of the fabrication method may open up a new way for the synthesis of heteroatom-containing carbon nanospheres with mesoporous structure. The prepared nitrogen-containing mesoporous carbon nanospheres exhibit good catalytic performance in the direct dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene due to their unique mesostructure and abundant oxygen and nitrogen functional groups. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Sun Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Sun Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Lu F.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

The Polygonal faults were identified in Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea, by using the technique of time coherent slice and horizon flattening of high-resolution 3D seismic data. These polygonal faults occur in three tiers of the upper Meishan Formation and the Huangliu Formation. The faults have lengths of 150-1500. m, spacings of 50-3000. m, throws of 10-40. m and dips of 50-90°. Tectonic evolution in the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into a rifted stage and a post-rifted stage. Tectonic faults are widely distributed in the rifted sequences, but are not well developed in the post-rifted stage. Few faults in the post-rifted sequences might suggest the absence of a migration pathway for hydrocarbon or other fluids. However, the existence of polygonal faults in the post-rifted sequences can serve as the pathway and promote the hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Qiongdongnan Basin during the post-rifted stage. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang R.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Shen P.,Petrochina | Zhao L.,Sinopec
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

The diagenesis and porosity evolution in the deep 3 rd member of Shahejie Formation of the Wendong Oilfield was analyzed using thin-sections, casting thin-sections, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron micrograph observations, and other data. Sandstone reservoirs are currently at the late diagenetic period. Pores consist of primary pores and the inter-granular dissolved and intra-granular dissolved pores of feldspar, debris and carbonate cements. Physical properties are mainly controlled by carbonate cementation and dissolution, and distribution of abnormally high fluid pressure. The evolution of porosity parameters shows that primary porosity is 36.75%, the porosity loss rate is 40.49% during the process of mechanic compaction, the porosity loss rate is 37.25% during the process of cementation and metasomasis, and the porosity increase rate is 17.88% during the process of dissolution. The proportion of primary porosity is 55.03%, and that of the secondary porosity is 44.97%. The error rate in the quantitative study of porosity is 0.96%, and the main influencing factor of the error rate is sorting coefficient of detrital rock (S 0). © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Wang L.,Jilin University | Wan C.,Jilin University | Wan C.,Petrochina | Sun Y.,Jilin University
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Based on the palynological data from Well Ta-19-36 and Well Ta-19-37 in the Ta'nan Sag, and Well Ta-22-1 and Well Ta-21-1 in the Bayin Gobi Sag, a spore-pollen assemblage from the Damoguaihe Formation is named as Cicatricosisporites minutaestriatus - Aequitriradites sp initios us - Protopinus sp. assemblage in the Tamutsag Basin, Mongolia. The assemblage is characterized by abundant gymnosperm pollen and diverse fern spores, counted 46.35%-65.57% and 34.43%-52.58% in percentage respectively. Among the gymnosperm pollen, Pinuspollenites sp. (2.66%-16.94%), Protopinus sp. (0-11.38%) and Protopicea sp. (0-10.81%) are dominant; and Alisporites sp., Cerebropollenites sp., Podocarpidites sp., and Abietineaepollenites sp. are common. Some important elements, such as Chasmatospotites sp., Callialasporites prominulus, Parvisaccites sp., Parcisporites sp., Jiaohepollis cf. annulatus, J. bellus, J. verus, Polycingulatisporites sp., Schizaeoisporites cert us, Classopollis annulatus are seen. Within the fern spores, Osmundacidites wellamanii (0.85%-4.93%), Appendicisporites sp. (0-4.45%), Baculatisporites comaumensis (0.80%-2.87%), Cicatricosisporites sp. (0.51%-2.66%), C. minor (0-2.14%), Foraminisporis asymmetricus (0-2.40%), Aequitriradites sp. (0-2.19%) and Cyathidites minor (0-2.13%) are dominant; and some specie of Densoisporites, Cooksonites, Impardecispora, Pilosisporites, Schizaeosprites, Fixisporites, Leptolepidites, Trilobosporites, Kuylisporites, Klukisporites, Hsuisporites, Couperisporites, Maculatisporites are seen. The angiosperm pollen are rare in the assemblage, characterized by Clavatipollenites sp. (0-0.80%) and Songipollis sp. (0-0.27%). The geological age of the Damoguaihe Formation is assigned to Hauterivian - Barremian of Early Cretaceous according to the palynological data, due to the fact that there existed a lot of diverse spores of the family Schizaeaceae and prosperous gymnosperm saccat pollen which the corpus and sacci are differentiated completely, and the presence of early angiosperm pollen of Clavatipollenites. However, the zircon U-Pb isotopic dating of the volcanic rocks in the Nantun Formation indicated that the overlying strata of the Nantun Formation, i.e. The Damoguaihe Formation must be younger than 127.0±2.0-137.9±1.5 Ma. This is consistent with the palynological data. Furthermore, the vegetation reconstructed on the palynological data of the Damoguaihe Formation is conifer forest with shrubs and grassland, belonging to the semi-humid or humid middle to south subtropical climate. Moreover, three new species, namely Biretisporites punctatus sp. nov., Chasmatospotites reticulates sp. nov. and Concentrisporites contractus sp. nov. are described here. © 2014 Geological Society of China.

Scott R.W.,University of Tulsa | Wan X.,China University of Geosciences | Wang C.,China University of Geosciences | Huang Q.,Petrochina
Geoscience Frontiers | Year: 2012

Non-marine ostracodes, charophytes and palynomorphs are abundant in most Cretaceous lacustrine basins of East Asia. However, their ranges are not directly integrated with marine biota that defines the Cretaceous stages. Non-biotic events such as magnetochrons and radiometric ages in these terrestrial deposits enable their correlation with marine strata. The SK1 north and south composited cores in the Songliao Basin present a continuous section of Upper Cretaceous non-marine fossil and magnetochron successions in superposed order. These chronostratigraphic events are integrated with marine events by an X/Y graphic plot between the core data and a global database of Global Section and Stratotype Points (GSSP) and key reference sections. This plot projects stage boundaries in marine sections into the SK1 section and interpolates numerical ages to the first and last occurrences of biota and to lithostratigraphic boundaries. This stratigraphic experiment tests and refines age calibrations based on both manual interpolation of depths to numerical ages and cyclostratigraphy. Ages derived by interpolation are similar and ages by cyclostratigraphy are older because stage boundaries are calibrated to a different age scale. © 2011, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhu G.,Petrochina | Zhang S.,Petrochina | Su J.,Petrochina | Huang H.,China University of Geosciences | And 5 more authors.
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2012

Deeply buried heavy oils from the Tabei Uplift of the Tarim Basin have been investigated for their source origin, charge and accumulation time, biodegradation, mixing and thermal cracking using biomarkers, carbon isotopic compositions of individual alkanes, fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and authigenic illite K-Ar radiometric ages. Oil-source correlation suggests that these oils mainly originated from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rocks. Burial history, coupled with fluid inclusion temperatures and K-Ar radiometric ages, suggests that these oils were generated and accumulated in the Late Permian. Biodegradation is the main control on the formation of these heavy oils when they were elevated to shallow depths during the late Hercynian orogeny. A pronounced unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the gas chromatograms together with the presence of both 25-norhopanes and demethylated tricyclic terpanes in the oils are obvious evidence of biodegradation. The mixing of biodegraded oil with non-biodegraded oil components was indicated by the coexistence of n-alkanes with demethylated terpanes. Such mixing is most likely from the same phase of generation, but with accumulation at slightly different burial depths, as evidenced by overall similar oil maturities regardless of biodegradation level and/or amount of n-alkanes. Although these Ordovician carbonate reservoirs are currently buried to over 6000. m with reservoir temperatures above 160. °C, no significant secondary hydrocarbon generation from source rocks or thermal cracking of reservoired heavy oil occur in the study area. This is because the deep burial occurred only within the last 5. Ma of the Neogene, and there has not been enough heating time for additional reactions within the Middle-Upper Ordovician source rocks and reservoired heavy oils. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang Y.,Rutgers University | Wang Y.,Petrochina | Biradar A.V.,Rutgers University | Asefa T.,Rutgers University
ChemSusChem | Year: 2012

We report the synthesis and catalytic activities of highly stable, hollow nanoreactors, called SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2, which consist of silica microsphere (SiO 2)-supported Pd nanoparticle multicores (Pd) that are encapsulated with a hollow and nanoporous ZrO 2 shell (h-ZrO 2). The SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 nanoreactors are fabricated by first synthesizing SiO 2/Pd/SiO 2/ZrO 2 microspheres, and then etching the inner SiO 2 shell with dilute NaOH solution. The hollow and nanoporous ZrO 2 shell of the nanoreactors serves two important functions: 1) it provides reactants direct access to the Pd nanoparticle multicores inside the SiO 2/Pd/h- ZrO 2 nanoreactors during catalysis, and 2) it stabilizes the Pd nanoparticles or protects them from aggregation/sintering. The fabrication of such structures capable of protecting the Pd nanoparticles from aggregation/sintering is of particular interest considering the fact that Pd nanoparticles generally have a high tendency to aggregate because of their high surface energies. Furthermore, the structures are interesting because the Pd nanoparticles are designed and synthesized here to have 'naked' surfaces or no organic surface-passivating ligands-that are often necessary to stabilize metallic nanoparticles-in order to increase their catalytic efficiency. The resulting SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 nanoreactors show excellent catalytic activity, as shown in the hydrogenation of olefins and nitro groups, even at room temperature under moderate hydrogen pressure. This stems from the SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 microspheres' high surface area and their small, stable, and bare Pd nanoparticles. Furthermore, the SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 nanoreactor catalysts remain fairly stable after reaction and can be recycled multiple times without losing their high catalytic activities. Coating glassy caves: A highly efficient and recyclable nanocatalyst, consisting of SiO 2 nanosphere-supported Pd nanoparticle multicores, coated with a hollow and nanoporous ZrO 2 shell, is synthesized. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in the hydrogenation of olefins and nitro groups, even at room temperature and moderate hydrogen pressure, owing to the small and stable Pd nanoparticles and their bare surface. The nanocatalyst also proves to be stable and can be recycled several times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Shahidi R.,University of British Columbia | Tang G.,Petrochina | Ma J.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Herrmann F.J.,University of British Columbia
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2013

Reconstruction of seismic data is routinely used to improve the quality and resolution of seismic data from incomplete acquired seismic recordings. Curvelet-based Recovery by Sparsity-promoting Inversion, adapted from the recently-developed theory of compressive sensing, is one such kind of reconstruction, especially good for recovery of undersampled seismic data. Like traditional Fourier-based methods, it performs best when used in conjunction with randomized subsampling, which converts aliases from the usual regular periodic subsampling into easy-to-eliminate noise. By virtue of its ability to control gap size, along with the random and irregular nature of its sampling pattern, jittered (sub)sampling is one proven method that has been used successfully for the determination of geophone positions along a seismic line. In this paper, we extend jittered sampling to two-dimensional acquisition design, a more difficult problem, with both underlying Cartesian and hexagonal grids. We also study what we term separable and non-separable two-dimensional jittered samplings. We find hexagonal jittered sampling performs better than Cartesian jittered sampling, while fully non-separable jittered sampling performs better than separable jittered sampling. Two other 2D randomized sampling methods, Poisson Disk sampling and Farthest Point sampling, both known to possess blue-noise spectra, are also shown to perform well. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Xu H.,Petrochina | Wei G.,Petrochina | Jia C.,Petrochina | And 5 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Based on structural interpretation of the recent seismic data in central Sichuan Basin, combined with data of drilling and outcrops around the basin, this paper discusses the evolutional characteristics of unconformities at various stages in the Leshan-Longnüsi paleo-uplift, and studies the evolution of the paleo-uplift and its control on Sinian gas reservoir accumulation. Sinian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and other major regional unconformities were developed in the Leshan-Longnüsi paleo-uplift. According to characteristics and denudation thickness of the unconformities, the paleo-uplift tectonic evolution is divided into four stages, namely, embryonic, developmental, stable burial, and finalization. The analysis of the effects of the tectonic evolution on the Sinian gas accumulation show that: (1) the unconformities controlled the development of ancient karst reservoirs relevant to paleo-weathering crust; (2) the tectonic evolution of the paleo-uplift controlled evolution of organic matter and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation; (3) morphological changes of the paleo-uplift controlled the formation and the mergence of structural traps.

Chen C.,China University of Geosciences | Song X.,Petrochina | Li J.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

A point-bar reservoir readily forms dominant flow channels after long-term waterflooding development, resulting in a decrease of the waterflooding sweep efficiency and substantially affecting the distribution of remaining oils. Taking the S17-19 Block of the Fuyu Oilfield as an example, we studied the distributional pattern of dominant flow channels within point bars and its control on the distribution of remaining oils. Data of core analyses indicate that the water cut of dominant flow channels within point bars is greater than 95% and the corresponding oil displacement efficiency is greater than 35%. Reservoirs with either high heterogeneity or homogeneity and permeability greater than 80 mD are more easily to form dominant flow channels. Under the current well-pattern condition, dominant flow channels, with an average thickness of 2.2 m and width between 2 m and 4 m, commonly occur in the middle and lower parts of point bars. Controlled by main flow lines between injection and production wells, relatively high-permeability zones and high-permeability intervals in the lower part of point bars, dominant flow channels have built a complex network in space. Waterflooding is more serious in dominant flow channels than in non-dominant flow channels, but the latter is rich in remaining oils. Therefore, measures, such as rebuilding well-patterns, drilling horizontal wells, carrying out profile control and water plugging, adjusting development ways and implementing cyclic waterflooding, can break the current network of dominant flow channels and expand volumes of the waterflooding sweep efficiency to improve the displacement efficiency of point-bar reservoirs.

Dong Z.-Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Dong Z.-Y.,China University of Geosciences | Huang W.-H.,China University of Geosciences | Xing D.-F.,Petrochina | Zhang H.-F.,China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Yulin Chemical Company
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

Successful remediation of soil co-contaminated with high levels of organics and heavy metals is a challenging task, because that metal pollutants in soil can partially or completely suppress normal heterotrophic microbial activity and thus hamper biodegradation of organics. In this study, the benefits of integrating electrokinetic (EK) remediation with biodegradation for decontaminating soil co-contaminated with crude oil and Pb were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 30 days. The treated soil contained 12,500. mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and 450. mg/kg Pb. The amendments of EDTA and Tween 80, together with a regular refreshing of electrolyte showed the best performance to remediate this contaminated soil. An important function of EDTA-enhanced EK treatment was to eliminate heavy metal toxicity from the soil, thus activating microbial degradation of oil. Although Tween 80 reduced current, it could serve as a second substrate for enhancing microbial growth and biodegradation. It was found that oil biodegradation degree and microbial numbers increased toward the anode and cathode. Microbial metabolism was found to be beneficial to metal release from the soil matrix. Under the optimum conditions, the soil Pb and TPH removal percentages after 30 days of running reached 81.7% and 88.3%, respectively. After treatment, both the residual soil Pb and TPH concentrations met the requirement of the Chinese soil environmental quality standards. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wu H.Y.,China University of Geosciences | Hao B.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

There are controversies on the Proterozoic stratigraphic genesis, division, correlation and palaeogeographical evolution of western Henan in China. Based on the basic description of sedimentary facies, Yunmengshan and Baicaoping formation of Proterozoic typical section in western Henan is divided into 4 third-order sequences.Sequence stratigraphy framework which reflects sedimentary and overlap is established with basis of two kinds of facies-change surface and two kinds of diachrononism in stratigraphical records. Although chronostratigraphic belonging of Precambrian strata is controversial and Precambrian sequential stratigraphic study is tremendously challenging, the establishment of sequence stratigraphy framework of proterozoicYunmengshan and Baicaoping formation in western Henan provides actual data to reshape palaeogeographic pattern of PalaeoproterozoicNorth China craton. What is more, it becomes a typical example of characteristics and exploration of stratigraphic accumulation under the background of tidal action. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Sun X.,China University of Geosciences | Zheng Y.,China University of Geosciences | Zheng Y.,Wuhan University | Wang C.,China University of Geosciences | And 2 more authors.
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2016

The North Himalaya is a prospective area for Sb, Sb-Au, Au, Pb-Zn(- Ag), and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization. Geochemical anomalies for mineralizing elements and element associations were identified using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model together with statistical analyses, including the mean ± 2 standard deviation (Mean + 2STD) and the median ± 2 median absolute deviation (Median + 2MAD). The results show that the Mean + 2STD for log-transformed data and C-A model could well identify the geochemical anomalies associated with mineralization in the North Himalaya. Sb + Au anomalies show a better spatial association with Sb, Sb-Au, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits than those of single Sb element. Au anomalies are associated with all deposits, and Pb. + Zn + Ag anomalies are associated with Pb-Zn and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits. In addition, weak anomalies associated with Sb mineralization can be identified by the singularity method. With the utilization of the Sb + Au, Sb, Au and Pb + Zn + Ag anomalies identified by C-A fractal model and Mean + 2STD for log-transformed data, as well as the singularity method, we can facilitate the exploration targeting of various deposits in the North Himalaya. In addition, our results also show that principal component analysis (PCA) of centered logratio (clr) transformed data can accurately recognize three different geochemical assemblage compositions representing three different types of mineralization (i.e., Au, Pb-Zn-Ag and Sb) in the North Himalaya. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Cai B.,China University of Geosciences | Cai B.,Petrochina | Wang X.-D.,China University of Geosciences | Wang X.,Petrochina
Zhongguo Kuangye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of China University of Mining and Technology | Year: 2011

The results of hydraulic fracturing design and analysis were obviously mistaken by the former fracture face skin model. In order to reveal this skin effect more accurately, based on the classical theoretic models of perkins, kern and norgren (PKN) and khristianovic, geertsma and dekerk (KGD), a new mathematical model of fracture face skin with segmentation characteristic was established using fracture mechanics and fluid coupling method. Comparing the new model with the Cinco-Ley model through field data, the results show that the productivity of the Cinco-Ley model was influenced by only 5%, while that of the new model by 50%. This revealed the poor post-fracturing production with fracturing techniques that are regarded as most effective means by many designers. Using this new model, the influence of skin on productivity was reduced and made fracturing treatment more adaptable and scientific. Through field tests on 35 wells, the output was increased 1.5 times and the costs were dramatically cut by new model.

He D.,China University of Geosciences | Li D.,Petrochina | He J.,China University of Geosciences | Wu X.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

Petroleum exploration in the southwest Tarim Basin has a history more than sixty years. Up to now, five oil and gas fields and two oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered, namely Kekeya, Bashituopu, Yasongdi, Hetianhe, Akemomu, and the Shan-1 well and Kedong-1 well. Petroleum geologists and explorationists have cherished high hopes for these favorable and prospecting areas and all along pursued goals how to understand their petroleum geological conditions in detail, to accelerate exploration activities, and to get much more discoveries. In addition, a great breakthrough has been made in gas exploration of Kuqa area in Tarim Basin since 2000. Therefore, the petroleum geologic comparison between these two depressions is one of the important methods to analyze and uncover key petroleum geologic conditions of Southwest depression. Based on available exploration data and the current knowledge of these two depressions, we compared the very similarities and differences between them from the point of view of comparative tectonics and petroleum geology. Both of them share the following common points: (1) boundaries between the basin and mountains are characteristic of overthrusting or strike-slipping-overthrusting; (2) they have the intra-continental foreland basin structures at present; (3) they are formed by the transformation and superimposition of different proto-type basins; (4) basin structures are characterized by segmentation, zonation and stratification; and (5) fault zones play a major role in controlling hydrocarbon accumulation. However, differences between these two depressions are also much more remarkable in twelve aspects, such as geo-tectonic settings, deep geological structures, basement properties, tectonic evolution, geological framework, structural deformation, source rocks and their thermal evolution, reservoir-seal rock associations, petroleum systems, oil and gas accumulation mechanisms and preservation patterns, and oil and gas distributions. Of which the overwhelming important factors that control the oil and gas reservoir-formation are the geo-tectonic background and geological structures. The former shows that Kuqa depression is tightly related to the Paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic system, while Southwest depression to the Tethyan Ocean tectonic system. The latter indicates that Kuqa depression is formed predominantly by the superimposition of Cenozoic strata upon Mesozoic strata, while Southwest depression chiefly by the superimposition of Cenozoic strata upon Paleozoic strata. The above-mentioned comparison shows clearly that exploration in Southwest depression must be supported by a new theory of petroleum geology and exploration philosophy. This new theory needs to definitely disclose the exact locations, status, types, and possible mechanisms of the oil and gas sealed and preserved under late-period extensive structural movements, which have been sourced from old and lower-seated source rocks. It is urgent for this new exploration philosophy to establish new concepts of 3D geological structures, ideas of unitary and dynamic exploration, and also the stereoscopic thinking, which strengthen not only complex structural traps in foreland belts, but also subtle traps in slope zones, i.e. Ordovician buried-hills and Devonian-Carboniferous stratigraphic-lithologic traps, as well as dolomitic traps adjacent to Cambrian source rocks.

Wang X.,China University of Geosciences | Hao M.,Petrochina | Han Y.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

A threshold pressure gradient(TPG) associated with low permeability reservoirs can be used to describe non-Darcy flows at low velocity. A porous flow kinematic equation containing TPGs is an efficient supplement and development of the classical Darcy's law, which lays a solid theory foundation for the exploitation of low-permeability reservoirs. The study shows that in the classical porous flow theory, the essence of TPGs, which depends on properties of fluids, surface interaction and pore structures of media, is not affected by the variety of porous flow patterns. Therefore, non-Darcy flows at low velocity can not be scientifically described by the threshold flow rate derived from previous studies. The existence of TPGs can intensify degrees of the pressure decline, resulting in "the pressure cone of depression" smaller and sharper. However, the pressure distribution curve intersects with, instead of being tangent to, the initial reservoir pressure line when the TPG is greater than zero, and cut angles will become larger with the increase of TPGs, indicating the existence of outer boundaries of pressure disturbance.

Yang S.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang J.,China University of Geosciences | Huang W.,Petrochina | Zhang Y.,China University of Geosciences | Tang X.,China University of Geosciences
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

The Lower-Middle Jurassic Shuixigou Group in the Kekeya area is rich in gas resources of tight sandstone reservoirs, analysis of their reservoir "sweet spot" types and genesis is of certain reference significance in the tight sandstone gas exploration & development in the Turpan-Hami Basin and other areas. By contrast of porosity and permeability, core observation, thin-section analysis, fracture statistics, log interpretation and production feature comparison, we summed up "sweet spot" reservoirs developed in the Shuixigou Group of the Kekeya area as two "sweet spot" types, i.e. the pored and fractured. Based on analyses of sedimentary microfacies, mineral compositions, formation water and simulations of basin burial history and basin evolution history, we concluded that specific sedimentary microfacies, relatively weak compaction and relatively strong dissolution are chief reasons of forming pored "sweet spot" reservoirs, while strong tectonic movement and local special tectonic locations control development of fractured "sweet spots" reservoirs. This comprehensive study showed that in the Turpan-Hami Basin, the formation of pored and fractured "sweet spot" reservoirs is a consequent result caused by interaction of deposition, diagenesis and tectonism.

Lu J.,China University of Geosciences | Lu J.,Petrochina | Zhao S.,Petrochina | Han Y.,Petrochina | Sun Y.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

Since the 21st century, natural gas industry in China has been developing rapidly leading to a surge of gas reserves and production, the booming of pipeline networks, market expansion, and a jump to front rank in international standing. Natural gas will have a bright future in the coming two decades in China: it is predicted that in 2030, gas productivity will be 300-500 billion m3 and gas consumption quantity 600 billion m3; and natural gas will account for about 15% in the primary energy consumption ratio. Under such a situation, giant gas fields will play a principal and key role in substantially enhancing the gas production capacity, lowering the foreign-trade dependence, and guaranteeing the gas supply security. In view of this, with scientific development, commercial production and steady gas supply fully considered, a discussion was made of the involved key issues such as steady production period, steady production modes, dynamic monitoring in giant gas fields. The following conclusions were drawn. a. A giant gas field should have a rather long period of steady production, usually more than 10 years. b. As for the middle- and high-permeability giant fields, long-term steady production should be achieved by the mode of single-well production controlled under a certain rate; as for complicated low-permeability gas fields, by the mode of single-well production under a certain wellhead pressure like in a relay race by the succeeding wells. c. Dynamic monitoring should be strengthened especially for those ultra-deep, high-pressure, and high-production gas reservoirs; the permanent downhole pressure gauge should be set in position for continuous monitoring of pressure changes. d. As for the ultra-deep, abnormally high-pressure, heterogeneous gas reservoirs with low permeability in a large area, a low-cost monitoring technology should be developed for gas well production, with which the flow regime of each gas well will be known well in order to take the corresponding countermeasures. e. As for the gas reservoirs with edge water, 10%-15% monitoring wells should be laid out, focusing on monitoring the motion law of waters, thus to mitigate the effect of formation water on the reservoir development result.

Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang J.,Petrochina
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on the distribution and coexistence mechanism of the various pressure systems in the Malang depression of the Santanghu basin, northeast of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. According to the classification standard of formation pressure, The calculated pressure coefficient showed that the Xishanyao Formation (J2x) is underpressured, the reservoirs of the Lucaogou Formation (P1l) are both normally and overpressured, and the Upper Pennsylvanian (C2) presents the coexistence of a normally pressured system and an underpressured system. The permeability of the Xishanyao Formation (J2x) improve from the southwest to the northeast of the basin, resulting in a relatively easy fluid supply to the reservoirs, and the pressure coefficient increases gradually. Tectonic uplift had a significant influence on the decrease in the reservoir pressure. However, a difference in source-reservoir assemblages caused a difference in fluid recharge and original pressure in reservoirs during hydrocarbon accumulation. The difference in reservoir connectivity causes a difference in the fluid supply during later tectonic movement, finally leading to the formation of different pressure systems. Thus, the basic mechanism for the coexistence mechanism of the various pressure regimes in this area is the disequilibrium of the fluid supply under the restriction of oil accumulation conditions. © 2013.

Li S.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.,China University of Geosciences | Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Yang Z.,Petrochina | Guo L.,China University of Geosciences
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

To better apply low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to the evaluation of the physical properties of the coal reservoirs, this work established the NMR porosity and permeability models for coals based on a large number of NMR experiments. For low rank coals, the T 2 distributions show continuous bimodal or trimodal characteristics; the relative amplitude (T 2 distributions amplitude per unit volume) of the flow space is up to 12%; while the relative amplitude of the adsorption space is only 0-2%. For medium rank coals, the T 2 distributions have a similar shape as those of the low rank coals; the relative amplitude of the flow space is 0-5%, and the relative amplitude of the adsorption space is 0-3%. For high rank coals, the T 2 distributions have two separated crests or a single peak; in these samples, the adsorption space is well developed with the relative amplitude up to 50%, and the relative amplitude of the flow space is 0-5%. High rank coals have the best developed adsorption space; in contrast, low rank coals have the largest flow space. Since coals with different ranks have different T 2 distributions and different amplitude, it is necessary to establish the NMR porosity and permeability models for coals with different ranks, respectively. Thus, we can accurately calculate the porosity and permeability of the coal in different metamorphic stage. Experimental results show that porosity and permeability parameters calculated by these models have a high correlation with the data measured by conventional methods. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Guan S.,Petrochina | He D.,China University of Geosciences | Lei Y.,Petrochina | Chen Z.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2013

According to the distribution and transfer directions of thrust displacements under which the size, shape and pattern of thrust belt are controlled, the foreland thrust belts are classified into four types in middle and western China: (1) Type I, all the fault displacements in the thrust belt transfer from the mountain front to the basin along detachment. This type is the most popular in central and western China and can be divided into three subtypes: Kuche type, southwestern Sichuan type and Jiuquan type. (2) Type II, represented by southern Junggar Basin, in which there are fault displacements transferring to both basin and orogenic belt directions. (3) Type III, represented by Fusha thrust belt in southwestern Tarim Basin, in which all the fault displacements transfer toward the mountain front as deep structural wedges propagating toward the basin direction. (4) Type IV, represented by southwestern and northern Qaidam Basin, in which the transfer of fault displacements is restrained by the size, shape and boundary of the basin, and the stable foreland part and typical wedge sedimentary structure not produced. On basis of the above four types and the modeling of complicated structures, four new exploration areas are identified: the deep imbricate structural wedges in southern Junggar Basin, late Paleozoic passive continental margin sequence under the reverse Cambrian nappe in northwestern Sichuan, under-coal structures in middle and eastern Kuche, and footwall covered structures in northwestern Junggar Basin. © 2013 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Zhu G.,Petrochina | Zhu G.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Zhang S.,Petrochina | Zhang S.,China National Petroleum Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

Natural gases and associated condensate oils from the Zhongba gas field in the western Sichuan Basin, China were investigated for gas genetic types and origin of H2S by integrating gaseous and light hydrocarbon geochemistry, formation water compositions, S isotopes (δ34S) and geological data. There are two types of natural gas accumulations in the studied area. Gases from the third member of the Middle Triassic Leikoupo Formation (T2l3) are reservoired in a marine carbonate sequence and are characterized by high gas dryness, high H2S and CO2 contents, slightly heavy C isotopic values of CH4 and widely variable C isotopic values of wet gases. They are highly mature thermogenic gases mainly derived from the Permian type II kerogens mixed with a small proportion of the Triassic coal-type gases. Gases from the second member of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation (T3x2) are reservoired in continental sandstones and characterized by low gas dryness, free of H2S, slightly light C isotopic values of CH4, and heavy and less variable C isotopic values of wet gases. They are coal-type gases derived from coal in the Triassic Xujiahe Formation. The H2S from the Leikoupo Formation is most likely formed by thermochemical SO4 reduction (TSR) even though other possibilities cannot be fully ruled out. The proposed TSR origin of H2S is supported by geochemical compositions and geological interpretations. The reservoir in the Leikoupo Formation is dolomite dominated carbonate that contains gypsum and anhydrite. Petroleum compounds dissolved in water react with aqueous SO4 species, which are derived from the dissolution of anhydrite. Burial history analysis reveals that from the temperature at which TSR occurred it was in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and TSR ceased due to uplift and cooling thereafter. TSR alteration is incomplete and mainly occurs in wet gas components as indicated by near constant CH4 δ13C values, wide range variations of ethane, propane and butane δ13C values, and moderately high gas dryness. The δ34S values in SO4, elemental S and H2S fall within the fractionation scope of TSR-derived H2S. High organo-S compound concentrations together with the occurrence of 2-thiaadamantanes in the T2l reservoir provide supplementary evidence for TSR related alteration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Luo W.,China University of Geosciences | Wang X.,China University of Geosciences | Chen J.,Petrochina | Lu C.,China University of Geosciences
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

Under the requirement of well pattern estimation for low-permeability reservoirs, horizontal wells and fracturing wells, this paper presents a new method for 5-spot well pattern productivity estimation by introducing shape factor of the drainage area, equivalence radius of fracture/horizontal well and threshold pressure gradient. By applying mirror image and principle of pressure superposition, steady-state flow for an infinite well net can be transformed into pseudo steady-state flow for a producer or an injector in a closed drainage area. This new productivity estimation method for 5-spot well pattern can be unified with a general formula considering the type of well pattern, type of injection-production, type of well completion and type of reservoir. Application in the Yushulin Oilfield showed that the new method presented in this paper is easy to derive, to calculate and to extend. It can be used to estimate the productivity rapidly in oilfields.© 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Lu J.,China University of Geosciences | Lu J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2010

Being a new gas importer in the world, China has rapidly increased its gas imports in recent years. Because of the recurrent gas famine and its pervasive range of bad effect, it is urgent to guarantee safe gas supply by optimizing gas import sources and channels and learning good experiences in natural gas trade from big importers. A discussion on the diversification of gas importing sources as key to guaranteeing the safe and long-term gas supply in China covers global gas resources; gas trade status and features; good experiences from different gas importers; strengthening international cooperation to promote the development of various trade modes; exploration and development of domestic energy resources, with emphasis on strengthening the strategic energy reserves; the principle of the energy safe strategy; promoting economic development and the concept of a harmonious society via the steady and safe supply of gas.

Li S.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.,China University of Geosciences | Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Yang Z.,Petrochina
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2012

In order to understand the correlation between coal structure and physical property of coal, samples with different coal structures were collected from the Late Permian period coal seams in the Laochang area, Yunnan Province, China. A set of experiments were carried out to quantitatively characterize the physical properties of coals with different coal structures using advanced and nondestructive low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). The experimental results gave us confidence to conclude that the evolution of the coal structures can be divided into five stages with stress increasing: the fractures closing stage, the microfractures development stage, the cracks development stage, the shear deformation stage, and the plastic deformation stage. Each stage corresponds to a different coal structure with unique physical characteristics. The undeformed coal is dominated with pores and a small amount of poorly connected fractures. In the proto-cataclastic stage, the volume of the mesopores, macropores and fractures sharply decreases with stress increasing. The coal rock becomes more compacted. Additionally, the connectivity between fractures and pores becomes worse. The cataclastic coal has well-developed mesopores, macropores and fractures but few micropores and transition pores. The connectivity between fractures and pores is most conducive to the exploitation of coalbed methane. In the mylonitic coal stage, the plastic deformation occurs, resulting in the reduction and discontinuity of mesopores, macropores, and fractures. Moreover, the undeformed coal has the best homogeneity, and the mylonitic coal has the highest heterogeneity, resulted from the uneven distribution of the maceral, pores, fractures, and minerals caused by later stress effect. Furthermore, the CT porosities have a good positive correlation with the permeability; the average CT number, the standard deviation of CT number have a negative correlation with the permeability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhu G.,Petrochina | Huang H.,China University of Geosciences | Huang H.,University of Calgary | Wang H.,China University of Geosciences
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2015

Gas condensate and natural gas samples from wells ZS1 and ZS1C in the Cambrian strata of the Tarim Basin, NW China are analyzed geochemically to assess thermal maturity, extent of oil cracking and secondary alteration. Hydrocarbons are derived from the Cambrian source rocks with gas condensate and solution gas reservoired in the Middle Cambrian Awatage Formation and dry gas in the Lower Cambrian Wusonggeer and Xiaoerbulake Formations, where caverns from dolomitization and local fractures provide spaces for petroleum accumulation. Gas and gas condensate in the Middle Cambrian are mainly generated from kerogen thermal degradation at high maturity stage (condensate-wet gas window) rather than from in-reservoir thermal cracking of preexisted oils. Evaporative fractionation exerts certain impacts on gas condensates as evidenced by enrichment of light molecular weight alkanes, depletion of diamantanes in one condensate, and low aromaticity. Condensate in well ZS1C is a thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) alteration residual. The dry gas in the Lower Cambrian reservoirs is mainly derived from thermal degradation of kerogen with minor contribution from secondary cracking of preexisted oil. Variable H2S content in the Lower Cambrian reservoirs is primarily migrated from deep buried strata as in situ TSR alteration is on its initial stage. The Cambrian in the Tarim Basin is an unexplored zone. Condensate without extensive oil cracking in the Middle Cambrian and TSR altered condensate in the Lower Cambrian discovered at ZS1 structure suggest a likelihood of down-dip oil. Geologic framework of the Tarim Basin also favors the preservation of liquid hydrocarbons in ultradeep strata as it reaches its maximum burial depth in last 5 millions of anna (Ma). A short heating time requires much a higher temperature than the current reservoir temperature for completion of oil thermal cracking. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Li M.,China University of Geosciences | Li J.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2010

In low permeability-tight reservoir, fluid filtration belongs to the non-Darcy flow. Only when the pressure gradient comes to the starting pressure gradient, can the filtration occur. Overpressure is a predominant dynamic force for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in low permeability-tight reservoir, and "dynamic trap" is the most important action for hydrocarbons overpressure-charged into low permeability-tight reservoirs to form accumulations and also a three-dimensional space for hydrocarbons to be relented and accumulated. "Dynamic trap" is quite different from the conventional trap with mid-high permeability reservoir such as structural trap, stratigraphic trap and lithologic trap. The difference shows not only in charging dynamic force, filtration way, but also in oil-gas-water relation, trap shape and distribution. Advantages to form a "dynamic trap" are believed as sources and reservoirs are superimposed or interbedded in large scale, overpressures of hydrocarbon generation can act on reservoirs next to sources and hydrocarbons migrate in short distance in a pore-fracture network, which finally lead to the formation of large-scale continuous hydrocarbon-bearing interval. The "dynamic trap", located in the superimposition part of the source "sweet point" and the reservoir "sweet point", is the most easliy to form unconventional reservoirs. The presentation of the "dynamic trap" concept hopes to supply new thinking for enriching petroleum geology theory, deepening hydrocarbon accumulation's classification and prospecting unconventional hydrocarbon accumulations.

He D.,China University of Geosciences | Li D.,Petrochina | Tong X.,China Oversea Oil Development Company
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2010

The Chinese mainland is made up of a number of micro-continental blocks and has experienced a long-term and multi-stage development. A series of multi-cycle superimposed sedimentary basins have been developed because it has been located in the concurrent position of global geodynamic systems for a long period of time. In those basins, hydrocarbon source rocks of the marine facies, transitional facies and continental facies become mature differently with the development of thermal systems, being characteristic of multistage generation and expulsion. Marine carbonate rocks, volcanic rocks and clastic rocks developed into effective reservoirs via diagenesis and structural modification, and they, combined with gypsum and salt, gypsiferous mudstones and mudstones, formed many sets of reservoir-cap assemblages. Hydrocarbons migrated along unconformities and fractural zones and accumulated in a number of stratigraphic horizons under multiple stages. Influenced by all the Cenozoic structural tectonic movements, hydrocarbons accumulated in the late period or after the adjustment in the late period. Hydrocarbons are abundant in uplift zones, slope zones, fractural zones or unconformity surface related to traps. Hydrocarbon accumulations in multiple horizons and of various types have led to a number of peak periods for oil and gas discoveries. With hydrocarbon exploration efforts made in the past six decades, a series of large and medium-size oil and gas fields have been found not only in continental formations but also in underlying transitional and marine formations, such as Sulige, Jingbian, Tahe, Puguang and Longgang. Some large oil and gas fields were also discovered in deep-seated volcanic rocks of basins, such as Xushen, Kelameili and Niudong. These prospecting activities have a trend of stereoscopic, comprehensive and integrated explorations. "Stereoscopic exploration" refers to exploring different pay provinces, different stratigraphic layers and different types of hydrocarbon reservoirs in a superimposed basin integratively and comprehensively. The depth of stereoscopic exploration can be 0~10, 000 meters and horizontally stereoscopic exploration is beyond the overlying continental basin boundary and extends to hydrocarbons of different genetic types. The established theories, with the Chinese characteristics, on progressive exploration and development, composite hydrocarbon reservoirs and composite accumulation provinces (zones) are initially composed of the rudiment of "stereoscopic exploration" theory. The developing petroleum geology theory on multi-cycle superimposed basins has laid a theoretical foundation for "stereoscopic exploration" while the latest applicable technologies in the fields of modern geophysics, drilling, oil testing and oil production serve as bridges for the application of "stereoscopic exploration." The thinking and practice of "stereoscopic exploration" offer an important guarantee for future high-efficiency oil and gas explorations in the seven major areas in China, including highly explored areas, lithologic strata, foreland basins, middle-lower assemblages of superimposed basins, new onshore basins, offshore areas, and non-conventional oil and gas resources.

Jin R.R.,Petrochina | Wang J.H.,China University of Geosciences
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The paper establishes dimensionless mathematical models of the fluid flow in semi-infinite porous media with constant flow rate. Exact analytical solutions of these dimensionless mathematical models are derived by new definitions of dimensionless variables and Laplace transformation. Comparison curves of dimensionless moving boundary under different values of dimensionless Threshold Pressure Gradient (TPG) are plotted from newly proposed exact analytical solutions. An example is used to demonstrate pressure distribution in different positions with different TPG. It is shown that for the constant flow rate condition, the moving boundary extends to infinite in porous media with increasing production time. Steeper pressure curve is observed in larger TPG, which also exhibits greater pressure drop gradient and shorter pressure propagation distance at the same production time. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Diao H.,China University of Geosciences | Diao H.,Petrochina
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Rock mechanical properties of shale gas reservoir are vitally important for exploitation. It is necessary to conduct laboratory study on mechanical properties and brittleness evaluation of shale, which can provide technical support for drilling and fracturing design. Experimental investigations show that compressive strength has positive correlations with Young' s modulus and confining pressure. Volume change of rocks before and after fracturing increases with decreased Young' s modulus and increased Poisson s ratio. Failure mode under low confining pressure is predominantly splitting failure, while shear failure mode is dominant under high confining pressure. Brittleness of shale has close relations with shale elastic parameters and mineral constituent Based on numerical modeling and experimental measurement, in combination with elastic parameters method and mineral constituent method, a new brittleness evaluation method is proposed, and brittleness evaluation of single wells is realized which has better effect. Brittleness evaluation is useful for understanding reservoir mechanics and selecting fracture section.

Tan M.,China University of Geosciences | Tan M.,Beijing University of Technology | Zou Y.,Beijing University of Technology | Zhou C.,Petrochina
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2013

One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail. © 2012.

Zhang Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yu D.,Xiangtan University | Li W.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 4 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

The article is devoted to investigating some fundamentals about a residue cracking gasification (RCG) process for petroleum residues which integrates the catalytic cracking of the residue and the gasification of the cracking-generated coke. Three heat carrier particles were tested to show their different activities in cracking a vacuum residue (VR), finding that the synthesized kaolin catalyst allowed the higher liquid yield and higher conversion in comparison with silica sand and a commercial FCC catalyst. The parametric influences on the product distribution for VR cracking were thus studied over the kaolin catalyst for the major parameters including reaction temperature, catalyst-to-oil ratio, steam-to-oil ratio and different VRs. The conversion over 90% and the liquid yield above 80wt.% were achieved at 500°C under the optimized operating conditions. The VR with higher content of residual carbon was proven to generate more coke in the cracking. The coke deposited on the catalyst was well gasified via its interaction with steam and oxygen at 800°C, and the CO and H2 together was up to 80vol.% in the produced syngas. The gasification-regenerated kaolin catalyst enabled the similar product distribution of VR cracking, thus justifying the technology feasibility for the tested RCG process. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhu G.,Petrochina | Wang H.,Petrochina | Weng N.,Petrochina | Huang H.,China University of Geosciences | And 3 more authors.
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2013

A gas condensate from well ND1 in the Jizhong Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin, China is characterized by two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC×GC-FID) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). This condensate is sourced from the fourth member of the Shahejie Formation (Es4) but reservoired in the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation carbonate at a depth of 5641-6027m and the reservoir temperature is 190-201°C. It is the deepest and the highest temperature discovery in the basin to date. The API gravity of the condensate is 51° and the sulfur content is <0.04%. A total of 4955 compounds were detected and quantified. Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon account for 94.8%, 5.1% and 0.02% of the condensate mass, respectively. Some long chain alkylated cyclic alkanes, decahydronaphthalenes and diamondoids are tentatively identified in this condensate. The C6-C9 light hydrocarbon parameters show that the gas condensate was generated at relatively high maturity but its generation temperature derived from the dimethylpentane isomer ratio seems far lower than the current reservoir temperature. Some light hydrocarbon parameters indicate evaporative fractionation may also be involved due to multiple-charging and mixing. The diamondoid concentrations and gas oil ratio (GOR) suggest that the ND1 condensate results from 53.3-55% cracking. Since significant liquids remain, the exploration potential of ultra-deep buried hill fields in the Bohai Bay Basin remains high. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang X.,China University of Geosciences | Luo W.,China University of Geosciences | Hou X.,China University of Geosciences | Wang J.,Petrochina
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2014

A new analytical solution of fluid unsteady flow was presented for wells with finite-conductivity vertical fractures by determining impact functions of fracture conductivity. Based on the new solution, the transient pressure distribution of a fractured horizontal well with multiple finite-conductivity vertical fractures was obtained using the principle of superposition. Calculation results show the pressure transient behavior of fractured horizontal wells under the condition of constant bottom rate. In the ideal fracture arrangement, flow patterns occur in the order of early bilinear flow → early linear flow → middle radial flow → middle linear flow → late pseudo steady state. Uneven length of fractures with equal conductivity and uniform arrangement may affect the transform of early linear flows from earlier bilinear flows and the premature birth of middle radial flows. Nonuniform arrangement of fractures with even length and equal conductivity may influence middle radial flows. Different conductivity of fractures with equal length and uniform arrangement shortens the period of bilinear flows and lengthens the linear flows. Increase in the number of fractures with even length, equal conductivity and uniform arrangement accelerates pressure drops in the reservoir, shortens the period of middle radial flows and lengthens the middle linear flows. Increase in length of all fractures shortens the period of middle radial flows and may result in absence of radial flows. It is demonstrated that the horizontal well with multiple vertical fractures may improve fluid flow patterns.

Xiaodong W.,China University of Geosciences | Wanjing L.,China University of Geosciences | Xiaochun H.,China University of Geosciences | Junlei W.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2014

A new analytical solution of fluid unsteady flow was presented for wells with finite-conductivity vertical fractures by determining impact functions of fracture conductivity. Based on the new solution, the transient pressure distribution of a fractured horizontal well with multiple finite-conductivity vertical fractures was obtained using the principle of superposition. Calculation results show the pressure transient behavior of fractured horizontal wells under the condition of constant bottom rate. In the ideal fracture arrangement, flow patterns occur in the order of early bilinear flow → early linear flow → middle radial flow → middle linear flow → late pseudo steady state. Uneven length of fractures with equal conductivity and uniform arrangement may affect the transform of early linear flows from earlier bilinear flows and the premature birth of middle radial flows. Nonuniform arrangement of fractures with even length and equal conductivity may influence middle radial flows. Different conductivity of fractures with equal length and uniform arrangement shortens the period of bilinear flows and lengthens the linear flows. Increase in the number of fractures with even length, equal conductivity and uniform arrangement accelerates pressure drops in the reservoir, shortens the period of middle radial flows and lengthens the middle linear flows. Increase in length of all fractures shortens the period of middle radial flows and results in absence of radial flows. It is demonstrated that the horizontal well with multiple vertical fractures may improve fluid flow patterns. © 2014 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Xiaodong W.,China University of Geosciences | Yongle H.,Petrochina | Yiping D.,China University of Geosciences
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

The production data analysis is one of hot spots of reservoir engineering recently, which combines conventional reservoir engineering analysis and modern well test analysis. Based on the theory of transient porous flow, the analysis provides a mathematical model, which not only reasonably predicts the production decline of oil or gas wells but also effectively evaluates the physical properties of reservoirs. Theoretical charts of Agarwal-Gardner production decline curves and derivative curves for common horizontal wells are presented by solving the transient 3D porous flow in the bounded reservoir. The Agarwal-Gardner curves can be divided into two stages: the derivatives are dispersed in the early transient decline stage and drawn to Arps harmonious decline in the late pseudo-steady state stage. The influence of vertical location of horizontal wells on production decline in the mid-long term is negligible in a homogenous reservoir. A field example illustrates that, given production data, the results in this article can be directly used to evaluate the reservoir characteristics and effectively forecast the long-term productivity for horizontal wells. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Guan S.,Petrochina | He D.,China University of Geosciences
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2011

Theoretical researches of complex structural modeling aim to seek internal constraint mechanisms of the model, of which the fault-related folding theory describing a quantitative relationship among fold shape, fault shape and fault displacement is most mature, and its analytical methods have the most popular and effective constraints to the modeling of brittle structural deformation in conditions of the upper crust, low temperature and non-metamorphism. The normative technical workflow not only helps reduce the multiplicity in solutions to structural models, but also is an effective mean to recognize and interpret structures reasonably. A structural model can be built in section, two-dimensional and three-dimensional space. Section modeling is mainly used to determine a structural interpretation scheme, in which the mechanism, timing, process and rate of deformation can be obtained using fault-related folding methods. On the basis of section modelling, the 2D Tsurfs model and 3D solid model can be constructed to describe structures intuitively, especially the solid model specified by rock mechanical parameters of stratigraphic units that is very similar to the real geological body. By using the horizon-based and volumetric restoration techniques, restoration strain fields in the 2D Tsurfs model and 3D solid model can be derived. These strain data can not only provide researches of structural deformation mechanisms with necessary parameters, but also be used to predict the pattern of natural fractures in hydrocarbon reservoirs, such as the orientation, density and intensity of structural fracture development.

Deliang Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Yongming Z.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Hongmei B.,Petrochina | Xinmin W.,Petrochina | Weigui Q.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences | Year: 2012

In process of oil production, the submersible reciprocating pump is driven by linear motor, such pump is novel lifting method which has been considered as good controllability. To guarantee reliability service, steady production and energy-saving, submersible reciprocating pump could promptly adjust to reasonable operating condition according to producing fluid level (PFL) variationin the control system. Since the submersible reciprocating pump usually suitable to the decline period of the well development life, and PFL with non-stationary and non-linear characteristics, a novel intelligent forecasting approach is proposed based on support vector regression (SVR). Firstly, PFL data in field is measured pretreated and normalized to form PFL time series, reconstruction phase space of input samples. Then a model is trained by using PFL sample, obtained parameters of SVR model. Subsequently the model is tested by using the test sample. This paper respectively tests autoregressive and moving average model (ARMA), SVR model and SVR improved model. Then a comparison is carried out among above three forecasting methods are and the error is analyzed. The calculation results show that SVR improved method offers more accurate forecasting results. Therefore, the prediction results can be served as optimal control of submersible reciprocating pump.

Xiao L.,China University of Geosciences | Mao Z.-q.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Li G.-r.,Petrochina | Jin Y.,Petrochina
Acta Geophysica | Year: 2012

The porosity may be overestimated or underestimated when calculated from conventional logs and also underestimated when derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs due to the effect of the lower hydrogen index of natural gas in gas-bearing sandstones. Proceeding from the basic principle of NMR log and the results obtained from a physical rock volume model constructed on the basis of interval transit time logs, a technique of calculating porosity by combining the NMR log with the conventional interval transit time log is proposed. For wells with the NMR log acquired from the MRIL-C tool, this technique is reliable for evaluating the effect of natural gas and obtaining accurate porosity in any borehole. In wells with NMR log acquired from the CMR-Plus tool and with collapsed borehole, the NMR porosity should be first corrected by using the deep lateral resistivity log. Two field examples of tight gas sandstones in the Xujiahe Formation, central Sichuan basin, Southwest China, illustrate that the porosity calculated by using this technique matches the core analyzed results very well. Another field example of conventional gas-bearing reservoir in the Ziniquanzi Formation, southern Junggar basin, Northwest China, verifies that this technique is usable not only in tight gas sandstones, but also in any gas-bearing reservoirs. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Jiang J.,Petrochina | Xu X.,Halfaya Oilfield Co.
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2016

The lithologies of the MB2 Formation in H Oilfield are mainly composed of grainstone and packstone. The core data are used to analyze the lithology, physical property and pore structure property. The result shows that the carbonate reservoirs in H Oilfield are of complicated heterogeneity. The pore systems are classified into Macro pore, Mezzo pore and Micro pore according to the mercury injection. Marco pores and Mezo pores are predominant in limestone with a grainstone texture in the upper interval of MB2 Formation, and the packstone pore system mainly consists of Mezzo pore and Micro pore. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging Tool(CMR)has been employed to characterize the pore system of the limestone reservoirs. The results of the CMR pore size distribution agree with the core data in general. The NMR can evaluate the reservoir accurately. Based on the study result, the productivity prediction of the MB2 formation is made. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Deng S.,Petrochina | Hilton J.,University of Birmingham | Glasspool I.J.,Field Museum | Dejax J.,French Natural History Museum
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2014

Male cones of Ixostrobus hailarensis from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Hailar region of north-east China were re-examined for features of their cuticle and in situ pollen. The cones are loosely aggregated and possess helically arranged peltate microsporophylls containing resin bodies. Microsporophyll cuticle is thick, papillate and has elliptical stomata with 6-9 subsidiary and ∼10 encircling cells. Adaxial sporangia contain monosulcate pollen assignable to the dispersed taxon Cycadopites minimus. Both the cuticle and pollen are distinct from Ixostrobus but are consistent with the cycad genera Androstrobus, Aegianthus, Loricanthus and the putative angiosperm Solaranthus. Reanalysis of the type species of Androstrobus, A. zamioides, provides new information on its structure and allows an accurate delimitation of the genus and improved comparison with other genera. A new genus, Schimperstrobus, is erected for species now excluded from Androstrobus. Comparisons indicate that Solaranthus represents a male cycad cone and that Aegianthus, Loricanthus and Solaranthus are synonyms; Aegianthus has nomenclatural priority. We emend the combined generic and specific diagnoses for Aegianthus sibiricus to allow additional species to be placed in the genus, and erect the new combinations Aegianthus resinifera for specimens previously assigned to Loricanthus, and Aegianthus daohugouensis for specimens previously placed within Solaranthus. The Hailar cone conforms to the generic circumscription of Aegianthus and represents a new species that we name A. hailarensis comb. nov. Androstrobus phialophora also conforms with Aegianthus and is transferred to Aegianthus phialophora comb. nov. Co-occurring with A. hailarensis are cuticles of the ginkgophyte leaf Sphenobaiera longifolia that are similar to microsporophyll cuticles of A. hailarensis. However, we discount that they belong to a single plant species and conclude that the cuticles of some Mesozoic ginkgoalean and cycadalean taxa may be virtually indistinguishable. We consider that Aegianthus was widespread across China, Mongolia and southern Russia during the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous. © 2013 Natural History Museum.

Yin W.,China University of Geosciences | Yin W.,Petrochina | Zhang M.,Petrochina | Kong L.,Petrochina
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Block A in the South Turgay Basin, Kazakhstan, lies in a gentle slope zone of rifted lake basin, where structural traps are not developed, so it is important for explorers to find litho-stratigraphic reservoirs. The drilling records show that, in Block A, lithologic reservoirs are in the Jurassic System, containing 5 formations from bottom to top: Aybolin, Doshan, Karaganshy, Kumkol and Akshabulak. Through the research on Jurassic reservoirs, source rocks and reservoir-seal assemblage, it is proposed that there are three types of lithologic reservoirs at the target formation: reservoirs with sands updip pinch-out at front of slope zone, reservoirs with isolated sands in underwater distributary channels, and reservoirs with isolated sands at mouth bar. Well A12 is a middle-porosity middle-permeability reservoir with sands updip pinch-out at front of slope zone, which was affected jointly by self generation-self preservation and lateral migration of hydrocarbons. The comprehensive analysis of accumulation conditions shows that the effective reservoir-seal assemblage is the main controlling factor for accumulation. With several geological and geophysical methods, it is concluded that the prospects are lied in central and west parts of Block A.

Zhao X.,Petrochina | Li Q.,China University of Geosciences | Jiang Z.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang R.,Petrochina | Li H.,China University of Geosciences
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2014

Although extensive studies have been conducted on unconventional mudstone (shales) reservoirs in recent years, little work has been performed on unconventional tight organic matter-rich, fine-grained carbonate reservoirs. The Shulu Sag is located in the southwestern corner of the Jizhong Depression in the Bohai Bay Basin and filled with 400-1000m of Eocene lacustrine organic matter-rich carbonates. The study of the organic matter-rich calcilutite in the Shulu Sag will provide a good opportunity to improve our knowledge of unconventional tight oil in North China. The dominant minerals of calcilutite rocks in the Shulu Sag are carbonates (including calcite and dolomite), with an average of 61.5wt.%. The carbonate particles are predominantly in the clay to silt size range. Three lithofacies were identified: laminated calcilutite, massive calcilutite, and calcisiltite-calcilutite. The calcilutite rocks (including all the three lithofacies) in the third unit of the Shahejie Formation in the Eocene (Es3) have total organic carbon (TOC) values ranging from 0.12 to 7.97wt.%, with an average of 1.66wt.%. Most of the analyzed samples have good, very good or excellent hydrocarbon potential. The organic matter in the Shulu samples is predominantly of Type I to Type II kerogen, with minor amounts of Type III kerogen. The temperature of maximum yield of pyrolysate (Tmax) values range from 424 to 452°C (with an average of 444°C) indicating most of samples are thermally mature with respect to oil generation. The calcilutite samples have the free hydrocarbons (S1) values from 0.03 to 2.32mg HC/g rock, with an average of 0.5mg HC/g rock, the hydrocarbons cracked from kerogen (S2) yield values in the range of 0.08-57.08mg HC/g rock, with an average of 9.06mg HC/g rock, and hydrogen index (HI) values in the range of 55-749mg HC/g TOC, with an average of 464mg HC/g TOC. The organic-rich calcilutite of the Shulu Sag has very good source rock generative potential and have obtained thermal maturity levels equivalent to the oil window. The pores in the Shulu calcilutite are of various types and sizes and were divided into three types: (1) pores within organic matter, (2) interparticle pores between detrital or authigenic particles, and (3) intraparticle pores within detrital grains or crystals. Fractures in the Shulu calcilutite are parallel to bedding, high angle, and vertical, having a significant effect on hydrocarbon migration and production. The organic matter and dolomite contents are the main factors that control calcilutite reservoir quality in the Shulu Sag. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Guo Q.,Petrochina | Li J.,Petrochina | Chen N.,Petrochina | Hu J.,Petrochina | And 3 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

The tight sandstone gas accumulation is mainly driven by overpressure arising from the gas generation in source rocks. This paper proposes a quantitative computation model for the pressurization from gas generation in source rocks, establishes a dynamic equilibrium equation and a modeling process for tight sandstone gas accumulation, and simulates the gas generation quantity and source rock overpressure history in the Hechuan-Tongnan area of the Sichuan Basin. The modeling reveals that: (1) The gas generation intensity determines the degree of pressurization from gas generation, whereas the reservoir property determines the distribution of gas reservoirs; the conventional gas reservoir is complementary with the tight sandstone gas reservoir in terms of horizontal and vertical distribution, the former is mainly distributed at the top of reservoir with porosity over 7% on local structural highs while the latter is mainly distributed at the bottom of reservoir on local structural lows near source rocks of large gas generation quantity. (2) During the uplifting process from the maximum burial depth (65 Ma) to the current burial depth, because of the pressure drop of formation water and the increase of gas-water pressure difference, the tight sandstone gas migrates farther and increases in accumulation quantity; however, the conventional gas does not migrate basically and has no increase in accumulation quantity; (3) The quantity of the tight sandstone gas in the T3x2 is 5.9 times that of the conventional gas, and the undiscovered resource is mainly tight sandstone gas distributed in northeast of Hechuan, and north and southeast of Tongnan. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Yunlai B.,Petrochina | Hua T.,Xian Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Kai Y.,China University of Geosciences
Oil Shale | Year: 2011

With the amount of oil resources becoming increasingly scarce, non-conventional resources such as oil shale, oil sands, and heavy oil, have caught our attention. There are abundant oil shale resources in Northwest China. Our analysis of field geological section surveys, standard mining investigations, and the laboratory analysis of important samples indicate that the oil shale in Northwest China is characterized by the following features: oil shale strata is 1-36 m thick, the color of slightly greasy, shiny and flaky oil shale is mostly brown-black, black with light brown streaks, but some oil shale outcrops appear maroon. Oil shale is of layered structure, irregular shape, conchoidal fracture, and low hardness, composed mainly of clay and silt-sized detrital minerals (feldspar and quartz). SiO2 and Al2O3 comprise a total of 52.54% of the rock, this indicates that oil shale is of the medium ash type. Organic carbon content of oil shale is 14% and that of total carbon 16.28%. Oil yield is generally 1.5-13.7%, overall caloric value 1.66-20.98 MJ/kg. Density of oil shale is 1.55-2.46 g/cc. Younger oil shale strata are characterized by progressively higher REE abundances. There are mainly three types of oil shale deposits: the littoral-neritic facies sedimentary deposits of the Middle and Upper Carboniferous - the Lower Permian, remnant lake bay-lacustrine facies sedimentary deposits of the Upper Permian, and shale which formed in inland deep water - half deep water lacustrine facies of the Mesozoic, the latter being of the major industrial type, and its origin is similar to "the Black Sea model." Oil shale layers are also the main oil source rock in the Ordos Basin. Oil shale layers which formed in deltaic environments in the Middle and Late Carboniferous and the Jurassic are mostly paragenetically related to coal beds. In the area, the total amount of predicted resources of oil shale is at least 31,000×108 t which is equivalent to about 2000×108 t of shale oil. Oil shale resources in the Ordos Basin account for 99% of the total and can be compared to oil shale resources in the Green River area of western North America. In Northwest China, the identified oil shale deposits are located inthe vicinity of large and medium-sized cities, with good development prospects. If the problems of environmental pollution are solved and the appropriate techniques are used, the immense economic benefits can be obtained.

Wang M.,China University of Geosciences | Wang M.,Min Of Edu Key Laboratory Of Marine Reservoir Evolution And Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism | He D.,China University of Geosciences | He D.,Min Of Edu Key Laboratory Of Marine Reservoir Evolution And Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism | And 3 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

This paper analyzes the Upper Palaeozoic gas accumulations and conditions of the study area by using the definition and method of petroleum system, and summarizes the natural gas accumulation pattern. The Upper Palaeozoic natural gas in the Yimeng uplift is mainly from source rocks of Taiyuan and Shanxi Formations in the southern part and Wushenqi area. Braided channel sandbodies of alluvial fan, river channel sandbodies and distributary channel sandbodies of delta plain in the Shanxi and lower Shihezi Formations are the most favorable reservoirs. The thick mudstone layers of the upper Shihezi and Shiqianfeng Formations which cover the whole region constitute the regional seal rock, and there are also many local seal rocks. Oil source, reservoir and seal rocks form a good relationship in time and space and they form two types of assemblage which are the self-generating and self-preserving assemblage in the southern part of the Yimeng uplift and the lower-generating and upper-preserving assemblage in the southern and northern parts. Natural gas migrated to the north through the migration pathways composed by advantageous sandbody, unconformity, faults and cracks. Structural traps and the distal accumulation pattern dominate in the northern part, while the southern part is characterized by lithologic traps and the proximal accumulation pattern.

Ding S.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Ge Y.,Harbin University of Science and Technology | Xu D.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Miao L.,Harbin Power Engineering Company Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Dianji Gongcheng Xuebao/Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2012

In order to clarify the fluid flow characteristics inside double-fed wind generator, a 1.5 MW double-fed wind generator was taken as an example. According to the structure and cooling type of generators, a multi-dimensional model of fluid-solid coupled for solving the temperature field was established based on fundamental assumptions. By adding boundary conditions, the temperature and fluid fields were analyzed numerically using the finite volume method. And the calculated results were compared with test data, which proved the correctness of the computing method and the solving model. At last the characters of cooling medium (water and air) inner the stator and rotor, such as flow velocity, temperature rise and path lines, were analyzed, which reveals the changing regularity on the performance of cooling medium for large doubly-fed wind generators. © 2012 Chin. Soc. for Elec. Eng.

Langston C.A.,University of Memphis | Ayele M.M.,Petrochina
Geophysics | Year: 2015

We have developed vertical seismic wave gradiometry (VSWG) to estimate velocity, impedance, and attenuation structure in the vicinity of boreholes using borehole array waveforms of checkshot explosions near the borehole head. We have extended wave gradiometry (WG) theory from a purely local relation of the wavefield and wavefield spatial gradient to one that incorporated the ray ansatz over the length of the borehole for a traveling wave in a vertically inhomogeneous medium. We checked the ray assumption against acoustic full-wave synthetic seismograms, and it was found to yield robust measures of the medium velocity. Anelastic attenuation and impedance structure trade off, but in cases of high anelastic attenuation, realistic bounds can be placed on the seismic impedance that effectively constrains the average attenuation. We have applied these methods to data collected at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth borehole in central California in 2005, and we found that the WG velocity estimate agreed well with the borehole acoustic log and previously determined vertical seismic profile results based on traveltime analysis except at the bottom of the hole, where refraction on a near-vertical fault affected the data. The average Q is approximately 20 in the frequency band of 10-30 Hz, and it is required to yield realistic values of impedance in the local medium. Application of VSWG yields appropriate, smoothed velocity models that can be used as an end product or as a starting model for full-wave inversion. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

Yu J.,CAS Institute of Automation | Ding R.,CAS Institute of Automation | Yang Q.,Petrochina | Tan M.,CAS Institute of Automation | And 2 more authors.
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2012

This paper addresses the system design and locomotion control for a versatile amphibious robot, AmphiRobot-II, inspired by various amphibian principles in the animal kingdom. In terms of the propulsion features of existing amphibians, a novel hybrid propulsive mechanism coupled with wheel-propeller-fin movements is proposed that integrates fish-or dolphin-like swimming and wheel-based crawling. The robot is able not only to implement flexible wheel-based movements on land, but also to perform steady and efficient fish-or dolphin-like swimming under water and can further switch between these two patterns via a specialized swivel device. To achieve multimodal motions, a body deformation steering approach is proposed for the turning locomotion on land with minimum turning radius obtained accordingly. A central pattern generator inspired underwater locomotion control is also implemented and tested on the physical robot. Based on the aforementioned design, the AmphiRobot-II prototype has been built and has successfully demonstrated to confirm the effectiveness of the hybrid propulsive scheme and the amphibious control approaches. © 2012 IEEE.

News Article | December 5, 2016

The report "Lubricants Market by Type (Mineral Oil, Synthetic Lubricants, Bio-Based, and Greases), by Application (Transportation and Industrial Machinery & Equipment), and by Region (APAC, EU, NA, MEA, AND SA) - Global Forecast to 2021", The lubricants market is estimated to have accounted for USD 144.45 Billion in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 166.59 Billion by 2021, registering a CAGR of 2.4% between 2016 and 2021. Browse 182 tables and 53 figures spread through 180 Pages and in-depth TOC on "Lubricants Market  - Global Forecast to 2021" Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. The market is driven by the growing automotive industry in the Asia-Pacific region. The increasing demand of automobiles in emerging economies such as China, India, and Japan is fueling the growth of the lubricants market in the region. Another major factor contributing to the growth of lubricants is massive industrial growth in the developing regions such as Asia-Pacific and the Middle East & Africa. Mineral oil lubricants to account for the major share of the lubricants market till 2021 The lubricants market is segmented by type, namely, mineral oil lubricants, synthetic lubricants, bio-based lubricants, and greases. Mineral oil lubricants are the most preferred type of lubricant and accounts for major share in the global lubricants market. Low cost, easy availability, and increased application in all sectors are driving the mineral oil lubricants market. Growing automotive industry in the emerging regions to drive the transportation application The transportation application is leading the lubricants market. This is due to the rapid growth of the automotive, aviation, and marine industries in the Asia-Pacific region. The increasing demand of automobiles can be attributed to the increasing disposable income of people and industrial growth in this region. This growth in the automotive industry eventually contributes to the growth of lubricants in the Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific to be the largest market during the forecast period The lubricants market is broadly segmented into five regions, namely, Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, the Middle East & Africa, and South America. Asia-Pacific is the largest market for lubricants, followed by Europe. The Middle East & Africa is projected to be the fastest-growing market during the forecast period. Growing industrialization has offered enormous opportunity for the various manufacturing industries to use lubricants in the Middle East & Africa. Moreover, the increasing number of passenger and commercial vehicles in the region is fueling the growth of the lubricants market. Currently, the global lubricants market is dominated by various market players such as Royal Dutch Shell Plc. (Netherlands), Exxon Mobil Corporation (U.S.), Petrochina Company Limited (China), Sinopec Limited (China), Total S.A. (France), Lukoil (Russia), BP Plc. (U.K.), Chevron Corporation (U.S.), Fuchs Petrolub AG (Germany), Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. (Japan), and others. The research study is aimed at identifying emerging trends and opportunities in the global lubricants market along with a detailed classification of the market, in terms of value and volume. It provides a comprehensive competitive landscape and identifies the key players in the global market. The research study also includes a detailed segmentation of the global lubricants market on the basis of application, type, and region.

Xiao S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xiao S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | McFadden K.A.,ConocoPhillips | Peek S.,University of Maryland University College | And 4 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2012

The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges of South China plays an important role in our understanding of biological evolution, global correlation, and ocean redox conditions, because of the availability of high-resolution paleontological and geochemical data and numerous radiometric dates. However, integrated study has been focused on the Jiulongwan section that was largely deposited below wave base in a restricted shelf lagoon (Jiang et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2011). Studies of shallower water successions are lacking, and this presents a challenge to test Ediacaran stratigraphic correlation and ocean redox models. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a high-resolution integrated study of the Doushantuo Formation at the northern Xiaofenghe (NXF) section approximately 35. km to the northeast and paleogeographically updip of the Jiulongwan section. With the exception of the basal 20. m, NXF sediments were deposited above normal wave base. Integrated biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data indicate that the 140. m thick NXF section correlates with the lower Doushantuo Formation (Member I and much of Member II; i.e., the lower ca. 70. m of the formation) at Jiulongwan. Geochemical data from NXF and other Doushantuo sections indicate that euxinic conditions may have been limited to a shelf lagoon (represented by the Jiulongwan section) that was restricted between the proximal inner shelf and a distal shelf margin shoal complex, at least during early Doushantuo time following the deposition of the Doushantuo cap dolostone. Further integrated studies are necessary to test whether euxinic conditions existed in open marine shelves in South China and elsewhere during the Ediacaran Period. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Yang Y.,Panzhihua University | Tian C.,Panzhihua University | Zhao X.,Petrochina
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2011

Fe-doped sulfated titania (FST) photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activity were prepared from industrial titanyl sulfate solution and characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption technique. Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue onto FST samples were studied at different temperatures (298, 303 and 308K). The kinetic experimental data appropriately correlate with the pseudo-second order model. The overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be influenced by both boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The low adsorption activation energy (in the range of 15.59-19.31kJmol-1) suggests that the adsorption of methylene blue onto FST samples was conformed to the physisorption mechanism. With calcination temperature increases from 400 to 600°C, sulfur species gradually decomposes and desorbs from the surface of FST samples, which can enhance the affinity between methylene blue and FST samples. Moreover, the specific surface decreases and the pore volume and pore diameter increase with rise in calcining temperature. All these have a significant influence on the adsorption properties of FST samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu J.-J.,Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology | Hong S.,Petrochina
CCTAE 2010 - 2010 International Conference on Computer and Communication Technologies in Agriculture Engineering | Year: 2010

In combination of the powerful capability of engineering computing of MATLAB and the virtual interface of WinCC, the serial communication between WinCC and Matlab is designed and realized by using dynamic data exchange(DDE). As the communication interface of client Matlab and Server WinCC, DDE implements better communications between heterogeneous systems. This paper describes in detail its methods and concrete steps, the purpose of separately constructing object model and controller can be reached, thus effective simulation platform of theoretical research and design of control systems is provided. © 2010 IEEE.

Cui W.-Y.,Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology | Hui J.-X.,Petrochina
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2014

Thermal catalytic oxidation method is an available and one of the most effective techniques in the removal of indoor formaldehyde. It is a cost-effective, high efficient and environment-friendly technique. The latest development in the treatment of indoor formaldehyde pollution with oxidation technique in recent years is summarized. Based on the analysis of indoor formaldehyde removal, the research perspectives and application potentials are also discussed. ©, 2014, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved.

Zhao X.,Wuhan University | Zhu S.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Based on water coning and non-Darcy flow theory, a water breakthrough time prediction equation for low-permeability bottom water reservoirs with barrier is derived by material balance principle, which takes the hemispherical radial flow below barrier and plane radial flow above the barrier of water coning into consideration. The calculated water breakthrough time of an oil producer in the sandstone bottom water reservoir in the Ordos Basin by this equation is close to the real water breakthrough time, with a relative error of only 7.85%. In addition, the water breakthrough time of six wells with natural barrier in c3 reservoir, Block hu152, Ordos Basin, were calculated, among which the predicted water breakthrough time of five wells has a less than 10% relative error with the real water breakthrough time. For low-permeability bottom water reservoirs with barrier, the calculated water breakthrough time considering start-up pressure gradient is smaller and more accurate than that without considering start-up pressure gradient. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Chen C.,Wuhan University | Gao C.,Petrochina | Zhuang L.,Wuhan University | Li X.,Wuhan University | And 3 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2010

The spontaneous capillary imbibition and drainage processes are studied using many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) simulations. By adjusting the solid-liquid interaction parameter, different wetting behavior between the fluid and the capillary wall, corresponding to the static contact angle ranging from 0° to 180°, can be controllably simulated. For wetting fluids, the spontaneous capillary imbibition (SCI) is evident inMDPD simulations. It is found that, whereas the corrected Lucas-Washburn equation (taking into account the dynamic contact angle and the fluid inertia) can well describe the SCI simulation result for the completely wetting fluid, it deviates, to a notable degree, from the results of partly wetting fluids. In particular, this corrected equation cannot be used to describe the spontaneous capillary drainage (SCD) processes. To solve this problem, we derive an improved form of the Lucas-Washburn equation, in which the slip effects of fluid particles at the capillary wall are treated. Such an improved equation turns out to be capable of describing all the simulation results of both the SCI and the SCD. These findings provide new insights into the SCI and SCD processes and improve the mathematical base. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

He Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zhang Z.-M.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zong K.-Q.,Wuhan University | Xiang H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Lithos | Year: 2014

The Chinese Tianshan occupies the southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). High-grade metamorphic rocks are widely distributed in its central uplift zones, composing the crustal basement of the Central Tianshan Block of the Chinese Tianshan. However, the origin of the crustal basement and whether the high-grade metamorphism was associated with the Paleozoic orogeny are still unresolved. Here, we present precise LA-ICP-(MC)-MS zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic data for three meta-sedimentary rocks and one orthogneiss from the Xingxingxia Complex, which represents the Precambrian basement of the Central Tianshan Block. Zircon U-Pb dating results show that the protolith age of the orthogneiss is ca. 880. Ma and that the meta-sedimentary rocks consist dominantly of 0.8-1.0. Ga and 1.3-2.0. Ga materials with minor early Paleoproterozoic components. In combination with the zircon Hf isotopic data, it is suggested that the crustal basement of the Central Tianshan Block was formed in the early Mesoproterozoic, which is evidently different from the Archean basement formation of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that the Central Tianshan Block may have formed through a magmatic arc accretionary orogen along the continental margin of Baltica during the Mesoproterozoic. Moreover, both the meta-sedimentary rocks and the orthogneiss of the Xingxingxia Complex simultaneously suffered a metamorphic overprint at ca. 380. Ma. Zircon REE and Hf isotopic data indicate that the metamorphic zircon rims were formed by new zircon overgrowths in partial melts. Geothermobarometry and average P-T calculations using THERMOCALC on the Grt-Bt gneiss yielded ca. 720-730. °C and 4-6. kbar, suggesting amphibolite- to granulite-facies conditions. The Late Devonian metamorphism of the Xingxingxia Complex is possibly related to orogenic low-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism in the middle or upper crust during the closure of the eastern segment of South Tianshan Ocean. Our new data, together with the occurrences of Ordovician-Silurian eclogites and HP mafic granulites along the northeastern margin of the Tarim Craton, indicate that progressive continental collisions occurred in the southern CAOB during the Paleozoic. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Tang J.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zeng D.,Petrochina | Wang C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Chen Y.,West East Gas Transmission Company Pipeline Branch | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

Hydrate additives can be used to mitigate hydrate formation conditions, promote hydrate growth rate and improve separation efficiency. CO2+N2 and CO2+CH4 systems with presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or tetrahydrofuran (THF) are studied to analyze the effect of hydrate additives on gas separation performance. The experiment results show that CO2 can be selectively enriched in the hydrate phase. SDS can speed up the hydrate growth rate by facilitating gas molecules solubilization. When SDS concentration increases, split and loss fraction increase initially and then decrease slightly, resulting in a decreased separation factor. The optimum concentration of SDS exists at the range of 100-300ppm. As THF can be easily encaged in hydrate cavities, hydrate formation condition can be mitigated greatly with its existence. Additionally, THF can also strengthen hydrate formation. The THF effect on separation performance is related to feed gas components. CO2 occupies the small cavities of type II hydrate prior to N2. But the competitiveness of CO2 and CH4 to occupy cavities are quite fair. The variations of split fraction, loss fraction and separation factor depend on the concentration of THF added. The work in this paper has a positive role in flue gas CO2 capture and natural gas de-acidification. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

Liu X.-F.,Wuhan University | Dong Y.-X.,Petrochina | Wang H.,Wuhan University
Diqiu Kexue - Zhongguo Dizhi Daxue Xuebao/Earth Science - Journal of China University of Geosciences | Year: 2010

Flower structures are specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of a strike-slip zone in vertical cross-sections and on seismic profiles. Two element types of the classical flower structures were respectively negative and positive flower structures. There is a new kind of flower structure termed antiformal negative flower structures in Nanpu sag, Bohai Bay basin. A antiformal negative flower structure in 3D seismic profiles from the Nanpu sag consists of a shallow antiform and a deep synform bounded by upward and outward spreading strands of a strike-slip fault that have mostly normal separations. In map-view, the folds and associated normal faults present an en echelon arrangement. Antiformal negative flower structure formed in the transtensional setting of Nanpu sag. The shallow antiform is forced folds caused by the transtensional faults dragging cover into folds. Antiformal negative flower structure undergone two phases of deformation including: (1) forming of drag fold and (2) fualting and collapsing of the fold crest. The antiformal negative flower structures are a widespread structural styles in the Neogene of the Bohai Bay basin.

Pan C.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Jiang L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Liu J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Zhang S.,Petrochina | Zhu G.,Petrochina
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2010

Three sets of pyrolysis experiments were performed for oil alone, oil plus montmorillonite and oil plus calcite at two heating rates of 2°C/h and 20°C/h in confined systems (gold capsules). The main observations can be listed as follows: (1) the ratios of i-C4/n-C4, i-C5/n-C5 and the amount of butanes (n-butane+i-butane) are significantly higher in the experiment for oil plus montmorillonite than oil alone and oil plus calcite, indicating the acidic catalysis by montmorillonite; (2) at low conversion values (<0.5 for methane generation), the formation rates of methane and total hydrocarbon gases in all the three experiments are very similar, demonstrating that neither montmorillonite nor calcite significantly influence the primary cracking of oil components (C6+) into gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C5), while at high conversion values (>0.5 for methane generation), the formation rates of methane and the total hydrocarbon gases in the oil plus calcite experiment are relatively lower than the other two experiments, demonstrating that calcite hindered the secondary cracking of wet gases (C2-C5) into methane; (3) both montmorillonite and calcite greatly reduce the carbon isotope fractionation during methane formation from oil cracking, resulting in substantially higher methane δ13C values in the oil plus montmorillonite or calcite experiments than for oil alone. Based on the kinetic parameters determined from the oil cracking experiments, the predicted temperatures and vitrinite reflectance values (% Easy Ro) for the formation of methane and the total gaseous hydrocarbons at 10% conversion are 190-192°C and 184-187°C, and 1.90-1.93% and 1.80-1.86%, respectively at the heating rate 1°C/my, demonstrating that oils are very thermally stable in sedimentary basins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gu J.,Wuhan University | Li X.,Wuhan University | Liu H.,Wuhan University | Gao Y.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

In order to solve the interlayer channeling in the process of oil and gas production, the forming agent of agglomerated cake and mud cake modifier based on Mud Cake to Agglomerated Cake (MTA) method are developed. The evaluation results in laboratory show that the bond strength of cement-formation interface (BSCFI) with the new materials increases significantly with curing time by comparison with those without new materials. The analysis shows that the mechanism of new materials includes three steps. Firstly, the forming agent of agglomerated cake modifies and treats the surface of mud cake and it reacts primarily with the mud cake modifier. Secondly, the cement generates in agglomerated cake. Lastly, the compact agglomerated cake forms. Field applications show that the high quality rate and qualified rate of well cementing with the new materials increased by 13.01 percent points and 1.15 percent points respectively, and the proportion of isolation section length whose Bond Index is greater or equal to 0.8 with the new materials increased by 15.92 percent points compared with other wells in the same block.

Lei M.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Ge J.G.,Petrochina
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

When vortex-induced resonance happens, the amplitude is big enough to affect the comfort and safety of the structure using, also it can cause fatigue damage to the structure. Being in the tube full of flowing natural gas, the thermo well may vibrate and be damaged. In this paper, based on the theory of vortex-induced vibration, by using ANSYS (FEA software), the author will test and verify whether the vortex-induced resonance will occur on the thermo well according to one example. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Pan C.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Jiang L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Liu J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Zhang S.,Petrochina | Zhu G.,Petrochina
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2012

Three sets of pyrolysis experiments were performed for oil alone, pyrobitumen alone and oil plus pyrobitumen at two heating rates of 2°C/h and 20°C/h in confined systems (gold capsules). The results of these experiments demonstrated that pyrobitumen significantly promoted the generation of methane while not only inhibiting the generation, but also accelerating the cracking of wet gases during oil cracking experiments in confined systems. Furthermore, the cracking rate of wet gases increases with pyrobitumen/oil ratios. As a result, C 1/ΣC 1-5 ratio is significantly higher in the experiment of oil plus pyrobitumen than oil alone at the same temperature conditions. Although the amount of methane increased, the weight of the total gaseous hydrocarbons decreased and the volume of the total gaseous hydrocarbons remained unchanged with the addition of pyrobitumen. This result can be ascribed to some oil and wet gas components being combined with the pyrobitumen phase and released later mainly as methane at higher temperatures and maturities. The activation energies for the generation and cracking of wet gases decrease with the carbon number and are relatively lower in the experiments of oil plus pyrobitumen than oil alone. The distribution ranges of the activation energies for the generation of wet gases also decrease with the carbon number. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Feng Y.,Petrochina | Li S.,Wuhan University | Lu Y.,Wuhan University
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2013

Stratigraphic sequences and architectural variability in the Late Eocene lacustrine strata of the Dongying Depression, eastern China, were investigated using the interpretation of 2-D and 3-D high-resolution seismic profiles, analysis of spontaneous potential and resistivity curves, and observation of drill cores. Four third-order sequences controlled by syndepositional faults or fault slope break zones were identified, based on the characteristics of sequence boundaries and sedimentary successions. The architecture of the sequences in the different structural belts of the depression is complicated by the relationship between the rate at which fault-controlled accommodation was created and the rate of sediment supply. At fault margins, the rate of sediment supply exceeded accommodation space. Here, lowstand systems tracts consist of lowstand fan deltas with small progradational to retrogradation stacking patterns controlled by steeply dipping, parallel and cross-shaped syndepositional faults or fault slope-break zones; transgressive systems tracts consist of fan deltas with retrogradational to aggradational stacking patterns; and highstand systems tracts consist of fan deltas with normal regressive or progradational stacking pattern. At hinged margins, the rate of sediment supply was equal to or exceeded accommodation controlled by faults. Lowstand systems tracts at hinged margins consist of incised channel fills deposited on the landward side of gently dipping parallel and broom-shaped syndepositional faults or fault slope break zones and lowstand fans or sublacustrine fans deposited on the shores of lakes. Transgressive systems tracts consist of delta systems and shore to shallow-lake subfacies with retrogradational stacking patterns. Highstand systems tracts consist of braided deltas and fluvial delta systems with progradational or normal regressive and aggradational stacking patterns. Along the axis, the rate of sediment supply far exceeded accommodation. Only the lowstand systems tracts developed, consisting of lowstand deltas deposited on the landward side of the syndepositional faults or fault slope break zones, and lowstand fans or sublacustrine fans deposited on the lakeward side of the zones. Here, transgressive systems tracts consist of thin, deep lacustrine deposits and fluvial delta systems with retrogradational or transgressive stacking patterns; and highstand systems tracts consist of thick fluvial delta systems with a progradational configuration or normal regressive stacking patterns.The four kinds of syndepositional fault slope-break zones controlled the stratal architecture of sequences and the distribution of lowstand systems tracts. Sand bodies within lowstand systems tracts provide suitable conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs when they are overlain by sediments from transgressive systems tracts, and are therefore favorable sites for lithostratigraphic trap exploration. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Jia Z.,Hubei University | Zhang Y.,Petrochina
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2012

This study has developed several multivariate regression models to forecast pulverized coal ignition temperature based on plenty of pulverized coal ignition experiments by using coal property parameters from proximate analysis and calorific value. Comparing the models a satisfied model with high accuracy has been achieved. It has been found that multivariate regression method is useful and accurate for establishing ignition temperature calculation formula. The optimum model can be used to predict pulverized coal ignition temperature and determine coal ignition characteristics. © Sila Science.

Lu H.X.,Nankai University | Bu S.F.,Tianjin Dayuan Technology Co. | Wang Z.P.,Petrochina
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

With fog and haze increasingly severe pollution and tighter environmental legislation in China. It is urgent for refinery to reduce sulfur content in MTBE and produce cleaner fuels by deep desulfurization technology. The feasibility of pervaporation (PV) process for removal of sulfur from MTBE was investigated in this study. Adsorption capacities of three different membrane materials such as PDMS, naffion membrane with H and Na forms were compared by immersion tests. PDMS membrane showed better adsorption abilities for MTBE and disulfide. In addition, the adsorption of PDMS membrane in pure MTBE and dimethyldisulfide solution were investigated at 308.15K and 313.15K. It was indicated that increasing operation temperature facilitated to increase the adsorption amount and decrease the time for reaching adsorption equilibration. This research has guiding significance for removal of sulfur from MTBE by PV process. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Qiu H.-N.,Wuhan University | Qiu H.-N.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Wu H.-Y.,Petrochina | Yun J.-B.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 4 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2011

The problem of determining an exact isotopic age of hydrocarbon emplacement is complex because minerals suitable for dating with common isotopic methods are often lacking in the sedimentary domain. However, the igneous quartz from the Cretaceous volcanic rocks that host the gas reservoir in the Songliao Basin (northeastern China), contains abundant secondary fluid inclusions with high concentrations of K and high partial pressures of methane trapped during gas emplacement. Quartz with abundant K-rich fluid inclusions provides an excellent closed system well suited for 40Ar/39Ar dating. Three igneous quartz samples were measured by stepwise crushing to release the inclusion-based argon gas. All three samples yielded well-defined isochrons with ages in close agreement, precisely constraining the gas emplacement at 42.4 ± 0.5 Ma (2σ) below the Daqing oil field in the Songliao Basin, extending possible gas reservoirs from the upper Cretaceous to the middle Eocene. © 2011 Geological Society of America.

Wan L.,Petrochina | Wan L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Liu J.,Petrochina | Mao F.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2014

Sixty crude oils from the Termit Basin (Eastern Niger) were analysed using biomarker distributions and bulk stable carbon isotopic compositions. Comprehensive oil-to-oil correlation indicates that there are two distinct families in the Termit Basin. The majority of the oils are geochemically similar and characterized by low Pr/Ph (pristane to phytane ratios) and high gammacerane/C30 hopane ratios, small amounts of C24 tetracyclic terpanes but abundant C23 tricyclic terpane, and lower δ13C values for saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. All of these geochemical characteristics indicate possible marine sources with saline and reducing depositional environments. In contrast, oils from well DD-1 have different geochemical features. They are characterized by relatively higher Pr/Ph and lower gammacerane/C30 hopane ratios, higher amounts of C24 tetracyclic terpane but a low content of C23 tricyclic terpane, and relatively higher δ13C values for saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. These geochemical signatures indicate possible lacustrine sources deposited under freshwater, suboxic-oxic conditions. This oil family also has a unique biomarker signature in that there are large amounts of C30 4α-methylsteranes indicating a freshwater lacustrine depositional environment. The maturity of the Termit oils is assessed using a number of maturity indicators based on biomarkers, alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl phenanthrenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes. All parameters indicate that all of the oils are generated by source rocks within the main phase of the oil generation stage with equivalent vitrinite reflectance of 0.58%-0.87%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhi-qiang F.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Company | Cheng-zao J.,Petrochina | Xi-nong X.,Hubei University | Shun Z.,PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Company | And 2 more authors.
Basin Research | Year: 2010

Through tectonostratigraphic analysis of the nonmarine, intracontinental Songliao basin in northeast China, four episodes of deformation are recognized: mantle upwelling, rift, postrift thermal subsidence and structural inversion. The episodes are related to regional geodynamics and plate motions. Each episode is associated with a specific stratigraphic signature. The first period of deformation occurred during the Middle and Late Jurassic when asthenospheric upwelling heated, thinned and stretched the lithosphere. These events may have been caused by the narrowing of the Okhotsk Sea through subduction. This deformation is characterized by doming, extension, widespread volcanism and intrusion, and erosion. Volcanics interfinger with alluvial fan and alluvial plain facies systems tracts. The second rifting episode began in the latest Jurassic and continued into the Early Cretaceous. It resulted in the formation of a large number of isolated, NNE-trending fault blocks of 'basin-and-range' style. Rifting may have been caused by the formation and subduction of the Izanagi and Pacific Plates. Coal-bearing fluvial, floodplain, lacustrine and fan-delta strata and widespread volcanic rocks filled the fault-block basins. Volcanic strata hundreds to several thousand meters thick in the Huoshiling and Yingcheng Formations record multiple intrusive events during the rifting stage in the basin. These events were concurrent with episodes of intrusion and volcanic eruption in northeast China. The third phase of regional postrift deformation and subsidence, which began with the Lower Cretaceous Denglouku Formation, was caused by lithospheric cooling and extension, modulated by multiple compressional events. Subsidence in the Songliao basin permitted accumulation of thick postrift deposits, in contrast with other Cretaceous basins in Mongolia and northeast Asia. Three compressional episodes, which episodically interrupted the long-term cooling subsidence, originated from development of the Okhotsk suture and subduction of the Pacific plate. In the Early Cretaceous, pronounced compression originated from closure of Okhotsk Sea, forming the mountain ranges of Daxinganling, which provided sediment to the northern part of the basin. In the Late Cretaceous, the intensity of compression from the Pacific margin increased through time, causing westward migration of depocentres and uplift in the east until the end of Cretaceous. Postrift strata, typically 3000-4000 m thick with a maximum thickness of 6000 m, extend beyond the rift blocks and onlap the basin margins to form a large uniform basin. Early thermal subsidence strata include alluvial fan, fluvial, floodplain, shallow lacustrine and delta facies tracts, overlain by large deltaic and lacustrine facies. Late postrift environments featured by large lakes in the basin centre rimmed by delta, fluvial and floodplain environments. Reflection seismic profiles show that strong structural inversion, including folding and uplift, began at the end of the Nenjiang Formation and culminated at the end of the Cretaceous. The main compressional stress field changed from NW to NWW at the end of the Cretaceous, which caused changes in the direction of folding. During the rifting stage, several sets of gas-bearing reservoirs formed in association with coal-bearing source rocks in fluvial and deltaic strata with reservoir-quality volcanics and fluvial and fan-delta sandstone. Thick, widespread mudstone deposited in deep lakes during the postrift stage contains abundant organic matter, and is an important source rock and regional cap rock. Good reservoirs occur in deltaic and fluvial strata. Because of the episodic compressional events that alternately caused subsidence and uplift, reservoirs are sandwiched between source rocks, providing direct fluid communication from source to reservoir. © 2009 The Authors. Journal Compilation © Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers and International Association of Sedimentologists.

Jia W.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Xiao Z.,Petrochina | Yu C.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Peng P.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2010

Biodegradation and oil mixing in Silurian sandstone reservoirs of the Tarim Basin, one of the largest composite basins in China, were investigated by analyzing the molecular characteristics and stable carbon isotopic signatures of low-molecular-weight (LMW) saturated hydrocarbons and high-molecular-weight (HMW) asphaltenes. Detection of 25-norhopanes and 17-nortricyclic terpanes in most Silurian tar sands from the Tabei Uplift in the Tarim Basin suggests a much greater degree of biodegradation here than in the Tazhong Uplift. This explains the relatively more abundant tricyclic terpanes, gammacerane, pregnane and diasteranes in tar sands from the Tabei Uplift than in those from the Tazhong Uplift. Hence, care must be taken when assigning oil source correlations using biomarkers in tar sands because of the biodegradation and mixing of oils derived from multiple sources in such an old composite basin. Asphaltenes in the tar sands seem to be part of the oil charge before biodegradation, depending on the relative anti-biodegradation characteristics of asphaltenes, the similarity in carbon isotopic signatures for asphaltenes and their pyrolysates, and the consistent product distribution for flash pyrolysis and for regular steranes in asphaltene pyrolysates, regardless of whether the tar sands were charged with fresh oil. According to the relative distributions of regular steranes and the relatively abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene significantly enriched in 13C, the oil sources for asphaltenes in the tar sands might be related to lower Paleozoic marine source rocks formed in euxinic conditions. Nevertheless, the relatively low abundance of gammacerane and C28 regular steranes observed in asphaltene pyrolysates and residual hydrocarbons, within limited samples investigated in this work, made a direct correlation of oils originally charged into Silurian tar sands with those Cambrian source rocks, reported so far, seem not to be possible. Comparison of carbon isotopic signatures of n-alkanes in asphaltene pyrolysates with those of LMW saturated hydrocarbons is helpful in determining if the abundant n-alkanes in tar sands are derived from fresh oil charges after biodegradation. The limited carbon isotopic data for n-alkanes in LMW saturated hydrocarbons from the tar sands can be used to classify oils charged after biodegradation in the composite basin into four distinct groups. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li S.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Amrani A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Pang X.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Yang H.,Petrochina | And 3 more authors.
Organic Geochemistry | Year: 2015

A large amount of deep oil has been discovered in the Tazhong Uplift, Tarim Basin whereas the oil source is still controversial. An integrated geochemical approach was utilized to unravel the characteristics, origin and alteration of the deep oils. This study showed that the Lower Cambrian oil from well ZS1C (1x) was featured by small or trace amounts of biomarkers, unusually high concentration of dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), high δ34S of DBTs and high δ13C value of n-alkanes. These suggest a close genetic relationship with the Cambrian source rocks and TSR alteration. On the contrary, the Middle Cambrian oils from well ZS1 (2a) were characterized by low δ13C of n-alkanes and relatively high δ34S of individual sulfur compounds and a general "V" shape of steranes, indicating a good genetic affinity with the Middle-Upper Ordovician source rocks. The middle Cambrian salt rock separating the oils was suggested to be one of the factors responsible for the differentiation. It was suggested that most of the deep oils in the Tazhong Uplift were mixed source based on biomarkers and carbon isotope, which contain TSR altered oil in varied degree. The percentage of the oils contributed by the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician was in the range of 19-100% (average 57%) controlled by several geological and geochemical events. Significant variations in the δ34S values for individual compounds in the oils were observed suggesting a combination of different extent of TSR and thermal maturation alterations. The unusually high DBTs concentrations in the Tazhong-4 oilfield suggested as a result of mixing with the ZS1C oil (1x) and Lower Ordovician oils based on δ34S values of DBT. This study will enhance our understanding of both deep and shallow oil sources in the Tazhong Uplift and clarify the formation mechanisms of the unusually high DBTs oils in the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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