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PetroChina Company Limited , is a Chinese oil and gas company and is the listed arm of state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation , headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing. It is China's biggest oil producer. Traded in Hong Kong and New York, the mainland enterprise announced its plans to issue stock in Shanghai in November 2007, and subsequently entered trading on the Shanghai index. Wikipedia.

On the basis of analyzing the existing logging data and oil test data results, the corresponding relationship between logging data and reservoir capacity is established to predict liquid convection and natural reservoir productivity, and then through well test design software to select parameters and simulate pressure history curve, optimize opening or closing time to ensure acquiring excellent quality of testing data. ©, 2015, Well Testing. All right reserved.

Zhang H.,Petrochina
Well Testing | Year: 2015

In recent years, there are more than four thousand Wells in Daqing oilfield oil used tubing conveyor perforation completion method every year, at the same time of guaranteeing the well control to be safety, the successful rate at once time of tubing conveyor perforation must also be ensured. Application of Perforating monitor can accurately test for weather perforating gun strings complete detonation or not, which guarantees the successful rate at once time of tubing conveyed perforation. ©, 2015, Well Testing. All right reserved.

Wang Y.,Rutgers University | Wang Y.,Petrochina | Biradar A.V.,Rutgers University | Asefa T.,Rutgers University
ChemSusChem | Year: 2012

We report the synthesis and catalytic activities of highly stable, hollow nanoreactors, called SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2, which consist of silica microsphere (SiO 2)-supported Pd nanoparticle multicores (Pd) that are encapsulated with a hollow and nanoporous ZrO 2 shell (h-ZrO 2). The SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 nanoreactors are fabricated by first synthesizing SiO 2/Pd/SiO 2/ZrO 2 microspheres, and then etching the inner SiO 2 shell with dilute NaOH solution. The hollow and nanoporous ZrO 2 shell of the nanoreactors serves two important functions: 1) it provides reactants direct access to the Pd nanoparticle multicores inside the SiO 2/Pd/h- ZrO 2 nanoreactors during catalysis, and 2) it stabilizes the Pd nanoparticles or protects them from aggregation/sintering. The fabrication of such structures capable of protecting the Pd nanoparticles from aggregation/sintering is of particular interest considering the fact that Pd nanoparticles generally have a high tendency to aggregate because of their high surface energies. Furthermore, the structures are interesting because the Pd nanoparticles are designed and synthesized here to have 'naked' surfaces or no organic surface-passivating ligands-that are often necessary to stabilize metallic nanoparticles-in order to increase their catalytic efficiency. The resulting SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 nanoreactors show excellent catalytic activity, as shown in the hydrogenation of olefins and nitro groups, even at room temperature under moderate hydrogen pressure. This stems from the SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 microspheres' high surface area and their small, stable, and bare Pd nanoparticles. Furthermore, the SiO 2/Pd/h-ZrO 2 nanoreactor catalysts remain fairly stable after reaction and can be recycled multiple times without losing their high catalytic activities. Coating glassy caves: A highly efficient and recyclable nanocatalyst, consisting of SiO 2 nanosphere-supported Pd nanoparticle multicores, coated with a hollow and nanoporous ZrO 2 shell, is synthesized. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in the hydrogenation of olefins and nitro groups, even at room temperature and moderate hydrogen pressure, owing to the small and stable Pd nanoparticles and their bare surface. The nanocatalyst also proves to be stable and can be recycled several times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liu D.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xiao S.,Petrochina | Chen X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Bu C.,Nanjing Southeast University
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012

Solid mixing has a great influence on heat transfer and reaction processes in fluidized bed reactors; however, a review shows that the quantitative results are scattered. In this work, the mechanisms of solid mixing in a bubbling fluidized bed are investigated by numerical simulation. A three-dimensional discrete element model (DEM)-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation tool is developed and employed to investigate solid mixing behaviors due to the passage of isolated bubbles, continuous bubbles, and interacting bubbles. The vital role of bubbles on solid mixing has been clearly demonstrated. The results show that: (a) solid mixing in the vertical direction is dominant; (b) when a bubble forms near the air distributor, the continuous jet directly penetrates into the bubble, leading the bubble growing up; (c) lateral solid transport is promoted by bubble interaction, especially when the bubble sizes are different. © 2011 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wang J.-W.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2012

Taking low permeability minor faulted block reservoir in fengtan block of Zhejiang oilfield as an example, through the research on flooding pattern form under fracturing situation by numerical reservoir simulation, compared to flood development effect of different well pattern which were triangular pattern, rectangular inverted five-spots pattern, quadrate inverted nine spot pattern, diamond inverted nine spot pattern and so on, the finding indicates the development effect of rectangular inverted five-spots pattern under fracturing situation is best. And it researches rational injector producer distance of inverted five-spots pattern on minor faulted block reservoir under different permeability and reservoir thickness. The research achievement has a guiding role in initial development design and development regulate of low permeability faulted block reservoir.

Qiu Z.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Deng S.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

Both China's reserves and production of natural gas have been growing rapidly in recent years. It is forecasted that China will have more gas production than oil before 2030 with the consideration of global development trend of natural gas and in comparison with the natural gas development history of U.S. On the basis of analysis of China's oil and gas development history, a new thinking about oil and gas exploration is proposed, that is, the hydrocarbon generation research is broaden from peak period to overall process, more attentions from good reservoir to multi-type reservoir and exploration from local traps to large area or total basin. Furthermore, the most important reason for gas production surpassing the oil is that the occurrence of natural gas is far more than that of oil in the nature, and the boom of unconventional natural gas promotes great change of exploration thinking; breakthroughs in fine three-dimensional seismic, horizontal well staged fracturing and other core technologies broaden the horizons of exploration. In addition, the paper proposes that hydrocarbon generation and conservation conditions are the most important factors in the future exploration and change of exploration thinking will certainly bring substantial increase of resources and great broadening of exploration field.

Chu G.,Petrochina
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2012

The construction of Dalian Changxing Island Petrochemical Park provides a new opportunity for further development of PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company. The grass-roots refinery is designed to process medium high-sulfhur crude oil from Middle East with 30. 6°API and 2.61% sulphur. Its heavy oil is mainly processed by the hydrogénation processes, which are supplemented by decarburization to improve the adaptability of crude oil. The refinery is planned to produce high value-added aromatics products, high-grade lube base oil products, fuel oil products meeting Euro V standards as well as petrochemical products by using C3, C4 light hydrocarbons resources. The hydrogen is produced from heavy feedstock by POX process, and the hydrogen resources of refinery are fully recovered to reduce the hydrogen costs. The significance and advantages of cooperation with the Petrochemical Park are finally analyzed, which shows that the project has a good profit-making potential.

Liu J.,Petrochina
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

An additive package for 70TBN marine cylinder oil was developed using high base number calcium naphthenate T114 as main metal detergent, then 70TBN marine cylinder oil was produced with said additive package. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared cylinder oil were tested and simulating performance evaluation was carried out using similar imported product as reference oil. Test results showed that the qualities of prepared cylinder oil and reference oil were at the same level, indicating that the prepared additive package could meet the demand of blending 70TBN marine cylinder oil. Moreover, this additive package exhibited good adaptability to various type I and type H base oil products (domestic and abroad) for blending qualified 70TBN marine cylinder oil. The commercial trial of producing said additive package showed that the reproducibility was excellent, and the prepared cylinder oil product having stable quality.

Li Z.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Lin C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Dong B.,Petrochina | Bu L.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

Thin intercalations and internal structures within mono-sandbody play a more and more important role in injection flooding and remaining oil generation. Based on depositional models of subaqueous distributary channels in the fluvial-dominated delta, we established an internal structure model for subaqueous distributary channels in the fluvial-dominated delta and figured out a three-dimensional distribution mode of intercalations in a single subaqueous distributary channel using data of outcrop photos and well sections. The results show that there are three kinds of intercalations within subaqueous distributary channels. The first is a lateral accretion intercalation that is formed when channels shift laterally, the second is a foreset intercalation that is formed when channel progradation occurs in a front slope, and the third is a vertical accretion intercalation that is formed when channel accretion occurs vertically in a flat area. These different intercalations may objectively reveal a three-dimensional distribution mode of basic units within subaqueous distributary channels and veritably reflect internal structures of subaqueous distributary channel sands in the fluvial-dominated delta.

Jia H.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

The gravity percolation mechanism was studied by establishing gravity percolation models including the mathematical model and mechanism model of layered reservoirs. The results show that the production by gravity drive is directly proportional to the permeability, reservoir thickness, fluid density of strata and the square of sine value of stratum dip, but inversely proportional to the fluid viscosity of strata. Gravity percolation occurs mainly in an area where the included angle to stratum dip is under 60°. Moreover, the bigger the angle, the weaker the percolation. The mechanism model indicates that the gravity percolation of water phase becomes obviously strong when the permeability is greater than 10 mD and stratum dip exceeds 5°. The injected water intrudes severely to a low position, so the water injection mode must be optimized to improve the development effect of such kind of reservoir. The practical application to typical fault blocks of the Hailar Basin showed that this approach could be used to both evaluate gravity energy and optimize water injection modes.

Gao H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang G.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang H.,Petrochina | Chen J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

The catalytic cracking performances of vacuum gas oil (VGO), vacuum residue (VR), and their mixtures with different blend ratios of VR (R 0) were investigated in a fixed fluidized bed reactor. The results indicate that a competitive adsorption effect developed between VGO and VR and further retarded VGO cracking. In accordance with the results and analysis of their reaction characteristics, a conceptual catalytic cracking process was proposed, and simulation experiments were carried out in a technical pilot scale riser (TPSR) apparatus. The results show that, compared with routine residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC), the competitive adsorption effect could be alleviated to some extent, and higher conversion and more desirable products could be obtained. Moreover, the balance of hydrogen for the products indicates that the decrease in coke and heavy cycle oil (HCO) at the optimal reaction conditions of the conceptual catalytic cracking process led to more hydrogen in the feed being distributed into the desired products. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Tian W.,Petrochina
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2012

The 3.5 MM TPY RFCC in PetroChina Guangxi Petrochemical Company is the only RFCC unit with process licensed from UOP in recent years, which applies the state-of-the-art two-stage regenerator, VSS separator, high-efficiency AFTM stripper and once-through catalyst cooler. After one year's normal operation and performance testing, unit's product slate has shown that the dry gas make is 3.07%, LPG yield 17.17%, gasoline yield is 39.42%, diesel yield 22.95%, slurry oil 7.17%, the coke make 9.19%, catalyst consumption 1.41 kg/1 feed and energy requirement 2372.66 MJ/t under the conditions of the feedstock properties of S.G 0.93, CCR 7.41%, Ni 15.30 μg/g and V2.80 μg/g. All these demonstrate that the RFCC unit has an excellent bottom upgrading capability and good product selectivity. It is at the leading edge in product distribution and energy consumption.

Li Z.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang G.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu Y.,Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology | Wang H.,Petrochina | And 3 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

The influences of the boiling point and fractional composition of coker gas oil (CGO) on the fluid catalytic cracking performance were investigated. Nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics in CGO were identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively, and their effects were studied systematically. The result shows that the catalytic cracking performance of CGO does not correspond to the boiling point of narrow fractions but rather to the basic nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics that have high molecular weight and/or high condensation tendencies adversely. On the basis of these results, a divisional fluid catalytic cracking (DFCC) process was proposed where a separate reaction zone was added to reduce the contents and effects of the adverse compounds in CGO during catalytic cracking. The simulation experiments of the DFCC process show that improved conversion and enhanced yield of light oil can be achieved when an appropriate reaction condition is applied to every reaction zone. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Chen Z.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Chen Z.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

In order to provide a theoretical basis for the casing design of rheological strata, we examined three models of equivalent external casing pressure, one is from the current standard and the other two are the viscoelastic fluid model and viscoelastic solid model, respectively. Based on the calculation results of field example by these three models, we concluded that compared with the real data of case studies, the model from current standard and the viscoelastic fluid model gave the equivalent external pressure considerably lower, while the equivalent external pressure derived from the viscoelastic solid model fitted the actual field situation very well.

Date analyses of the group-type fractions, saturated hydrocarbon chromatograms and biomarkers of crude oils from the western slope of Bayanhushu sag, Hailaer Basin showed that they are composed of heavy and normal oils and their depositional environment is an anoxic saline- or brackish-lake strongly-reducing environment. The saturated hydrocarbon chromatograms of the oils are distributed fully, indicating non-biodegradation. Carbon isotopes of the bulk crude oil are relatively lighter, with δ 13C values around -32‰. The oils contain gammacerane, β-carrotane, relatively lower tricyclic terpanes but higher pentacyclic hopanoids, and steroids composed mainly of ααα-regular steranes with the dominance of C 29 steranes. The oil-source correlation showed that the mature oil of Nantun and Tongbomiao Formation in the western slope is derived from mature source rock of Nantun Formation depocenter, while the low-maturity oil of Nantun Formation originates mainly from the low-maturity source rock of the Nantun Formation.

Zhang K.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Li Z.-C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zeng T.-S.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Dong X.-C.,Petrochina
Applied Geophysics | Year: 2010

Pre-stack depth migration velocity analysis is one of the keys to influencing the imaging quality of pre-stack migration. In this paper we cover a residual curvature velocity analysis method on angle-domain common image gathers (ADCIGs) which can depict the relationship between incident angle and migration depth at imaging points and update the migration velocity. Differing from offset-domain common image gathers (ODCIGs), ADCIGs are not disturbed by the multi-path problem which contributes to imaging artifacts, thus influencing the velocity analysis. On the basis of horizontal layers, we derive the residual depth equation and also propose a velocity analysis workflow for velocity scanning. The tests to synthetic and field data prove the velocity analysis methods adopted in this paper are robust and valid. © Editorial Office of Applied Geophysics and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

Wang S.-L.,Northwest University, China | Jiang M.-Z.,Northwest University, China | Liu H.,Petrochina
Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics | Year: 2011

The prediction of three-dimensional hydraulic fracturing morphology and extension is the main factor to evaluate the effects of hydraulic fracturing; adopting the method that combining damage mechanics and fracture mechanics to describe the mechanical behavior of cracks in the surface rock, and then the damage criterion and damage evolution equation in the crack surface are established. The equation is solved by using the method combining Newton-Raphson and the linear search; and then the dynamic crack extension process and the final morphology of hydraulic fracturing three-dimensional are obtained; and the mechanical essence is revealed. The correctness of the theory and calculation is verified through numerical examples; based on which, the main factor of crack extension is analyzed. The results provide more reliable and accurate prediction methods for hydraulic fracturing design, so as to improve reservoir hydraulic fracturing success rate.

The low permeable reservoir in Hailar basin has multiple types of rocks, complex geographic components and compact groundmass. To the conventional fracturing, the flow area controlled by fracture systems is limited for wings symmetric limitation fracture distribution, the effect of increasing production is poor and the production decreases quickly. Based on the concept of stimulated reservoir volume, optimized different fracturing technology to increase stimulated reservoir volume and drainage area by taking oil reservoir as stimulated object, production is increased by linking larger flow region. The application result shows that the effect of increasing production for complex lithologic reservoir in Hailar basin is better than the conventional one. ©, 2015, Well Testing. All right reserved.

Luo L.,Petrochina
Drilling Fluid and Completion Fluid | Year: 2015

In coal-bed methane (CBM) drilling and coal bed fracturing operations, coal powder generated, if deposited on the bottom of the hole, imposes severe negative effect on the productivity of the CBM well. A coal powder suspending agent, FYXF-3, was developed aimed at solving this problem. FYXF-3 at concentrations not less than 0.3% can suspend coal powders in good stability, ensuring their flow to the surface along with production fluid. FYXF-3 had the ability to reduce surface tension of liquid, enhancing the production efficiency and minimizing formation damage. Based on these studies and the characteristics of the coal bed in Hancheng area, a reasonable fracturing program was designed and applied successfully in field operations. ©, 2014, North China Petroleum Administration Drilling Technology Research Institute. All right reserved.

Lian Z.,Southwest Petroleum University | Yu H.,Southwest Petroleum University | Lin T.,Southwest Petroleum University | Guo J.,Petrochina
Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

Volume fracturing technique has effectively helped develop unconventional oil and gas reservoirs in recent years. At the same time, new problems of casing deformation failure occurred. Based on the drilling and well completion data, microseismic surveillance data, theories of fracture mechanics, rock damage mechanics and rock failure criterion, this paper established a finite element model of the formation of effective stimulated reservoir volume, including clustering perforation casing for X-1h shale gas horizontal well, to address the problems. The research results indicate: 1) the stress deficit of zero stress areas and tension stress areas occurred within the range of stimulated reservoir volume during the process of volume fracturing. And, the state of this stress deficit, which would make clustering perforation casings of horizontal wells "hanging" in the formation to some extent, resulted in certain degree of deflection deformation radically and S-shape deformation axially. 2) the problem of casing deformation failure remains fundamentally unsolvable through simply improving casing grade and wall thickness to increase flexural strength. 3) the key to solve casing deformation failure is the reasonable spacing design of multi-stage fracturing. The methods and achievements in the paper provide theoretical supports for the popularization and application of shale stimulated reservoir volume and controlling the S-shape deformation failures of the horizontal multi-cluster perforation casing. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Shao H.J.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

South Buir Sag is located in Tamsag Basin of Mongolia, which is a Mesozoic faulted basin. South Buir Sag shows the distinct characterization of faulted structure: many uplifts and many depressions, depressions alternated with many uplifts. This special structure framework results in the characteristic of multi-provenances, multi-depocencers. South Buir Sag experienced the whole process of Cretaceous basin development. South Buir Sag formed fan deltas-lacustrine system in the period of Tsagaantsav Formation, Lower Zuunbayan Formation which occurred in rifting stage. It developed deltas-lacustrine system during the period of Upper Zuunbayan Formation, Sainshand Formation, Bayanshire Formation which is in rifting-downwarping stage. From the period of Bayanshire Formation to present, South Buir Sag underwent downwarped and developed fluvial system. The sandstone of fan deltas front can provide favorable reservoir for hydrocarbon accumulation. Some regions of structure and deposition matching well can form lithology-structure petroleum reservoir. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wu H.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Chen J.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Liu H.,Petrochina
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Adsorption and displacement are two important issues in the exploitation of shale gas. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to study the mechanisms about adsorption and displacement of methane in carbon nanochannels. Here, the nanochannel is modeled as the slit pore. Because of the attractive potentials of the walls, more methane molecules can be stored in the slit pore compared to the bulk phase, and part of them are in the adsorption state. As the width of slit pore increases, the structure of adsorbed methane transforms from single adsorption layer to four adsorption layers. Moreover, it is found that the small slit pore fills up quicker and can store more methane than the larger one under relatively low pressure due to its deeper potential well. To displace the adsorbed methane and enhance the gas recovery, injection gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen are simulated and investigated. The displacement mechanisms of the two gases are found to be different: carbon dioxide can replace the adsorbed methane directly while nitrogen works by decreasing the partial pressure of methane. The simulation results show that injection of carbon dioxide gives slow breakthrough time, sharp front, while injection of nitrogen gives fast breakthrough time, wide front. Our work can be of great significance for revealing the mechanisms of adsorption and displacement and guiding the exploitation of shale gas. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Gu H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Cheng L.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Huang S.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Du B.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Hu C.,Petrochina
Energy | Year: 2014

Concentric dual-tubing steam injection is important in the process of thermal recovery for heavy oils. This paper firstly presented a mathematical model to predict thermophysical properties of saturated steam (i.e. steam pressure, temperature and quality) and wellbore heat losses in CDTSIW (concentric dual-tubing steam injection wells). More importantly, a semi-analytical model for estimating pressure gradient for steam/water flow in annuli was developed. Then the mathematical model is solved using an iterative technique. Predicted results were compared with measured field data to verify the accuracy of the model. The results indicate that the direction of heat transfer between fluids in the integral joint tubing and in the annulus depends not only on wellhead injection conditions but on temperature drop in each tubing. In addition, the steam qualities in CDTSIW are significantly influenced by heat exchange between fluids in dual tubing, which can cause steam boiling or condensation. Moreover, the paper shows that to effectively reduce the wellbore heat losses and to ensure high bottomhole steam qualities in Well Xing 67 of Liaohe Oilfield, the thermal conductivity of insulation materials should be less than 0.7 W/(m K). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yang H.-J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2015

In the Tarim Basin, it widely distributes thick dolostone in the Lower Proterozoic, in which advantaged source-reservoir-cap rock combinations were well certified with great hydrocarbon exploration potential. Two sets of reservoir-cap rock combinations present two exploration realm, which are below-salts dolostone realm and above-salts dolostone realm, respectively. Based on the analysis of source rocks, reservoir, cap rocks, paleo-uplifts and traps for the successful and failed wells, the critical factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation were pointed out. Paleo-uplift and distribution of source rocks are main factors affecting oil and gas accumulation in below-salts dolostones, whereas distribution of source rocks and cap rocks and faults control the hydrocarbon accumulation in above-salts dolostones. According to new knowledge on the distribution of source rocks, paleo-uplift and regional cap rocks, three advantaged exploration areas were selected: Two below-salts dolostones areas lying in Badong-Tazhong-Gucheng and Tabei area, and one above-salts dolostone area lying in Manxi-Gucheng area. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Alex G.,Stanford University | Han Z.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2015

Oil/gas pipeline safety is so essential in the global energy field that its focus should be on the real-time monitoring of the pipeline integrity to achieve its intrinsic safety. In view of this, we first summarized the state-of-the-art of oil/gas pipeline monitoring techniques, including internal and external monitoring methods, which failed to simultaneously meet the requirement of sensitivity, reliability, and real-time continuity. Then, we introduced the ultrasonic guided wave techniques as well as their advantages such as continuous monitoring with high-accuracy and accurate location, low alarm false and dismissal probability, relatively low quantity of earthwork, easy implementation, and its ability of monitoring the interior corrosion and fractures on the pipe walls, and so on. However, to adapt for being permanently installed to realize the continual real-time monitoring, these techniques need further improvement in terms of performance, size, power consumption, cost, etc. Finally, we presented the ultrasonic guided wave microsensors, i. e., miniaturized ultrasonic guided wave devices based on integrated circuits. Such microsensors combined with the remote data processing are permanently installed to achieve the continuous real-time monitoring of pipelines. This technique with highly integration and low power consumption will become the most promising and effective solution to the pipeline monitoring in the near future. ©, 2015, Natural Gas Industry Journal Agency. All right reserved.

Luan C.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2015

The air-foam flooding technology has been applied well in middle-high permeability reservoirs, however, it is less applied in low permeability reservoirs. The air-foam flooding mechanism and injection mode of low permeability reservoirs were studied throw literature research and the feasibility of air-foam flooding in low permeability reservoir was proceeded by indoor simulation experiment and field test. The results showed that when the residual oil saturation was lower than 20% in the high permeability layer, the foam fluid system can play a very good role and block the high permeability layer. A large number of crude oil in the low permeability layers was displaced during the air-foam flooding stage and the oil displacement efficiency rised from 8.33% to 50.55%. The water content of the field test well group decreased from 98% to 54%, the daily fluid production rate dropped from 3.5 m3 to 1 m3, and the daily oil production increased from 0.07 m3 to 0.46 m3. The air-foam flooding technology has tremendous potential in the development of low permeability reservoirs and has a certain reference function of stabilizing oil output and controlling water content for the similar reservoirs. ©, 2015, Fushun Petroleum Institute. All right reserved.

Zhang F.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Li C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Xu W.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2015

Ordovician carbonate is relatively developed in Ordos Basin, and its main reservoir space is corrosion caves. However, due to the small size of caves, it is difficult to predict the corrosion zone using the seismic data with low resolution. In this study, a conditioning factor was introduced into Stockwell transform (S-transform) to reduce the variation of Gaussian window with frequency, thus enhancing the temporal resolution of time-frequency spectrum. On this basis, wavelet spectrum fitting was performed on modified S-transform time-frequency spectra to achieve better focusing. Then the stratum absorption attributes profile was extracted to predict the carbonate corrosion caves. Actual data processing and analyzing results indicate that stable absorption attribute profiles can be obtained after wavelet spectrum fitting with the use of left-gradient or right-gradient method, clearly demonstrating the location of corrosion caves. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Feng Q.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhang J.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhang X.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Wen S.,Petrochina
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2014

The gross calorific value (GCV) of coal is important in both the direct use and conversion into other fuel forms of coals. The measurement of GCV usually requires sophisticated bomb calorimetric experimental apparatus and expertise, whereas proximate analysis is much cheaper, easier and faster to conduct. This paper presents the application of three regression models, i.e., support vector machine (SVM), alternating conditional expectation (ACE) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict the GCV of coals based on proximate analysis information. Analytical data of 76 Chinese coal samples, with a large variation in rank were acquired and used as input into thesemodels. Themodeling results showthat: 1) all threemethods are generally capable of tracking the variation trend of GCVwith the proximate analysis parameters; 2) SVMperforms the best in terms of generalization capability among the models investigated; 3) BPNN has the potential to outperform SVMin the training stage and ACE in both training and testing stages; however, its prediction accuracy is dramatically affected by the model parameters including hidden neuron number, learning rate and initial weights; 4) ACE performs slightly better with respect to the generalization capability than does BPNN, on an averaged scale. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liu X.,Sinopec | Liu Z.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2015

Aiming at the diversity of borehole trajectory model, a universal format is provided for spatial arc, cylindrical helix, natural curve and other models. The spatial coordinate increment of each borehole trajectory model is expressed as the product of three coordinate-distribution coefficients and a certain reference value, and the coordinate-distribution coefficient can be used to characterize the coordinate increment corresponding to the reference value per unit length. Then, a conversion coefficient of reference value is introduced, so as to convert the reference value of each borehole trajectory model into well length. As a result, the coordinate increment of each borehole trajectory model is expressed as the product of reference-value conversion coefficient, coordinate distribution coefficient and well length, characterized by concise format easy for computer programming. Due to the fact that different borehole trajectory models correspond to various steering drilling modes, the calculation method for different steering drilling modes should be established according to the design, monitoring and control of the same borehole trajectory. A universal format of borehole trajectory model can provide the generally applicable calculation method, while it is only required to select the borehole trajectory model with different coefficients for various steering drilling modes. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Qi X.,Petrochina
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2015

Salt scaling frequently occurred in the hydrocracking unit in PetroChina Jinzhou Petrochemical Company. The scaling was faster especially after coker gas oil was added into the feed. The contents of heteroatoms in crude oil, vacuum gas oil, coker gas oil, and reformate hydrogen were determined. It is verified that the main component of the scale is ammonium chloride and the scaling is caused by the excess chlorine and nitrogen content in the hydrocracking feedstocks, and high nitrogen content in feed from coker gas oil accelerates the trend of scaling formation.

Hou Q.,Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics | Li H.,Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics | Fan J.,Petrochina | Ju Y.,Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics | And 3 more authors.
Science China Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Research on structure of tectonically deformed coals (TDC) is a key issue in coal and gas outburst prevention and coalbed methane (CBM) exploitation. This paper presents a summary on the research progress in TDC's structural-genetic classification, tectonic strain influence on coal microstructure, coal porosity system, coal chemical structure and constituents, and their relationship with the excess coalbed methane. Previous studies suggested that tectonic deformation had significant influence on coal microstructure, coal super microstructure, and even chemical macromolecular structure. The main mechanisms of coal deformation are the tectonic stress degradation and polycondensation metamorphism (dynamical metamorphism). Besides, under different deformation mechanisms, the ultra- and micro-structure and chemical constituents of TDC presented distinct characteristics. Based on these achievements, we propose one possible evolutionary trend of TDC with different deformation mechanisms, and suggest that the coal and gas outburst in the TDC, especially in the mylonitic coals, may be not only controlled by geological structure, but also influenced by the tectonic stress degradation of ductile deformation. Therefore, further study on TDC should be focused on the controlling mechanism of deformation on structure and composition of coal, generation conditions and occurrence state of excess coalbed methane from deformation mechanism of coal. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Pei Y.,Fudan University | Zhou G.,Fudan University | Luan N.,University of Notre Dame | Zong B.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Amorphous alloys structurally deviate from crystalline materials in that they possess unique short-range ordered and long-range disordered atomic arrangement. They are important catalytic materials due to their unique chemical and structural properties including broadly adjustable composition, structural homogeneity, and high concentration of coordinatively unsaturated sites. As chemically reduced metal-metalloid amorphous alloys exhibit excellent catalytic performance in applications such as efficient chemical production, energy conversion, and environmental remediation, there is an intense surge in interest in using them as catalytic materials. This critical review summarizes the progress in the study of the metal-metalloid amorphous alloy catalysts, mainly in recent decades, with special focus on their synthetic strategies and catalytic applications in petrochemical, fine chemical, energy, and environmental relevant reactions. The review is intended to be a valuable resource to researchers interested in these exciting catalytic materials. We concluded the review with some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities about the future developments of metal-metalloid amorphous alloy catalysts. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhao L.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

This document explains different tectonic styles and sedimentary fillings give rise to the different accumulation combinations and accumulation models between the south and the north frogs of East Subsag of South Buir Sag. The Tsagaantsav Formation oil pools, subject to the rupture of the fault-period tectonic layers, has developed multiple types of traps including reverse fault blocks, fault noses and drag anticlines. They are close to the oil-generating sags, in the indicator areas of hydrocarbon migration where hydrocarbon pools, particularly tectonic-controlled pools, are easily formed. The lithology and physical property play an important controlling role over the formation of oil pools with complicated oil-water distribution relationship. The constant and the late active ruptures as longitudinal hydrocarbon migration pathways, together with the sedimentary sands of multiple genesis types, have given shape to the multi-formation lithologic, lithologic-tectonic or tectonic accumulation combinations. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

When the concentration of polymer in ternary compound system of Daqing oilfield was detected by turbidimetric method, the test result could be influenced by alkali and surfactant. In order to measure more accurately the concentration of polymer in ternary compound system, the research on the improvement of turbidimetric method was carried out, the effect of surfactant was eliminated by salt-out extraction analysis method and the effect of alkali was removed by increasing the dosage of acetic acid. The application of improved turbidimetric method in the determination of polymer concentration in produced fluid of oil well was studied. The results showed that the improved turbidimetric method eliminated the interference of surfactant and alkali in ternary compound system, and improved the accuracy of test results. When improved turbidimetric method was used to detect the polymer concentration of ternary system in laboratory, the relative error decreased from 2.00%-50.25% to -4.40%-2.00%, while used to detect the polymer concentration in produced fluid of oil well in alkali ternary compound pilot area of Lamadian oilfield, the relative error was 1.90%-5.20%.

Zhou G.,Fudan University | Liu J.,Fudan University | Tan X.,Fudan University | Pei Y.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

Ru-B/ZrO 2 catalysts using monoclinic, amorphous, and tetragonal ZrO 2 as supports were prepared and used for liquid-phase hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene. It is identified that both the Lewis acid sites and the Brønsted acid sites existed on monoclinic ZrO 2 (ZrO 2-M), while there were only Lewis acid sites on amorphous (ZrO 2-A) and tetragonal ZrO 2 (ZrO 2-T). The amount of acid sites on ZrO 2-T was the lowest. In liquid-phase hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene, the Ru-B/ZrO 2-T catalyst exhibited the highest selectivity and yield of cyclohexene, with the maximum yield of cyclohexene being 47%. These results suggest that for ZrO 2-supported Ru-B catalysts, the lower was the amount of acid sites on ZrO 2, the higher was the selectivity to cyclohexene. Also, the presence of the Brønsted acid sites on ZrO 2 is probably adverse to the selectivity toward cyclohexene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Jia Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhang Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Wang R.,Jilin University | Yi J.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

A new kind of inorganic-organic hybrid zirconium phosphonate material (NTAZP) with mesoporous structure was synthesized using nitrilotris(methylene)- triphosphonic acid (ATMP) and zirconium dichloride oxide octahydrate. The sample possesses a spherical morphology, and the spheres are composed of lobular lamellae. The lobular lamellae have the structure of a worm-like mesoporous (about 2.7 nm) framework and a high surface area (about 160.4 m 2/g), which were characterized by SEM, TEM, N 2 sorption, XRD, TG-DTA, elemental analysis, TOC (total organic carbon), XPS, and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared NTAZP was used as adsorbent for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions (e.g., Pb 2+, Cu 2+, and Cd 2+). Our results indicate that the material has good prospects for application as an adsorbent in wastewater processing. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Wang J.,Dalian University of Technology | Lu J.,Dalian University of Technology | Yang J.,Dalian University of Technology | Xiao W.,Petrochina
Materials Letters | Year: 2012

Highly ordered mesoporous MCM-48 molecular sieve has been successfully synthesized using mixed surfactant of cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as templates at low surfactant-to-silica ratio (molar) of 0.177. Our work provides a commercially important approach to synthesize ordered mesoporous material by introducing cheap anionic surfactant SDS as co-template. The molar composition of surfactant mixture was CTAB: SDS = 6.08. The characterization of the material shows that the pore diameter and BET surface area of as-prepared MCM-48 is 2.72 nm and 861.8 m 2 g - 1, respectively. The possible formation mechanism of MCM-48 using mixed surfactant template has been discussed according to Gibbs free energy theory and surfactant packing parameter theory. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yang T.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

In view of oil-water two phase displacement experiment can't from the micro level such as throat problem for reservoir use condition is described, Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology can reflect the oil-water distribution from the microscopic view, Combined the macro oil displacement effect and micro pore structure. By using nuclear magnetic resonance T2 spectrum changing into throat radius and saturation calculation method in different throat range. Quantitative description the distribution of bound water, residual oil I and oil produced in different in pores of drainage and Suction process, to a certain extent in the comprehensive understanding of microscopic reservoir pore space, has the vital significance for reservoir evaluation. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zou C.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhao P.,Southwest Petroleum University | Shi L.,Southwest Petroleum University | Huang S.,Petrochina | Luo P.,Southwest Petroleum University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3wt%, temperature of 65°C and reaction time of 180min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Tian Y.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Yao Y.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Zhi Y.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Yan L.,Petrochina | Lu S.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2015

An efficient extraction-oxidation catalytic system for deep desulfurization of a model fuel was explored. First, Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and were characterized using X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction, and N2 physical adsorption isotherms. Acetonitrile, methanol, N,N-dimethylformamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, and H2O were added to investigate the influences of different extracting agents for extraction-oxidation desulfurization. Acetonitrile showed synergistic action for dibenzothiophene oxidation and a comparatively low dissolving capacity for aromatic compounds. Under a n(H2O2)/n(S) molar ratio of 2.3 and v(oil)/v(acetonitrile) of 3:1, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene were almost completely removed in the presence of the 16 wt % Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst over 40 min at 333 K. A reaction pathway based on extraction-oxidation was proposed in which the sulfur compounds were transferred to the extracting phase before oxidizing to form sulfones in the extracting phase. The extraction process was rapid relative to the oxidation process. The advantages of the extraction-oxidation catalytic system are that a high sulfur removal can be achieved under a lower n(H2O2)/n(S) molar ratio and that the stability of the catalyst is significantly improved. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Guo R.,Peking University | Liu S.,Peking University | Wyman D.,University of Sydney | Bai X.,Peking University | And 3 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2015

We report on volcanic rocks of the Qinglong-Zhuzhangzi area in northeastern Eastern Hebei Province, North China Craton. The supracrustal rock associations in the study area consist of amphibole/biotite plagioclase gneiss, mica (plagioclase) gneiss/schist, biotite K-feldspar gneiss, (pyroxene) plagioclase amphibolite and amphibolite. Twenty-five new mafic, intermediate to felsic samples can be geochemically classified into four groups. Group 1 is similar to fore arc low Ti tholeiite and is characterized by low SiO2 (49.7wt%) and TiO2 (0.43wt%), slightly depleted LREE and MREE pattern with (La/Yb)N ratio of 0.74, (Gd/Yb)N ratio of 0.82. It most likely derived from depleted mantle in a subduction initiation environment. Group 2 is akin to primitive arc tholeiites with low SiO2 (49.7-51.8wt%), slight enrichments of LREE ((La/Sm)N: 1.06-1.53) and negative Nb anomalies ((Nb/La)PM: 0.50-0.76). Group 3 resembles evolved arc tholeiites and displays pronounced enrichments of LREE ((La/Yb)N of 2.38-11.3, (La/Sm)N of 1.70-2.86) and negative Nb, Ta anomalies ((Nb/La)PM: 0.14-0.34, except sample 11JD28-4 with that ratio of 1.00). Group 2 and 3 formed by partial melting of sub-arc depleted mantle wedge modified by differing quantities of slab flux addition. Group 4 comprises K-rich andesite-dacites, which are distinguished by the highest SiO2 (54.0-71.8wt%), K contents (up to 5.03wt%), strong enrichments of LREE ((La/Yb)N ratios of 4.83-19) and negative Nb-Ta anomalies, analogous to shoshonitic rocks marking late stage of subduction.LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses of evolved arc basalts and K-rich andesite-dacites display crystallization ages of 2511-2604. Ma and single stage Hf model ages of 2534-2927. Ma (most focus on 2650-2800. Ma). In contrast to ~2510-2560. Ma arc associations, ~2604. Ma shoshonitic dacites most plausibly represent an older orogenic event. Collectively, supracrustal rocks in the Qinglong-Zhuzhangzi area constitute a series of volcanic arc associations that correspond to an entire subduction cycle ranging from orogen to primitive arc-evolved arc and back to an orogenic setting, which further demonstrate that, by the late Archean, plate tectonic and subduction processes already closely resembled modern counterparts. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Chen C.,Zhejiang University | Zhu J.,Zhejiang University | Chen F.,Zhejiang University | Meng X.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2013

Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has recently been attracted much attention, and catalytic combustion is one of good methods for solving this problem. In this research, we show a successful preparation of mesoporous Beta zeolite-supported Pt catalyst (Pt-R/Beta-H) and its superior performance in the catalytic combustion of toluene. N2 sorption isotherms show that the mesopore volume of Pt-R/Beta-H reaches 0.18cm3/g, and TEM images exhibit that the Pt particles exist in both micropores and mesopores of the sample. Interestingly, the Pt particles on Pt-R/Beta-H have higher dispersion than the Pt particles on conventional Beta zeolite (Pt-R/Beta). XPS spectra also reveal that Pt-R/Beta-H has higher Pt0/Pt2+ ratio than Pt-R/Beta. Very importantly, Pt-R/Beta-H exhibits much higher catalytic activities and longer catalyst life as well as lower apparent activation energy in the catalytic combustion of toluene than Pt-R/Beta. The extraordinary performance in the catalytic combustion of toluene over Pt-R/Beta-H catalyst is of great importance for obtaining clean environment and enhancing human health. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Liu H.S.,Petrochina
Advances in Energy Science and Equipment Engineering - Proceedings of International Conference on Energy Equipment Science and Engineering, ICEESE 2015 | Year: 2015

The foam is a viscoelastic fluid, and has a larger flow resistance than polymer. Therefore, foam flooding is a great potential for EOR technology, in order to study the non-ionic gemini surfactant and polymer system foam property. The interfacial activity, foam property, and flow resistance were investigated under the Daqing oil reservoir condition. The experiment shows that the ultra-low interfacial tension is acquired between oil and the binary system with the surfactant concentration range of 0.1 wt% and 0.4 wt% and polymer concentration less than 0.15 wt%. The foam composite index of the binary system is very good, when the surfactant concentration is greater than 0.4 wt%, with polymer concentration of 0.15 wt%. The foam resistance factor increases as the surfactant and polymer concentration increases. There is a matching relationship between the foam system mobility control ability and core permeability. The same foam system cannot improve the flooding control ability of all different permeability cores. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Xu Z.S.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

MG- solid gas source is mainly composed of PH (phenols) and NI (nitrate) two kinds of solid components, in the presence of catalyst, which will start to react and produce CO2, N2 and RNH2(R: methyl or H) mixed gas at 50°C ~ 380°C (adjustable) called MG for short. Its profile control, heavy oil viscosity reduction and cleanup functions can be widely used in heavy oil thermal recovery, better than the N2 gas. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Yuanzhi Q.U.,Petrochina
Drilling Fluid and Completion Fluid | Year: 2010

Molecular design for a new amine-type shale inhibitor is done based on an analysis of the inhibition of shale hydration. The amine shale inhibitor is synthesized using catalysis-amination method. Laboratory analyses with IR, ESIMS and GC/MS show that the synthesized shale inhibitor has a molecular structure that has good similarity with the designed one. This inhibitor has functional groups such as amido and ether in its molecule, and is a fatty amine oligomer with molecular weights of less than 1, 000. The designed molecular structure is very suitable for amine-type shale inhibitor molecular design.

Li M.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang Y.,Petrochina
Journal of Convergence Information Technology | Year: 2012

In order to process the assessment information more exactly and make the decision result more understandable in linguistic setting, a hybrid approach integrating OWA aggregation into VIKOR for multiple attributive group decision making in 2-tuple linguistic setting is proposed. In the method, the OWA is used to aggregate the linguistic assessment information. According to the ideas of VIKOR, the positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are got. The optimal alternative(s) is determined by the criteria that are group utility, individual regret and advantage rate linguistically. The method has exact characteristics in linguistic information processing and the result is accepted more readily. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the use of the proposed method. The result shows the approach is simple, effective and easy to calculate.

Wu Y.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhang P.,Southwest Petroleum University | Xie Y.,Petrochina
Hanjie Xuebao/Transactions of the China Welding Institution | Year: 2013

For the typical plain dent on pipeline, according to the actual operation situation of the pipeline, the finite element models were established. When other parameters were invariable, a large number of calculations were carried out by changing dent depth, pipe wall thickness, pipe diameter and longitudinal dent length. The calculation results were sorted, inducted, and plotted. On this basis, the results were analyzed by single factor and multiple factors analysis, and then the changing rules between the stress and various parameters were obtained. Non-linear regression analysis was utilized to fit the results. The results show that the relationships between the maximum stress in the dented pipeline, the dent depth, wall thickness, diameter of pipeline, and the longitudinal length of the dent were modeled by sine, index, linear and semi-log liner function, respectively. Some specific expression are obtained in certain range.

Wu Z.,Nankai University | Ge S.,Petrochina
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2011

A Co-B nanoparticle catalyst was prepared by a modified polyol method. Borohydride served both as a reducing agent for Co2+ and as a boron source, and the solvent, ethylene glycol, served as the surfactant and stabilizer to assemble Co-B clusters into small and uniform particles. The as-prepared Co-B possessed high surface active metal area and highly unsaturated coordinated Co metal, resulting in lower activation energy and higher hydrogen generation rate for hydrolysis of alkaline NaBH4 solution than the conventional Co-B catalyst synthesized from chemical reduction in water bath. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In the process of pressure buildup testing in Qingshen gas field, well test interpretation can't reflect the characteristics of the formation exactly since the testing time is too short, resulting in no appearing of the radial flow features of the pressure and the pressure derivative and multi solutions. By usage of the deconvolution methods to explain the test data of the multi-stage fracturing horizontal well and two producing wells and processing all the production and the output pressure data comprehensively, more reliable formation parameters than conventional interpretation are obtained which provides important basis for making exploration and development plan later. ©, 2015, Well Testing. All right reserved.

In the SEC reserve evaluation method, the evaluation method of depreciation is the only steam injection in heavy oil reservoir development, the application of this method is the key to rationally determine the decline rate. While the thermal recovery of heavy oil wells, often used between inter block replacement pattern of development, production profile often appear relatively stable or multi segment decline, resulting in declining rate is difficult to determine a reasonable. In view of this situation, consider the method of calculation of steam stimulation domestic technical recoverable reserves of heavy oil reservoirs of the cumulative oil steam ratio method is introduced to the SEC reserve evaluation, auxiliary to determine a reasonable lapse rate, and in Shuguang oilfield block Du229 cases, calculate the SEC reserves results consistent with oilfield development practice. Confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the method, and has certain reference significance for other SEC reserve evaluation of oilfield. ©, 2015, Well Testing. All right reserved.

Li G.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

Cations had great effects on the properties of alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) system. The ASP systems were prepared by the deionized water, and the Na + mass concentration of the ASP system was adjusted by changing the mass fractions of NaOH and NaCl. The effects of Na + mass concentration on the viscosity of ASP and the oil-water interfacial tension between crude oil and ASP were investigated. The results showed that when the mass concentration of Na + reached a much higher value, the viscosity of the ASP system would not change any more. Whether there was high mass fraction of NaOH and low mass fraction of NaCl or high mass fraction of NaCl and low mass fraction of NaOH, as long as the mass concentration of Na + was in the range of 5200 mg/L to 7700 mg/L, the ultra-low oil-water interfacial tension (<10 -3mN/m) between crude oil and ASP the crude oil could be obtained, because the change of Na + mass concentration may lead to the change of the surfactant adsorption at the oil-water interface.

Fan C.,China University of Geosciences | Su Z.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Zhou L.,Petrochina
Scientia Geologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Darlbute fault is located on the northwestern boundary of the Junggar Basin and it is considered to be a typical large-scaled reverse fault. Field work and investigation indicates that, Darlbute fault is also characterized by a sub-component of sinistral stike-slip faulting. The maximum displacement is displayed in the Paleozoic formations along its southwestern segment, ~60 km offsets. Many meso-and micro-scaled brittle and ductile structures coextensive along the fault demonstrate that the Darlbute fault experiences multi-staged activities and the sinistral stike-slip faulting might prevaile from the earlier stage into the later. Besides, we also speculate that Lake Aibi, Heshituoluogai Basin emerged at the end of the Darlbute fault both are considered to be pull-apart basins; while, the dome in north-west part of the fault also acts as a transpression structure produced by the displacement motion of the Darlbute fault during activities. They accommodate most of the sinistral displacements. We speculate all of them compose a conjugated fault system together with the Altai fault system, that is, the NE-SW left-lateral strike-slip faults with a series of NW-SE dextral faults. The conjugate fault system in this region may indicate a consistent dynamic background regime of north-south extrusion towards the northern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau. ©, 2014, Science Press. All right reserved.

Cui C.Y.,Petrochina
Advances in Energy Science and Equipment Engineering - Proceedings of International Conference on Energy Equipment Science and Engineering, ICEESE 2015 | Year: 2015

The foam flooding in porous media experiments were investigated by an oil displacement experiment, and the influence of α-olefin sulfonate, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide concentration, gas liquid ratio, and injection methods on the foam flooding property were studied. The experiment results showed that the foam flooding resistance coefficient and residual resistance coefficient increased with the increasing concentration of α-olefin sulfonate and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The foam flooding resistance coefficient and residual resistance coefficient in the non-oil rock heart was more than three times of that in the oil-bearing rock. Under the condition that α-olefin sulfonate and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide concentration are greater than a certain value, the foam flooding resistance coefficient and residual resistance coefficient were stabilized. Appropriate increasing ratio of gas-liquid could improve the foam flooding control ability, but too much ratio of gas-liquid would cause gas channeling. The same foam system did not improve the flooding control ability of all different permeability cores. Ahead of foam injection way led to a better foam flow control ability than other ways; with an alternate way to inject liquid and gas the foam flow control ability increased with alternating reduced slug. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Huang L.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

We develop the research on macrograph grain size analysis method of tight gravel-rock, in allusion to the difficulty in conducting the grain size analysis due to difficult dissolution of oversized rock particles with adamant lithology in deep-seated natural gas conglomerate reservoir in Daqing Songliao Basin. The research includes the establishment of coarse clastic grain grade scale, sample selecting, grain extraction, data processing method, and so on. This testing method meets the requirements of the grain size analysis of the coarse clastic rock with grain diameter more than 4000 micron, gives the features of the grain size distribution and provides references to deposition reservoir research. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

Dou H.,Petrochina | Yang Y.,China National Petroleum Corporation
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

This paper studies typical nonlinear models of fluid flow through multi-porous media in low-permeability reservoirs, analyzes hypothesis conditions, derivation process and the experimental data rationality, and clarifies some confusions in order to understand the fluid flow rules through multi-porous medium in low permeability reservoirs. There are three problems in establishing the models: first, hypothesis conditions cannot be proved, calculation values cannot be measured; second, wrong basic equation not only was used, but also wrong of derivation process, and derived equation is also a wrong equation; third, the threshold pressure gradients obtained from rock samples of low permeability reservoirs at the laboratory are too high, without rationality. The threshold pressure gradient does not exist in all of the low-permeability reservoirs, only when pressure coefficient of low-permeability reservoir is less than one, fluid flow through multi-porous media should need the threshold pressure gradient, threshold pressure gradient should not be considered in reservoir numerical simulation, productivity prediction and well testing in low permeability reservoirs development. To reveal flow rules of low permeability reservoirs and establish theory of low-permeability oilfield development it's necessary to develop the digital rock technology, innovate experimental skills of modern petrophysics and so on.

Dou H.,Petrochina | Yang Y.,China National Petroleum Corporation
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

This paper studies typical nonlinear models of fluid flow through multi-porous media in low-permeability reservoirs, analyzes hypothesis conditions, derivation process and the experimental data rationality, and clarifies some confusions in order to understand the fluid flow rules through multi-porous medium in low permeability reservoirs. There are three problems in establishing the models: first, hypothesis conditions cannot be proved, calculation values cannot be measured; second, wrong basic equation not only was used, but also wrong of derivation process, and derived equation is also a wrong equation; third, the threshold pressure gradients obtained from rock samples of low permeability reservoirs at the laboratory are too high, without rationality. The threshold pressure gradient does not exist in all of the low-permeability reservoirs, only when pressure coefficient of low-permeability reservoir is less than one, fluid flow through multi-porous media should need the threshold pressure gradient, threshold pressure gradient should not be considered in reservoir numerical simulation, productivity prediction and well testing in low permeability reservoirs development. To reveal flow rules of low permeability reservoirs and establish theory of low-permeability oilfield development it's necessary to develop the digital rock technology, innovate experimental skills of modern petrophysics and so on. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Bo X.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

Since natural gas market in China has stepped into a fast growing era, sources of gas supplies are becoming diversified. From the current research results, it is predicted that by 2015, the maximum gas supply of indigenous unconventional natural gas, CBM, coal-derived gas, shale gas, imported pipeline gas and LNG will be up to 350 billion m 3, being over 90 billion m 3 more than the currently predicted gas demand; the minimum gas supply will reach 310 billion m 3, being nearly 60 billion m 3 more than the demand. Through a comprehensive analysis, the following conclusions are drawn. First, multiple sources of gas supplies will have been achieved by 2015, completely resolving the short supply of gas. In theory at least, it is predicted that the gas supply will exceed the demand. Second, in combination with the long-distance gas pipelines (90 thousand km in length) and the working gas capacity of gas storage tanks (13 billion m 3) to be fulfilled, it is considered that the flexibility and reliability of national gas supply will be significantly improved. Third, with the infrastructure to be completed, it is expected that there will be more available sources of gas supplies by 2020. In summary, under the future situation of diversified and sufficient gas supplies, how to optimize the gas supply pattern will be more important than ever before. In the end, the proposals are presented herein: to deal well with the relationship between the domestic and the imported gas resources; to have an overall planning of LNG import projects according to different coastal areas and different oil and gas companies; and to narrow the gap between domestic and international gas prices.

Zhang J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chu D.,East China University of Science and Technology | Huang J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Yu Z.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2010

The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dai J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Li J.,Petrochina | Wang B.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Pan R.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Serious water production and the confusion about the distribution regularity and formation mechanism of gas and water affect the progressive development in the western area of Sulige gas field. Making use of drilling, logging, and testing data, this comprehensive study determines the gas-water distribution regularity and formation mechanism, and establishes the evolution modes of gas-water distribution. The results show that, (1) the gas-water distribution appears complementarily, and relatively water-rich area is located in the northwest; (2) source rock, reservoir physical property and structure are the key controlling factors of gas-water distribution, and formation water is distributed in areas with less developed source rocks, areas of poor properties, and structural lows within connecting bodies; (3) source rocks play a key role in controlling the distribution of gas and water, source area of low maturity is rich in formation water, while source area of high maturity is rich in gas. This research gives direction for favorable areas and well site selection in the progressive development of the gas field. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Gao J.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

Rock-electrical parameters are studied through many experiments and saturation interpretation are made in the geological condition. The study is show that polymer solution have low mobility and conductivity; polymer concentration have effect on rock-electrical parameters, and shale content is lower and pore texture is better when concentration becomes higher. Correspondingly, a is bigger and m and n are smaller. Sedimentary microfacies control product polymer concentration directly. The Archies formula is suitable for polymer flooding reservoir, and saturation interpretation are made by using of different rock-electrical parameters.

Jiang Z.,China University of Ceosciences Beijing | Xu J.,China University of Ceosciences Beijing | Wang G.,Petrochina
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2012

The sandstone at the base of the Upper Pennsylvanian Taiyuan Formation (Ct.2) is a prominent gas reservoir in the Daniudi gas field, northeastern Ordos Basin, China. Logs, cores, thin sections, outcrops, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional seismic data are used to delineate sedimentary facies and to divide the succession into sequence-stratigraphic units. The gas-bearing coarse-grained sandstone is interpreted as a fluvial-dominated incised-valley fill. A sedimentary hiatus documented for the first time in the study area forms the sequence boundary between the Lower Pennsylvanian Taiyuan Formation (Ct 1) and Upper Pennsylvanian (Ct 2]. The hiatus and overlying incised-valley fill can be observed at the Heidaigou outcrop, where the presence of bauxite indicates a period of subaerial weathering. The incised-valley fill and hiatus can also be found through the outcrop correlation of Xipo, Chengjiazhuang, Qiaotou, and Heidaigou at the eastern margin of Ordos Basin. Two types of basin ward and two types of landward facies shifts are identified between Ct 1 and Ct. 2 based on core observations and cross-well profiles analysis to demonstrate abrupt facies change and punctuation. Further evidence for a hiatus is provided by an onlap at this surface on the seismic data. Copyright © 2012. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

Yu P.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The analysis of the East uplift well's logging and core data, and the results of the organic geochemistry and the experiment analysis about the intended interval samples reveal that the East uplift of Upper Paleozoic Carboniferous-Permian mudstone has larger thickness, spreads widely and stably, with main type III kerogen, abundance index (TOC>2.0%), and high thermal evolution (R o=1.5%~2.6%), which means there has mother rock conditions of shale gas reservoir. Dark mudstone with high organic carbon content for adsorption states of shale gas provides abundant carrier, and microfracture development provides excellent reservoir space for the free state of shale gas. At the same time, high quartz mineral content (average SiO 2>40%), makes the lithology brittle and easy to form crack, which comply with in accordance with engineering fracture condition. Some drilled wells in the Carboniferous-Permian mudstone section have the prevalence of gas logging total hydrocarbon anomaly, which indicate that the East uplift of Upper Paleozoic carboniferous-Permian has larger shale gas exploration potential.

Taixian Z.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

The Paleozoic shales in South China are of high maturity and in the shale formations there are multiple types of pores and fissures, particularly well-developed micro- and nano-scale pores. A correct understanding of pore features is the basis of the study of shale gas storage, interaction between reservoir properties and fluids, adsorption, permeability, porosity and gas migration. Observation and physical test were integrated to study the pore features of marine shales in South China. The observation methods include visual inspection, optical microscope, SEM, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. They were used to describe the geometry, connectivity and fillings of pores, to count the dominant azimuth and density of pores, and to take photographs. All these data were used to determine the genetic types of shales. The physical tests include the Helium porosity test, mercury injection, low temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption, low temperature CO 2 adsorption, etc. They were used to measure pore volume, size and distribution of pore diameter, pore structure, and specific surface area. All these data were used to evaluate the gas-bearing capacity of shales. The following conclusions are drawn. The nanopores in the shale formations are dominated by intra-kerogen, intergranular, intercrystalline and dissolution nanopores. Their pore throats are sheet-like or curved leaf-like and pore diameters are in the range of 10-1000 nm. The nanopores (pore diameter: 30-100 nm) are the main part of connected reservoir space of tight reservoirs. Shale reservoir space can be classified into 5 types according to pore diameters, namely fissures (pore diameter:> 10000 nm), macropores (pore diameter: 1000-10000 nm), mesopores (pore diameter: 100-1000 nm), transient pores (pore diameter: 10-100 nm), and micropores (pore diameter:< 10 nm).

Sun J.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The eastern slope of Jimusar Sag of Junggar Basin which shows good exploration prospect is a very important strategic area that can make Xinjiang oilfield enforce litho stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoir exploration and increase oil-gas reserve and production. The sedimentary facies, reservoir and injection of the Wutonggou Formation are studied by using drilling, logging, testing and seismic data. The major facies are braided river delta which subaqueous distributary channels of the front and braided channels of the plain are the most favourable high-quality reservoir sand bodies and lacustrine. The reservoir can be divided into four types, and litho stratigraphic traps Wutougou Formation are mainly type III, which are neat the source of good physical property and thick cap look, and are of better reliability. The key to better litho stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoir exploration is application of reservoir prediction technologies base on sequence stratigraphy, which can make the sand bodies prediction and identification of subaqueous distributary channels onlap of the front and braided channels of the plain more available.

Li L.,Southwest Petroleum University | Tan X.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhou S.,Petrochina | Zou C.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The inconsistence in different mining areas of the stratigraphic division schemes of Leikoupo Formation, Sichuan Basin, and the fact that on the karst zone strata sloughed off effected by Early Indosinian movement, brings about a problem of stratigraphic classification and lithofacies paleographic reconstitution. Guided by sequence stratigraphy theories and methods, this paper collates and stipulates the stratigraphic division schemes of Leikoupo Formation on the basin interior and reconstructs stratic lithofacies paleography by using quarternary bedding as constructive units. High precision lithofacies paleographic study demonstrates that Sichuan Basin of Leikoupo stage was in restricted-evaporated sea environment and that platform edge developed near Songpan-Ganzi oceanic trough in northwest Sichuan, where the grain bank of platform internal and fringe constitutes the main prospecting parts of Leikoupo Formation. The evolution of lithofacies paleography indicates that the bed form of basin transformed from dipping eastward to westward by the way of "seesaw" in the period of Leikoupo Formation deposition. Even in the early stage of sequence Ideposition, it still remained what the topographic configuration took on as in early Triassic, which was high westward and low eastward, while the eastward dipping trend disappeared gradually in sequenceIII depositional period. Yet, after that period there presented a miniature of uplift-hollow framework in the sequence IV-V depositional period on the basin interior. From sequence VI on, the bed form uplift-hollow framework differentiated intensively accompany with the intensity of the tectonic compression movement, forming macro-thick gypsolyte basin, whose depocencer had an apparent westward dipping trend in the depositional period of sequence VI-X.

Zhao X.,Wuhan University | Zhu S.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Based on water coning and non-Darcy flow theory, a water breakthrough time prediction equation for low-permeability bottom water reservoirs with barrier is derived by material balance principle, which takes the hemispherical radial flow below barrier and plane radial flow above the barrier of water coning into consideration. The calculated water breakthrough time of an oil producer in the sandstone bottom water reservoir in the Ordos Basin by this equation is close to the real water breakthrough time, with a relative error of only 7.85%. In addition, the water breakthrough time of six wells with natural barrier in c3 reservoir, Block hu152, Ordos Basin, were calculated, among which the predicted water breakthrough time of five wells has a less than 10% relative error with the real water breakthrough time. For low-permeability bottom water reservoirs with barrier, the calculated water breakthrough time considering start-up pressure gradient is smaller and more accurate than that without considering start-up pressure gradient. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Zhao Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhao Y.,Griffith University | Zhang Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Li Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

Single crystalline copper nanowires with pentagonal cross sections and large aspect ratios have been successfully prepared in high yield via a continuous flow solvothermal reduction process at a low temperature. The highly crystalline filaments exhibit the face-centered cubic structure, growing mainly along the [110] direction. Both PVP and the solvent environment play an important role for the growth of nanowires. The growth mechanism has been properly discussed. We also report the flexible transparent Cu nanowire membrane electrode fabricated by coating a polymer layer as a potential replacement for the conventional FTO electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Fabricated CuNW membranes exhibit high optical transmittance and electrical conductance, which can be controlled via the synthesis process, conveniently. The efficiency of a DSSC with CuNWs increases upto 5%. The DSSC performs as well as with a FTO electrode, which indicates that the super-high aspect ratio of the Cu nanowires offers a range of electrical transport routes to connect dye loaded photo-anodes, and such an electrode has the potential to replace conventional FTO electrodes for low-cost DSSCs applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zeng F.,Southwest Petroleum University | Guo J.,Southwest Petroleum University | He S.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zeng L.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

This paper aims to solve the problem of how to comprehensively optimize multiple parameters of a fractured horizontal well. First, based on the knowledge of unstable effluent seepage, complex potential theory, superposition principle and numerical method are adopted to develop a productivity prediction model of fractured horizontal gas wells with the fracture interference taken into account. On this basis, the rules are discussed on how an individual factor will have an impact on fractured horizontal well production. Moreover, in combination with the orthogonal experiment design method and grey correlation theory, the ranking of sensitive parameters impacting fractured horizontal well productivity are determined, and thus an optimal design is accomplished for multiple parameters of fractured horizontal wells. The calculation results show that the importance of parameters influencing the well production ranks as follows: stratum permeability, reservoir thickness, porosity, and the length of the horizontal section, the number of fractures, fracture length and flow conductivity. The preferred combination of horizontal well parameters is as follows: horizontal section of 1000 m long, 10 fractures (60 m long) and conductivity of 10 μm2. cm. In an actual field practice according to the optimized parameters, a significant increase was finally found at the open flow capacity in that well.

An overall revision has been made of the quality requirements and specifications for the CNG used for vehicles in the new edition of ISO 15403-1-2006 and 1SO/TR 15403-2-2006. By reference to that, this paper aims to present the following proposals for the revision of GB 18047-2000 after discussing the principles of standard formulation and application range of a standard, and comparing the indicators of water dew point in CNG, potential corrosive compound, content of heavy hydrocarbon liquids and oil content. (1) Social benefit should be firstly considered before working out CNG quality indicators. (2) The application object of this standard should be clearly stated as all the staff involved in the CNGV industry even including designers and operators at CNG filling stations; meanwhile, three major goals should be well explained for working out those quality indicators. (3) The water content (not water dew point) should be revised as < 30 mg/m3 under the working condition of the maximum operation pressure of 25 MPa and the environment temperature as ≤ -13 °C; the correlation between water content and water dew point should be made according to the recommended method in GB/T 22634-2008. (4) The indicator of H2S content should be revised as ≤ 6 mg/m3. (5) The description at 5.2 in GB 18047-2000 should be revised as "under the possible lowest temperature, the content of liquid hydrocarbon in CNG ought to be ≤ 1 % (mole fraction) ", which will be measured by the method in Determination of Potential Hydrocarbon Liquid Content (ISO 6570-2004). (6) The indicator of oil content in CNG should be explained as well to establish the inspection method for oil content in natural gas and set sampling points between the deep dehydration equipment and compressed gas steel cylinders at CNG stations.

Pang Z.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Ge P.,Sinopec | Han L.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

According to the similarity criterion of 3D physical simulation of thermal recovery, experimental parameters of 3D physical simulation of steam flooding and thermal foam compound flooding in extra-heavy oil reservoirs of the Gudao Oilfield were calculated, and relevant experiments were carried out. Based on the experimental results, 3D fine numerical simulation was carried out to analyze the steam flooding and thermal foam compound flooding in heavy oil reservoirs. The results show that thermal foam compound flooding could effectively inhibit steam channeling and improve sweep efficiency, and thus enhance the oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs after steam flooding. Technological parameters of thermal foam compound flooding were optimized according to the results of fine numerical simulation. The optimum injection method is foam-slug injection, the optimal steam injection rate is 25 mL/min, nitrogen injection rate is 1 000 mL/min (standard conditions), the time of foam-slug injection is 1.0 min and the interval between foam-slugs is about 10-20 min during thermal foam-slug injection. At last, the similarity criterion was employed for inversion calculation of the optimization results. Based on the results, optimal field injection and production parameters can be confirmed. The ultimate recovery ratio of thermal foam compound flooding in super-heavy oil reservoirs could reach 42.15%, which is 12.50% higher than steam flooding. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Ding F.,Chengdu University of Technology | Ding C.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

The PetroChina Liaohe Oilfield Company has expanded its exploration field to the peripheral basins of the Liaohe Oil Field, among which the Kailu Basin is the most prospective one. In this basin, the Upper Jiufotang Fm of the Lower Jurassic in the Nai-1 block in the Naimanqi Depression has good source and reservoir conditions. However, no systematic research has ever been carried out on the sedimentary facies and reservoir features of this study area. Therefore, based on the previous study results and in combination with core, drilling and logging data, we performed a comprehensive study of the Jiufotang Fm reservoirs. The following conclusions are drawn. (1) The Upper Jiufotang Fm belongs to a fan delta sedimentary system which can be divided into fan delta frontal subfacies and several microfacies like interdistributary bay, lateral border of underwater distributary channel, mouth bar and underwater distributary channel. (2) Reservoir pore types are dominated by dissolution pores and relic intergranular pores and certain micropores. They are reservoirs of moderate-low porosity and low-ultra-low permeability. (3) Sedimentary microfacies, lithology and diagenesis control reservoir development. Underwater distributary channel is the most favorable reservoir facies, followed by mouth bars. (4) Feldspar and quartz overgrowth and authigenic mineral infilling have an adverse effect on reservoir development. (5) Although secondary dissolution is constructive to reservoir development, but its contribution is limited.

Chen H.-Z.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Yin X.-Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Gao C.-G.,Petrochina | Zhang G.-Z.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Chen J.-J.,China University of Petroleum - East China
Chinese Journal of Geophysics (Acta Geophysica Sinica) | Year: 2014

The fractured reservoirs show strong anisotropy. When the fracture is filled with different types of fluids, the seismic response characteristics of fractured reservoir are not the same. Starting from the anisotropic rock physics theory, this article introduces the identification factor that can effectively distinguish fracture fluid; studies the relationship of fluid factor to fluid types, saturation and crack aspect ratio; analyzes the seismic response characteristics when the fracture is full of different fluids; and ultimately puts forward the method to estimate the crack fluid factor based on AVAZ inversion. Firstly, the sensitivity of crack fluid factor is analyzed in this paper. Secondly, the features of fluid factor and fractured reservoir's reflection coefficient variation when the fracture is filled with different types of fluids are discussed. At last, well-log data and complex fracture model are used to verify the inversion method. The results show that the method to estimate the crack fluid factor is reasonable and reliable. And the estimation results of the fluid factor can match the true value well when the synthetic seismic traces contain a random noise.

It is well known that there were rich gas resources in Kuqa Depression. Since the discovery of Kela-2 large gas field, Dabei gas field and Keshen gas field have been discovered in the down block of Kelasu fault in Keshen structural zone. Taking Keshen and Dabei gas fields as an example, formation mechanism and enrichment regularities of Kelasu subsalt deep large gas field were discussed in detail in this paper. It was considered that the Jurassic-Triassic coal-measure source rocks were a high effective gas kitchen, gas generation intensity and rate reached the maximum (corresponding to (160-320)×108m3/km2 and 15-20mg/gTOC·Ma, respectively) in recent 5Ma. Kelasu structural zone overlapped the hydrocarbon supplying centers, and sufficient gas source supplied a material basis for gas accumulation of Dabei-Keshen gas field. Regionally distributed thick gypsum rock restricted structure thrust breakthrough, protected reservoirs effectively and preserved oil and gas with high-efficiency, which provided an important assurance. Bedding-delamination contractional deformation, subsalt imbricated thrust structures and widely distributed low porosity sandstone reservoir provided a favorable storage space for oil and gas accumulation in Dabei-Keshen area. The formation of subsalt deep structure is related to compressional deformation as a result of later Himalayan episodic strong thrust compression. Pliocene-Quaternary is the main stage for the formation of Kelasu structural zone and the main structure finalized in Middle-Later Kuqa Formation. Gas generation history research showed the main gas generation stage began in sedimentary period of Kuqa Formation. Later high-efficiency oil and gas accumulation of Kelasu subsalt structural zone was determined by a better match of main gas generation stage and structure forming stage, which is an important reason for the formation of deep large gas field in Kelasu play zone.

Ju W.,China University of Mining and Technology | Sun W.,China University of Mining and Technology | Sun W.,Petrochina
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

In the Xiagou low permeability reservoir, tectonic fractures are important reservoir spaces for storage of hydrocarbon and can significantly improve the permeability; therefore, understanding and predicting the development and distribution of tectonic fractures in the Xiagou reservoir are important for both petroleum exploration and exploitation activities in the Qingxi Oilfield. In the present study, the Himalayan paleotectonic stress field, the period of time when the majority of unfilled tectonic fractures generated in the Xiagou Formation of Qingxi Oilfield, was simulated with a three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model. Estimations of rock failure criteria (RFC) and comprehensive rupture rate (CRR) were undertaken to quantitatively determine the development and distribution of tectonic fractures in the Xiagou reservoir. Horizontally, areas with well-developed tectonic fractures were primarily located in fault zones, regions among faults, around Well G107 and with changes in the orientation of faults. Vertically, the K1g3 layer showed a relative higher CRR, indicating that it was highly fractured. Factors of faults and the lithology controlled the development and distribution of tectonic fractures in the Xiagou reservoir of Qingxi Oilfield. Abnormal high fluid pressures in the Xiagou Formation can promote the development of fractures in reservoirs and the transformation from shear fractures to tensile fractures under certain conditions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang X.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhang X.,Northeast Petroleum University | Che H.,Petrochina
Energy | Year: 2013

The purpose of the research is to verify the viability and the applicability of TPCT (two-phase closed thermosyphon) sucker Rod in cyclic steam stimulation for heavy oils. On the basis of the previous researches and the basic principles of TPCT, the laboratory experiment system was setup and the heat-transfer experiment was conducted using liquid ammonia as the working fluid. The laboratory data shows that TPCT sucker rod can utilize the heat energy from hot water depending upon the vaporization and condensation of ammonia to transfer heat. Based on the results from the laboratory experiment, the site application of TPCT sucker rod was undertaken in well H127-26-34 of Liaohe Oilfield in China. The site application results demonstrate that TPCT sucker rod can decrease the heat loss of fluids in wellbore and improve well performance during cyclic steam stimulation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sun B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Guo C.,Petrochina | Yao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Che S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Mesoporous silica materials with hydrophobic pore channels have been fabricated by using an ABC copolymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-graft- (poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-block-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO)) (PDMS-g-(PEO-b-PPO), PSEP) as a template. The PSEP molecule integrated the hydrophobic functional groups, the hydrophobic chain for pore formation and the hydrophilic part for silica wall formation. The hydrophobic functionalization was achieved by being calcined at low temperature to selectively remove the PPO and the PEO segments. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wang Z.,Petrochina
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2012, IPTC 2012 | Year: 2012

Submersible pumping technique with linear motor is crucial for oil production in low permeability reservoir, especially in China and South East Asia. However, how to improve the life, reliability and performance of the submersible linear motor and cut energy consumption is still a challenge for oil production engineers. To solve these issues, several novel designs on lubrication, hydraulic buffer, floating suction device and automatic motor driven and control methodologies are proposed. The impact of these designs on performance improvements, computer work and field test results are analyzed in this paper. The technology presented is convenient to implement, which can adapt to low production well, directional well and horizontal well to overcome local permeability reduction. A large scale field application test was carried out and satisfactory results were achieved. The motor life was doubled, maintenance cost was greatly reduced and oil production was significantly increased. The power consumption was 40% less than conventional techniques. The key contributions of the technology proposed are: First, a new motor driven method applied to directly connect pump plunger with motor mover greatly improves the pumper lifting force and reliability; Second, a full set of lubrication device is designed that involves an automatic pressure regulator, an unique spiral channel and the automatic valve control technology, which improves not only the motor lubrication but also the motor cooling; Third, an advanced hydraulic buffer device located at the lower end of the stator is designed to prevent shock and collision damage to the motor; a floating suction device is designed to prevent the deposition of sand and impurities into the motor and oil; Fourth, an automatic control of start-stop motor technology is developed to allow the motor automatic start-stop on variation of liquid level, preventing the motor no-load and increasing motor life to achieve the energy saving requirements. The structural application of these techniques has proven useful to improve the reliability, service life of the motor and reduce the energy consumption as well as maintenance costs. In addition, these techniques also contribute to partially arresting the declining production trend and more importantly improve oil recovery. Copyright 2011, International Petroleum Technology Conference.

Wang P.F.,Petrochina
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

When large building being renovation, the new fire control design problem has being came out. A comprehensive transformation of architectural analysis and performance-based fire safety design is very important. In this paper, performance-based fire safety design in the transformation of engineering for the issue, analyze and explain the design of specific operating plans and evacuation design should be pay attention to. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Jiang B.,Petrochina
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

Due to poorer quality of crude oil and stricter environmental regulation requirements, hydrogenation processes are increasingly selected to process residue oil. But residue hydroprocessing process has its shortcomings such as limited selection of crude oils and poor adoptability. Taking Russian crude oil as an example and through analysis of the residue oil properties and data comparison, it is showed that hydrogenation process is more competitive than coking process. Whereas in actual operation, the fixed-bed residue hydrogenation unit has its limitations and can not be operated to process the feed with heavy metal higher than 120 ppm. The design of large atmospheric distillation combined with small vacuum distillation and construction of a small delayed coking unit will provide a good flexibility for processing low-quality crude and improve the adoptability of hydrogenation refinery to different crude oils. In addition, the addition of delayed coking can effectively increase the blending ratio of low-quality crude and improve the flexibility of production. The combination effects of hydrogenation and coking processes will eventually increase economic benefits.

Han X.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2013

Before hot oil pipelines' starting to convey, it is necessary to preheat pipes, and exactly forecasting the temperature of both medium inside pipes and surrounding soil during the process of preheating is the key to determine reasonable preheating time and the amount of preheating medium. Finite volume method was used to establish CFD simulation model to calculate heat transfer between underground pipelines and surrounding soil during the process of oil-water mixture preheating, and according to the analysis of temperature drop of the medium, a change rule conclusion of the temperature about medium inside pipelines during the oil-water mixture preheating period was reached, which can set corresponding oil-conveyed technique and attain the goal of safety and saving energy.

Kong F.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2013

Permeability drop down gradually with the decrease of reservoir pressure in the process of developing of pressure sensitive reservoir. The oil well production and development effectiveness were affected. In order to quantify the influence of variety of formation pressure. Starting from the experimental data, the relationship between permeability and reservoir pressure was obtained. The restored regularity of permeability and oil well production in process of varying of reservoir pressure were researched on combining the oilfield development practice. The effectiveness of advanced water injection in process of development of pressure sensitive reservoir were studied.

Dou H.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

Whether a threshold pressure gradient (TPG) of percolation exists in low-permeability reservoirs has been a hot topic in development theories of low-permeability reservoirs, from which a good many arguments arise in academic circles. For instance, a paper that discusses an identical percolation problem under stable or unstable percolation conditions, which made readers confused. Another unreasonable opinion that percolation of porous media has no threshold pressure gradient in low- or extralow-permeability reservoirs was proposed by using a reservoir limit testing equation to calculate distance to a reservoir boundary that fluid can affect and by wrongfully associating skin effect with a threshold pressure gradient.

Wang S.,Petrochina
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2011

CS-1-G catalyst, a kind of Ziegler-Natta catalyst for propylene polymerization, was employed in a test performed in a gas phase polypropylene(PP) plant of Novolen technology as a substitute for the imported catalyst. The discharge and preparation of CS-1-G catalyst was introduced. The activity, consumption, sensitivity to hydrogen modulation, ability in melt flow rate regulation and resistance to impurities in propylene feedstock were compared between CS-1-G catalyst and the imported catalyst under the same operation conditions. The particle size distribution and quality of the PP resin produced with CS-1-G catalyst were analyzed. The results indicate that CS-1-G catalyst has 7.7% higher activity than the imported catalyst and the qualities of the resins produced with the two catalysts are equivalent. CS-1-G catalyst can be used for gas phase PP production.

Wang J.,Petrochina
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2011

The author studied the influences of different screw assemblies and feeding modes on the extrusion process and mechanical properties of polycarbonate(PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) alloys and designed a screw assembly suitable for processing the PC/ABS alloys. The results show that proper screw assemblies and feeding modes can improve the extrusion process and enhance the mechanical properties of the PC/ABS alloys. The tensile strength, flexural strength and notched Izod impact strength of the alloys increase from 56.43 to 68.36, from 63.37 to 81.16 and from 6.23 to 26.80 MPa, respectively.

Huang W.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

With rapid development of China's national economy, demand for natural gas continues to expand. Natural gas pipeline, which works as the connection between resources and market, will serve as a lifeline to make sure the sustainable development of the national economy. China has the world's most complex and busiest natural gas pipeline system. However, due to fact that the existed methods which based on single pipeline or small-scale pipeline network are not capable of providing sufficient technical surpport for the safety and safety management of the large-scale pipeline network, it is of urgent need for us to look for a more scientific and rational management concept. In this paper, the idea of reliability of large-scale natural gas pipeline network is first proposed. The challenges that large-scale natural gas pipeline network may face are analyzed thereafter, induding: the quantification of reliability of large-scale natural gas pipeline network, the evaluation of reliability of system and also the connection between overall system and unit system. Meanwhile, a preliminary design of large-scale natural gas pipeline network is given and a method to enhance reliability of large-scale pipeline network is proposed based on the facts of China's natural gas pipeline network.

Research of reservoir protection technology for low permeability and medium to strong water sensitivity oil reservoir: Taking Qiang 1 block in Liaohe oilfield as an example. Reservoir property of qiang 1 block is poor, belongs to the low porosity, low to ultra-low permeability reservoir and high content of clay, water sensitivity of it is medium to strong. Reservoir protection measures for waterflooding in these reservoir was particularly critical. In view of this, the related critical value parameters was identified in all kinds of wokingfluid injected, as the same time, the studies of anti swelling agent selection and injected water quality were carried out, which choice anti swelling effect of 12 kinds of anti swelling agent in use of centrifugal method and X-ray diffraction method, and further optimize injection mode and injection concentration. The result shows that 6#antiswelling agent effect is good, the scene can be injected high concentration(1%) slug, after can be continuously injected antiswelling agent in concentration of 0.5%, Finally, qiang1 block is successfully impled of wate injection development, injection pressure of the block is stable, and the block reached requirement of daily injection allocation volume.

Han Y.Q.,Jilin University | Zeng J.,Jilin University | Qiao C.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

For recycling complementary energy efficiently, WM's latent heat of vaporization is made full use of in a free piston based organic rankine cycle exhaust gas energy recovery (ORC-FP) system. In this paper, the model of ORC-FP system has been established by the software GT-suite 7.0. Three sensitive factors (WM's gas ratio, piston damping coefficient and power WM's pressure) will be discussed by simulation results. The conclusions are shown as follows: Firstly, when WM state is 450K, 1.1MPa (Power WM) and 320K, 1.1MPa (Cooling WM) at inlet, the system's single cycle efficiency is highest about 69.21%, and the lowest is about 42.32%. Certain fluctuation of single cycle (SC) efficiency exists between two adjacent cycle, and the highest difference can reach 26.89%. Secondly, the system's total cycle (TC) efficiency decreases along with the increasing of damping coefficient (piston load). At the minimum piston damping coefficient (about 7500 N- s/m), the system's highest total cycle efficiency is 46.53%, and at the maximum (about 8750 N - s/m), the lowest total cycle efficiency is 35.66%. Thirdly, when damping coefficient is 7500 N- s/m, the higher pressure of WM is, the higher the system's total cycle efficiency is. In the pressure of 1.1MPa, the system reaches the highest efficiency which is about 46.53%, and in the pressure of 0.9 MPa reaches the lowest which is about 26.74%. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Han K.,Petrochina | Sun W.,Chengdu University of Technology
Oil and Gas Geology | Year: 2014

This paper discussed the forming conditions of large marine gas fields and gas field clusters in Sichuan Basin. Based on comprehensive analyses of structure and lithofacies, we discussed the control of the Indosinian and Caledonian paleouplifts on the marine petroleum accumulation. There are significant changes in exploitation targets in the Sichuan Basin, from anticlinal gas fields in the early stage to large gas fields correlated with porous reservoirs of bank facies, and to composite large gas fields related with peleouplifts now. In the first stage of exploration, small gas field clusters were found in Luzhou peleouplift. In the second stage, the Carboniferous porous gas reservoirs were discovered in eastern Sichuan Basin. In the third stage, the Wubaiti large gas field and gas field cluster were discovered in the Kaijiang paleouplift. In the fourth stage, medium-to-large gas field clusters represented by Puguang gas field were found in the Permian and Triassic reservoirs of reef-shoal facies. Recently, several highly-productive wells have been successfully completed in the Sinian Dengying Formation and the Lower Cambrain Longwangmiao Formation in the Leshan-Longnvsi paleouplift. The favorable superimposition of reservoirs, paleostructures and modern structures makes it possible to form giant gas field in this area.

Sun X.,China University of Geosciences | Zheng Y.,China University of Geosciences | Zheng Y.,Wuhan University | Wang C.,China University of Geosciences | And 2 more authors.
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2016

The North Himalaya is a prospective area for Sb, Sb-Au, Au, Pb-Zn(- Ag), and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization. Geochemical anomalies for mineralizing elements and element associations were identified using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model together with statistical analyses, including the mean ± 2 standard deviation (Mean + 2STD) and the median ± 2 median absolute deviation (Median + 2MAD). The results show that the Mean + 2STD for log-transformed data and C-A model could well identify the geochemical anomalies associated with mineralization in the North Himalaya. Sb + Au anomalies show a better spatial association with Sb, Sb-Au, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits than those of single Sb element. Au anomalies are associated with all deposits, and Pb. + Zn + Ag anomalies are associated with Pb-Zn and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits. In addition, weak anomalies associated with Sb mineralization can be identified by the singularity method. With the utilization of the Sb + Au, Sb, Au and Pb + Zn + Ag anomalies identified by C-A fractal model and Mean + 2STD for log-transformed data, as well as the singularity method, we can facilitate the exploration targeting of various deposits in the North Himalaya. In addition, our results also show that principal component analysis (PCA) of centered logratio (clr) transformed data can accurately recognize three different geochemical assemblage compositions representing three different types of mineralization (i.e., Au, Pb-Zn-Ag and Sb) in the North Himalaya. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Growing evidence supports that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in cancer progression by directly downregulating multiple targets. However, the underlying mechanisms of miRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are poorly understood. In the current study, we found that miR-194 expression was markedly downregulated in both clinical OSCC tissues and OSCC cell lines, compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues and normal tongue epithelial cell TEC, respectively. Overexpression of miR-194 suppressed, whereas miR-194-in promoted OSCC cell proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-194 could reduce the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/FoxO3a signaling pathway by suppressing acylglycerol kinase (AGK) directly, resulting in decreasing cyclin D1 expression and increasing expression of p21 in OSCC. In sum, our data provide compelling evidence that miR-194 functions as a potential tumor suppressor by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/FoxO3a signaling pathway and might sever as a potential therapeutic target for OSCC patients. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Sun L.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Sa L.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Dong S.,Petrochina
Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2013

With the development of the national economy and social development, the contradiction between supply and demand of oil and gas in China has become increasingly prominent. Therefore, our exploration should extended new areas, such as fine exploration for hydrocarbon in deep stratum and deep waters. And on the other hand, we should focus on the exploring unconventional gas. To meet all these challenges, the geophysical technology both for land and offshore should be up-to-dated. The S/N ratio and the resolution of seismic data should be enhanced. The fluid prediction in target areas should be more accurate. The imaging of unconventional gas reservoirs and their quantitative delineating need be further improved, and unconventional gas reservoirs prediction will reach at high accuracy. And finally the target-oriented integrated geophysical solutions will be formed.

Xu J.-X.,Petrochina
Chinese Journal of Geophysics (Acta Geophysica Sinica) | Year: 2014

It is important to separate the near-surface seismic scattered waves from low signal-noise data in mountain seismic exploration, and seismic interferometry is one of promising methods. The seismic interferometry representations of the near-surface scattered wave are derived according to the seismic interferometry theory and the scattering theory. Those representations are composed of interferometry between actual wavefield and background wavefield and include cross-correlation type and convolution type seismic interferometry expression. According to the near-surface scattered wave separation theory and the geometry of land seismic exploration, the mixed configuration of convolution type and deconvolution type seismic interferometry is used. The application effect of the near-surface scattered wave method is showed using the real land seismic data. The theoretical analysis and real data tests in gravel area indicate that the seismic interferometry method can separate not only scattered wave generated by scattering sources on survey lines, but also partial side scattered wave. The advantages of this technology are that it adapts to the uneven terrain and the complex near-surface structure without information about topography and near-surface velocity. In this article, the subtraction method of multi-traces self-adaptive matched filter is used to eliminate the near-surface scattered wave from the real seismic data, and gets preferable results in gravel area.

Ni Y.,Petrochina | Ni Y.,University of Bristol | Foster G.L.,University of Bristol | Elliott T.,University of Bristol
Chemical Geology | Year: 2010

Values of δ11B reported in the literature for Holocene samples of the same foraminiferal species show large variability (6%) relative to cited precision (<1%). This is indicative of significant inter-laboratory biases and raises concerns about the accuracy of foraminiferal proxy pH records. To investigate this problem we have measured the δ11B of modern ocean carbonates using several different analytical procedures. We have used total evaporation negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TE-NTIMS), with various sample preparation and loading procedures and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The δ11B of pure boric acid solutions measured by TE-NTIMS and MC-ICPMS agree well, demonstrating no fundamental biases between the techniques. Yet the δ11B values measured by TE-NTIMS for non-foraminiferal carbonates are about 2% lighter than those by MC-ICPMS whereas foraminifers measured by the same standard TE-NTIMS procedure are 2 to 6% heavier than those by MC-ICPMS. Significantly, we found that foraminiferal samples kept in acidic solution over several months yielded lower δ11B values (up to 5% lower) and better reproducibility when re-measured by TE-NTIMS. We infer that organic material, released on foraminiferal dissolution, causes biases in NTIMS measurements. No residual organics should be present in the MC-ICPMS measurements as matrix is separated from sample before analysis. Moreover we demonstrate by standard addition the absence of any matrix influence in the MC-ICPMS procedure beyond the inherent uncertainties in the standard addition approach (~±0.35% 2sigma). Degradation of the inferred organic residue, either by long term storage in acidic solution or by loading samples in 30% H2O2, reduces but does not totally remove the (variable) bias between TE-NTIMS and MC-ICPMS δ11B measurements. Despite these problems, careful analysis of similar samples by NTIMS may permit data to be obtained with consistent relative differences that still yield valuable proxy records, but there is clearly considerable potential for inaccuracies to result in such an approach from hard to detect changes in matrix. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Tian W.,Peking University | Tian W.,Australian National University | Campbell I.H.,Australian National University | Allen C.M.,Australian National University | And 5 more authors.
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2010

We report major and trace element composition, Sr-Nd isotopic and seismological data for a picrite-basalt-rhyolite suite from the northern Tarim uplift (NTU), northwest China. The samples were recovered from 13 boreholes at depths between 5,166 and 6,333 m. The picritic samples have high MgO (14.5-16.8 wt%, volatiles included) enriched in incompatible element and have high 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios (εNd (t) = -5.3; Sri = 0.707), resembling the Karoo high-Ti picrites. All the basaltic samples are enriched in TiO2 (2.1-3.2 wt%, volatiles free), have high FeOt abundances (11.27-15.75 wt%, volatiles free), are enriched in incompatible elements and have high Sr and low Nd isotopic ratios (Sri = 0.7049-0.7065; εNd (t) = -4.1 to -0.4). High Nb/La ratios (0.91-1.34) of basalts attest that they are mantle-derived magma with negligible crustal contamination. The rhyolite samples can be subdivided into two coeval groups with overlapping U-Pb zircon ages between 291 ± 4 and 272 ± 2 Ma. Group 1 rhyolites are enriched in Nb and Ta, have similar Nb/La, Nb/U, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to the associated basalts, implying that they are formed by fractional crystallization of the basalts. Group 2 rhyolites are depleted in Nb and Ta, have low Nb/La ratios, and have very high Sr and low Nd isotopic ratios, implying that crustal materials have been extensively, if not exclusively, involved in their source. The picrite-basalt-rhyolite suite from the NTU, together with Permian volcanic rocks from elsewhere Tarim basin, constitute a Large Igneous Province (LIP) that is characterized by large areal extent, rapid eruption, OIB-type chemical composition, and eruption of high temperature picritic magma. The Early Permian magmatism, which covered an area >300,000 km2, is therefore named the Tarim Flood Basalt. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Zheng N.,Xiamen University | Zhao Y.,Petrochina | Song Q.,Xiamen University | Jia L.,Xiamen University | Fang W.,Xiamen University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

A simple and novel process has been proposed to synthesize alumina using gardenia extract and aluminum salts in an aqueous solution. The alumina sample notated as "bio-Al2O3" was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment. The results indicated that the existence of the gardenia biomass enlarged the surface area of alumina and reached 256m2/g. The thermo gravimetric (TG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that gardenia biomass bound to the surface of the alumina has substantially improved the adsorption capacity of Ni(II) and the adsorption behavior of nickel ion was related to the biomass functional groups. The results of three adsorption-desorption cycles showed that the bio-Al2O3 using as the adsorbent for Ni(II) was relatively stable. The kinetic of the Ni(II) adsorption by the bio-Al2O3 followed pseudo-second-order equation. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental data and the result demonstrated that the adsorption isotherms followed Langmuir isotherm model. © 2013 .

Shi F.,Changchun University of Technology | Mu L.,Changchun University | Yu P.,Petrochina | Hu J.,Changchun University of Technology | Zhang L.,Changchun University of Technology
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2014

A series of divalent metal (Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pd) crosslinked alginate dry beads catalysts were prepared using metal chloride and sodium alginate. The resulting catalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analyses and nitrogen physisorption measurements. The characterization results showed that a series of ion-crosslinked metal-alginate dry beads were synthesized through ion exchange, followed by the coordination of alginate and metal ions. These materials have been assessed as catalysts for liquid-phase hydroxylation of phenol to dihydroxybenzenes using H 2O2 as an oxidant. The results showed that Cu-based catalyst exhibited higher activity than other metal-based catalysts for phenol hydroxylation. The influence of key reaction parameters, including the reaction temperature, solvent, reaction time, initial pH, molar ratio of phenol/H 2O2 and the amount of catalyst on the reactivity and selectivity were also investigated. Finally, the reusability of Cu-based catalyst illustrated that it could be recovered and reused without notable loss of activity. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Bompard E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Lu W.,Petrochina | Napoli R.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Jiang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2010

The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Scott R.W.,University of Tulsa | Wan X.,China University of Geosciences | Wang C.,China University of Geosciences | Huang Q.,Petrochina
Geoscience Frontiers | Year: 2012

Non-marine ostracodes, charophytes and palynomorphs are abundant in most Cretaceous lacustrine basins of East Asia. However, their ranges are not directly integrated with marine biota that defines the Cretaceous stages. Non-biotic events such as magnetochrons and radiometric ages in these terrestrial deposits enable their correlation with marine strata. The SK1 north and south composited cores in the Songliao Basin present a continuous section of Upper Cretaceous non-marine fossil and magnetochron successions in superposed order. These chronostratigraphic events are integrated with marine events by an X/Y graphic plot between the core data and a global database of Global Section and Stratotype Points (GSSP) and key reference sections. This plot projects stage boundaries in marine sections into the SK1 section and interpolates numerical ages to the first and last occurrences of biota and to lithostratigraphic boundaries. This stratigraphic experiment tests and refines age calibrations based on both manual interpolation of depths to numerical ages and cyclostratigraphy. Ages derived by interpolation are similar and ages by cyclostratigraphy are older because stage boundaries are calibrated to a different age scale. © 2011, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jianwen Z.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Da L.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Wenxing F.,Petrochina
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

China is well known being rich in sulfurous natural gas with huge deposits widely distributed all over the country. Due to the toxic nature, the release of hydrogen sulfide-containing natural gas from the pipelines intends to impose serious threats to the human, society and environment around the release sources. CFD algorithm is adopted to simulate the dispersion process of gas, and the results prove that Gaussian plume model is suitable for determining the affected region of the well blowout of sulfide hydrogen-containing natural gas. In accordance with the analysis of release scenarios, the present study proposes a new approach for estimating the risk of hydrogen sulfide poisoning hazards, as caused by sulfide-hydrogen-containing natural gas releases. Historical accident-statistical data from the EGIG (European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group) and the Britain Gas Transco are integrated into the approach. Also, the dose-load effect is introduced to exploit the hazards' effects by two essential parameters - toxic concentration and exposure time. The approach was applied to three release scenarios occurring on the East-Sichuan Gas Transportation Project, and the individual risk and societal risk are classified and discussed. Results show that societal risk varies significantly with different factors, including population density, distance from pipeline, operating conditions and so on. Concerning the dispersion process of hazardous gas, available safe egress time was studied from the perspective of individual fatality risks. The present approach can provide reliable support for the safety management and maintenance of natural gas pipelines as well as evacuations that may occur after release incidents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

He Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zhang Z.-M.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zong K.-Q.,Wuhan University | Xiang H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Lithos | Year: 2014

The Chinese Tianshan occupies the southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). High-grade metamorphic rocks are widely distributed in its central uplift zones, composing the crustal basement of the Central Tianshan Block of the Chinese Tianshan. However, the origin of the crustal basement and whether the high-grade metamorphism was associated with the Paleozoic orogeny are still unresolved. Here, we present precise LA-ICP-(MC)-MS zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic data for three meta-sedimentary rocks and one orthogneiss from the Xingxingxia Complex, which represents the Precambrian basement of the Central Tianshan Block. Zircon U-Pb dating results show that the protolith age of the orthogneiss is ca. 880. Ma and that the meta-sedimentary rocks consist dominantly of 0.8-1.0. Ga and 1.3-2.0. Ga materials with minor early Paleoproterozoic components. In combination with the zircon Hf isotopic data, it is suggested that the crustal basement of the Central Tianshan Block was formed in the early Mesoproterozoic, which is evidently different from the Archean basement formation of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that the Central Tianshan Block may have formed through a magmatic arc accretionary orogen along the continental margin of Baltica during the Mesoproterozoic. Moreover, both the meta-sedimentary rocks and the orthogneiss of the Xingxingxia Complex simultaneously suffered a metamorphic overprint at ca. 380. Ma. Zircon REE and Hf isotopic data indicate that the metamorphic zircon rims were formed by new zircon overgrowths in partial melts. Geothermobarometry and average P-T calculations using THERMOCALC on the Grt-Bt gneiss yielded ca. 720-730. °C and 4-6. kbar, suggesting amphibolite- to granulite-facies conditions. The Late Devonian metamorphism of the Xingxingxia Complex is possibly related to orogenic low-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism in the middle or upper crust during the closure of the eastern segment of South Tianshan Ocean. Our new data, together with the occurrences of Ordovician-Silurian eclogites and HP mafic granulites along the northeastern margin of the Tarim Craton, indicate that progressive continental collisions occurred in the southern CAOB during the Paleozoic. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Xuan S.-H.,Petrochina
Zhuzao/Foundry | Year: 2014

Hook is the key part of petroleum equipment. According to the casting defects such as dispersed shrinkage, slag inclusion etc of the original technique, three improved casting techniques were put forward on the basis of production experience, a reasonable casting technique was determined by computer simulation technology. The practical production shows that the casting defects such as dispersed shrinkage, slag inclusion etc. were eliminated with the improved casting technique, and the casting quality was stable.

Liu Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Liu Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun K.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Ma H.,Petrochina | And 2 more authors.
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2010

Cr3+ and Zr4+ cation-incorporated hydrotalcites (HTs) were prepared by coprecipitation method. Corresponding mixed oxide were obtained by the thermal decomposition of HTs at 773 K for 8 h and applied in the synthesis of isophorone (IP) from acetone. From the characteristic results, both Cr3+ and Zr4+ were introduced into the lattice of hydrotalcite producing the more disordered HT structures. Compared with Mg-Al mixed oxide, Cr and Zr modified mixed oxide demonstrated more amount of basic sites and stronger base strength, which were responsible for the improvement of catalytic activity. As a result, both of the modified mixed oxide exhibited IP selectivity of more than 70% under atmospheric pressure. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jia L.,Beijing Normal University | Xie J.-C.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang J.,Beijing Normal University | Sun H.-L.,Beijing Normal University | Li Z.,Petrochina
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2012

Two isostructural compounds [M(hpmc)(phen)(H 2O)] [M = Mn (1), Co (2); H 2hpmc = 6-hydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] were synthesized by the in-situ hydrothermal reactions of 6-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (Clpmc) with Mn II and Co II ions, in which the metal centers are bridged by pyrimidine ring to form 1D chain. Magnetic studies indicate pyrimidine can transmit antiferromagnetic coupling and the Co II complex shows spin-canting behavior below 3.5 K. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gu Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Liu S.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Li C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Cui Q.,Petrochina
Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2013

Supported nickel sulfate was proved to be an efficient catalyst for gas-phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein at 340 °C in the presence of oxygen. At a GHSV of glycerol of 873 h-1, glycerol conversion over 17NiSO4-350 was still higher than 90% even after 10 h of reaction, with selectivity to acrolein always higher than 70 mol.%. It was demonstrated that Lewis acid sites were responsible for heavy compounds formation, and that Brønsted acid sites with medium and high strength were active sites for acrolein production from glycerol dehydration. The acidity of supported nickel sulfate was associated with one metastable structure, NiSO4· xH2O (0 < x < 1). Furthermore, not only nickel cations but also sulfate groups exhibited oxidizability during reactions, and loss of sulfur was the main reason for irreversible deactivation of supported nickel sulfate. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ying J.,Bohai University | Min-Hou,Petrochina | Liu X.-J.,Bohai University | Tian A.-X.,Bohai University | Wang X.-L.,Bohai University
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2012

By using the flexible bis(triazole) ligand 1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) ethane (bte), a polyoxometalate-templated compound, [Zn 2(bte) 4(SiW1 2O 40)]·2H 2O (1), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The compound was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Compound 1 is constructed from two motifs: the [SiW 12O 40] 4- polyanion and a bi-nuclear metal-organic circle [Zn 2(bte) 2] 4+. The polyanion exerts a template role, inducing the formation of the bi-nuclear circle. The circles build a 1-D circle connecting circle chain through sharing the same Zn ions. Adjacent circles in the chain are vertical with each other. The template polyanion is surrounded by four circles from four different 1-D chains, forming a 3-D supramolecular structure. Copyright © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Chai L.-Q.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Wang G.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Sun Y.-X.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Dong W.-K.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2012

An unexpected dinuclear Cu(II) complex, [Cu 2(L 2) 2] (H 2L 2=3-methoxysalicylaldehyde O-(2-hydroxyethyl)oxime), has been synthesized via complexation of Cu(II) acetate monohydrate with H 4L 1. Catalysis by Cu(II) results in unexpected cleavage of two N-O bonds in H 4L 1, giving a dialkoxo-bridged dinuclear Cu(II) complex possessing a Cu-O-Cu-O four-membered ring core instead of the usual bis(salen)-type tetraoxime Cu 3-N 4O 4 complex. Every complex links six other molecules into an infinite-layered supramolecular structure via 12 intermolecular C-HO hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, Cu(II) complex exhibits purple emission with maximum emission wavelength max=417nm when excited with 312nm. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Dong W.-K.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Xing S.-J.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Sun Y.-X.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Zhao L.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2012

A tetranuclear Zn(II) complex, [Zn 4L 2(OAc) 2(CH 3OH) 2] with an unsymmetric Salen-type bisoxime (H 3L=6-hydroxy-4,6-dibromo-2,2- [ethylenediyldioxybis(nitrilomethylidyne)]diphenol), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. There are two kinds of coordination geometry (trigonal bipyramidal and square pyramidal) in the Zn(II) complex. The molecule has serious distortion probably from the asymmetry. The complex exhibits blue emission with the maximum emission wavelength λ max=423nm when excited with 340nm. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Classification pressurized tubing-conveyed detonation technology is superior perforating gun detonation wave receiver, supercharging energy conversion device, the pressure is transmitted to the lower detonator, thus achieving a complete multi-perforation. Supercharger pressure output, mezzanine pressure transmission is an important factor affecting the lower detonation. Through the surface test method, the measured output under different conditions and delivery pressure boost ing device, analyze the relationship between pressure generation and transmission process and the amount of gunpowder, mezzanine column and other factors to determine the amount of gunpowder, the device structure design pressure occurs, resolve grading booster detonation technical problems, and better guide the construction site.

Gang W.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang Q.,Petrochina | Luo J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Science | Year: 2012

The lower Tertiary E h3 is divided into two sections: the upper members of E h3 and the lower members of E h3 in the Biyang Depression. The first section is generally regarded as a key target of oil and gas exploration, but the resource potential of the lower members of E h3 has been neglected. We have obtained new knowledge about E h3 from comprehensive geological research. The lower members of E h3 are high-quality and main source rocks, which have good oil and gas resource potential. This is a new direction for oil and gas exploration. The geochemistry characteristics of source rocks of the lower members of E h3 in the lower Tertiary of the Biyang Depression were analyzed in detail. A basin modeling method was applied to hydrocarbon generation of the lower and upper members of E h3 source rocks, the oil and gas resource potential was comparatively analyzed, and then favorable tectonic zones were pointed out. In the lower members of E h3, a set of semi-deep lake to deep lake high-quality source rocks occurs rich in algae organisms, mainly of type II1, with a high abundance of organic matter. Most of the source rocks are just in the peak stage of hydrocarbon generation, which is a favorable foundation for forming abundant oil and gas resources in the Biyang Depression. The comparative analysis of the hydrocarbon-generation quantities between lower and upper members of the E h3 source rocks shows that the lower members of E h3 have good oil and gas resource potential, and the hydrocarbon-generation quantity accounts for 51% of the total in E h3. Specifically, the oil-generating quantity accounts for 50% of the total and the gas-generating quantity accounts for two thirds of the total. Therefore, source rocks in the lower members of E h3 of the Biyang Depression have good oil and gas resource potential, which is a key factor for future deep oil and gas exploration. © 2012 China University of Petroleum (Beijing) and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yang S.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

Jilin Oilfield company discovered Yingcheng Formation of Changling Gas field in the middle platfood of Changling rift. The volcanic reservoirs are characterized by complex lithologies and lithofacies, and extremely serious heterogeneity, with well developed fracture, large volume of bottom water, and strong energy, which is difficult for the development of gas reservoirs. To develop the Changling gas field volcanic gas reservoir, after obtaining a better understanding of geognosy, and analysis of effective way of development, we established the developing style of the horizontal wells. By the optimization of deployment and on-site geological orientation, the efficient employment of the reserves have been achieved, the success rate of the horizontal well being 100%, gas drilling rate more than 92%.

Tang J.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zeng D.,Petrochina | Wang C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Chen Y.,West East Gas Transmission Company Pipeline Branch | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

Hydrate additives can be used to mitigate hydrate formation conditions, promote hydrate growth rate and improve separation efficiency. CO2+N2 and CO2+CH4 systems with presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or tetrahydrofuran (THF) are studied to analyze the effect of hydrate additives on gas separation performance. The experiment results show that CO2 can be selectively enriched in the hydrate phase. SDS can speed up the hydrate growth rate by facilitating gas molecules solubilization. When SDS concentration increases, split and loss fraction increase initially and then decrease slightly, resulting in a decreased separation factor. The optimum concentration of SDS exists at the range of 100-300ppm. As THF can be easily encaged in hydrate cavities, hydrate formation condition can be mitigated greatly with its existence. Additionally, THF can also strengthen hydrate formation. The THF effect on separation performance is related to feed gas components. CO2 occupies the small cavities of type II hydrate prior to N2. But the competitiveness of CO2 and CH4 to occupy cavities are quite fair. The variations of split fraction, loss fraction and separation factor depend on the concentration of THF added. The work in this paper has a positive role in flue gas CO2 capture and natural gas de-acidification. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

Ren F.,Petrochina
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

In order to realize the effective development of buried hill light oil reservoirs, mid-deep massive heavy oil reservoirs with interbeds, and ultra-deep massive heavy oil reservoirs in the Liaohe Oilfield, three tridimensional development models are established: superposition of horizontal wells in multi-intervals and multi-layers, steam assisted plane displacement (vertical wells) with combination of vertical gravity drainage (horizontal wells), and steam assisted liquor drainage by two superposed horizontal wells and production by vertical wells. The development mechanisms for these three tridimensional development models have been studied by field test, physical simulation and numerical simulation. The tridimensional development mechanisms of buried hill light oil reservoirs are uniform compaction action, vertical gravity action and joint supply action. The tridimensional development mechanisms of mid-deep massive heavy oil reservoir with interbeds are gravity drainage and steam flooding, and the tridimensional development mechanisms of ultra-deep massive heavy oil reservoir are gravity water drainage, reduction of heat losses and enhancement of production injection ratio. The field tests in the light oil reservoir of the Xinggu buried hill, mid-deep massive heavy oil reservoir in Xing VI oil layer of Block Du 84 and ultra-deep massive heavy oil reservoir of Block Wa 59 in the Liaohe Oilfield showed that tridimensional development can significantly improve crude oil production, and realize efficient development of oilfield.

Yuan H.,Chengdu University of Technology | Ni G.,Petrochina | Deng X.,China National Petroleum Corporation
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The natural gas reservoir in Xujiahe Formation of Longnüsi structure is a typical lithologic gas reservoir, with the low trap closure, the tight reservoir, and the complicated gas-water contact. The paper analyzes the source rocks, reservoir rocks, cap rocks and trap conditions of gas reservoir of Xujiahe Formation, and conculdes that the Xujiahe Formation is advantageous play. The Apatite Fission Track and Easy%R o Chemical Kinetics Simulatiom are both used to reconstruct the hydrocarbon-generation history of source rock. Combined with the structural evolution, the charging process of Xujiahe Formation gas reservoir was reproduced. The accumulation process is divided into three phases: early hydrocarbon charging at the end of middle Jurassic, the dominant hydrocarbon charging period at the end of Cretaceous, and the final accumulation of gas pools during Himalayan. The main controlling factors of gas accumulation in Xujiahe Formation are analyzed in the paper. High-quality hydrocarbon source rock is the primary material, the ancient and present structural high are the available zones for the hydrocarbon migration, the reservoir physical property and the trap closure control the gas-water distribution in the gas reservoir, and the fractures developed locally is a key factor of gas accumulation and high productivity in the Xujiahe Formation.

Xiao X.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

In order to timely learn about the underground gas storage (UGS) construction technologies, this paper overviews the present status and field experiences of the involved technologies in the construction of different types of gas storage such as that based on depleted oil-gas reservoirs, salt caverns, aquifer structures, as well as techniques in the design of cushion gas and in improving the efficient capacity of UGS and production capacity. On this basis, this paper points out that the current UGS technical studies should focus on the following 5 aspects: (1) The depleted gas reservoir is still the main option for the UGS construction projects so the involved techniques will be the focus in the present studies. (2) Techniques about the salt cavern UGS should be continuously concerned but the bottlenecking technical problems should be tackled at first. (3) Due to the complexity of source-reservoir-cap assemblage in middle and small basins in China, the UGS built on aquifer structures will have to face great challenges. (4) High attention should be paid to the formulation of codes and criteria for the UGS construction projects. (5) The risk management system should be highly thought in the UGS construction projects. Moreover, it also summarizes the present status of the technology and techniques involved in Chinese UGS construction projects. Even though such technologies for UGS based on depleted gas reservoirs have basically become mature, those for UGS based on depleted oil reservoirs are still being explored; great progress has been made in the construction of salt cavern gas storage, whereas that based on aquifer structures has just started its initial step. Finally the paper concludes with some recommendations on further UGS construction projects in near future.

Zhang J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Shang Y.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

Based on the specific development characteristics of low-permeability gas reservoirs, the calculation formula of economic production limit for low-permeability gas reservoirs is deduced by use of annual productivity calculation coefficient, production possibility frontier, and dynamic break-even analysis. Overcoming the shortcomings of the currently used equations, this formula takes into account many factors such as productivity contribution, utilization rate of productive capacity, decline of productivity, time value of money, etc., so that the contents of analysis are more complete and the calculation results agree better with the actual exploitation. With this formula, not only can the economic production limit for low-permeability gas reservoirs and 100-million-m 3-production possibility frontier be calculated, but the sensitivity of the economic production limit can be analyzed to technical and economic parameters like gas price, operation cost, and the minimum attractive rate of return, and its analysis and calculation results provide reference for decision-makers and operators to make a better management in the development of low-permeability gas reservoirs in domestic gas fields.

Chen G.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

In 2011, the Chinese General Administration of Quality, Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine issued the revised National Measurement Technical Code JJF1059, meanwhile issued the new edition JJF1001-2011 General Glossary and Definition of Metrology in place of the 1998 edition. In view of this, in combination with the need of the laboratory establishment for natural gas quality control and energy measurement, this paper analyzes the existing problems in the uncertainty measurement in natural gas a-nalysis in the following aspects: the relationship between uncertainty evaluation and laboratory accreditation, the calibration and measurement capacity of laboratories, the criterion of certified reference material producers, and the Monte Carlo evaluation method of measurement uncertainty. The results are obtained as follows. (1) Measurement traceability can be built only by the matching measurement between water dew point and relative humidity; an overall study of uncertainty measurement has not been conducted till now, so from the perspective of traceability, the water dew point method described in the GB/T 17283 can not be regarded as the reference or arbitration in the uncertainty measurement. (2) There is no one laboratory recognized by the China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) in the sector of natural gas quality control and energy measurement. (3) The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) - JJF1059-1999 can not be applied in the evaluation of uncertainty in measurement of the on-line chromatograph analyzer in the energy measurement of natural gas. In this case, the Monte Carlo method, another evaluation method of uncertainty in measurement (see JJF1059. 2) is suggested to be adopted instead. Moreover, this paper also clarifies the characteristic values of reference materials and the precautions for the reference material production.

Li F.,Petrochina
Well Testing | Year: 2014

It is becoming important to increase and stable production for use of recoverable reserves of oil and gas fields to low permeability reservoirs, and acid and fracturing have become an important means of exploitation of low permeability reservoirs. In the transformation process acidification, acid formulation and operation process is very important for the design system liquid reservoir lithology. Selecting a reasonable construction process, can effectively relieve pollution near well-bore to improve the flow capacity of the reservoir. In the fracturing process, the fracturing fluid is the main factor affecting the quality of construction and stimulation effects, proppant fracturing is an important factor affecting the yield and the early period of validity, so choosing a reasonable fracturing fluid and proppant can get good fracturing effect, which makes the reservoir yield to be significant.

Higher requirements are presented for the ability & accomplishment of professionals and talent teams as well as their structure in oil and gas fields facing with new challenges under the present situation of advocating a low carbon economy, so it is urgent for us to discuss the training mechanism of professionals. In view of this, a case study is conducted of the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company. Based on the peculiarities in the value chain of oil and gas field services as well as the personnel training process, a mode of personnel training mechanism is built for adapting to the field development environment and achieving the goal of talent strategy. The following concrete measures are also taken herein. (1) According to the high requirement for the development in the oil and gas sector and innovation and development in techniques and management at fields, a system of cultivating more creative and applied talents should be facilitated. (2) Through the analysis of general demand for professionals and talent teams at fields, the talent structure should be determined and the talent training demand mechanism needs to be completed. (3) With clear guiding principles, general ideas, and developing goals kept in mind, a perfectly full plan of personnel training should be made to meet the demand for talents. (3) Besides talent-hunting, recruitment, talented person appointing, and talent evaluation, other means like the incentive payment system should be adopted to explore different ways and methods of cultivating more creative talents, thereby to set up a system of exploring and developing talent resources to the highest degree.

Qin S.,Petrochina
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Twenty-two gas and twenty-two water samples were collected from producing wells in the Triassic Xujiahe Formation, Leikoupo Formation and Jialingjiang Formation and the Permian Maokou Formation, in the Middle Sichuan, South Sichuan and Northwest Sichuan gas areas. The difference of carbon isotopes was compared between free gas and water-soluble gas. The component and carbon isotopic composition of the free gas showed normal characteristics of organic gas, while the alkane gas released from gas field water had more 13C component, indicating that gas field water plays an obvious role of fractionation in carbon isotope of natural gas. During the gas accumulation, if much gas is released from formation water and mixed into free gas, the carbon isotopic composition of free gases may become heavier. So, the carbon isotopic composition of water-soluble gases provides a new perspective for the study of gas origin and gas accumulation mechanism. Mixing of gases released from formation water may be the factor causing the carbon isotope anomalies for natural gases from the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin; Jiulongshan region and Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin; and volcanic gas reservoirs of the Songliao Basin.

Qiu Z.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Deng S.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

Under the present situation of abnormal energy structure in China with over dependence on coal and the developing trend of unconventional natural gas in the world, China has to put equal stress on the development of both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources to promote rapid progress in the natural gas industry. Unconventional natural gas resources in China are extremely rich with the recoverable reserves of 34 trillion m 3. Among them, the tight gas is the most accessible with the recoverable reserves of 11 trillion m 3, its commercial production has started in the Sulige gas zone, Ordos Basin, and in other major basins, commercial-scale tight gas reserves have also been discovered. The recoverable CBM gas reserves is 12 trillion m 3, its commercial production has been achieved in some parts of China, and its rapid development will be possible under such favorable conditions. Comparatively, although shale gas development is at the initial step, its systematic evaluation has been made and the marine shale facies in the stable zone under such geological environment similar to the U. S. shales have great gas potential with the recoverable reserves of 7.5 trillion m 3 from the preliminary assessment. Therefore, with the purpose of promoting the progress of unconventional natural gas in China, this paper suggests that (1) more preferential policies be formulated on tight gas development and the involved techniques be promoted to reduce its lower economic limit; (2) the key techniques of CBM gas exploitation be completed to speed up its development; and (3) shale gas resources be evaluated in a reliable and all-around way, the pilot test zones be quickly constructed, and technical difficulties be tackled. If so, it is predicted that after efforts made in the next two decades, the productivity of unconventional natural gas will account for a half of the total gas production, and along with its sustainable development, it will contribute a lot to the cumulative natural gas productivity and become the main force of stimulating the improvement of Chinese energy structure.

It is the key point of cost management in oil and gas fields to effectively control the engineering cost. In view of this, by use of the principles of management and the theories of cost management, we drew successful experience from the PetroChina North China Oilfield Company to present the following approaches to implement the elaborate management system of engineering cost in fields, which is divided into 6 elements: organization and human resource management, technical management, project quota and price management, information system for management platform, guarantee system for management mechanism, and management culture. First, it should be actively promoted through the whole process of engineering cost management including the design, tendering and bidding, operation, and completion. Then, the fundamental preparation work should be done like price information system, basic management system, standards-based precision management methods, and project file management. The practices in the elaborate management system of engineering cost in oil and gas fields operated by the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company show that the investment cost is well controlled, the management level of running enterprise according to the law is improved, and the income of interest is also enhanced to a high level.

Guo J.-J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhang S.,Petrochina | Zhang L.-H.,Southwest Petroleum University | Qing H.,University of Regina | Liu Q.-G.,Southwest Petroleum University
Journal of Hydrodynamics | Year: 2012

A fundamental solution for homogeneous reservoir in infinite space is derived by using the point source function with the consideration of the threshold pressure gradient. The fundamental solution of the continuous point source function is then derived based on the Green function. Various boundary conditions of the reservoirs are considered for this case and the corresponding solutions are obtained through the mirror image reflection and the principle of superimposition. The line source solution is obtained by integration. Subsequently, the horizontal-well bottom hole pressure response function for a non-linear gas flow in the homogeneous gas reservoir is obtained, and the response curve of the dimensionless bottom hole pressure and the derivative for a horizontal well in the homogeneous gas reservoir are obtained. In the end, the sensitivities of the relevant parameters are analyzed. The well test model presented in this paper can be used as the basis of the horizontal well test analysis for tight gas reservoirs. © 2012 Publishing House for Journal of Hydrodynamics.

Feng Q.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhang J.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhang X.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Hu A.,Petrochina
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2012

The optimization of well placement in a coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir is challenging and intricate work due to the large number of variables and geological uncertainties. To address these challenges, this paper presents a framework that integrates a reservoir simulator into the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The application of the PSO algorithm can greatly reduce optimization time and work volume. In this study, optimizations were conducted of the placement of single and multiple wells by maximizing net present value (NPV) in a synthetic reservoir. The optimizations tracked a field application in a CBM district located in the southeast of Ordos basin.A comparison of optimal well placements, which were determined by the PSO and manual trials respectively, showed complete concurrence for a single well. The effect of swarm size on the convergence speed to an optimal location was analyzed. The results indicated that a minimum swarm size of 10 particles is required to guarantee convergence to the global optima. For the case of multiwell placement, we compared the NPV of the optimized well placement determined by the PSO with 1200 randomly selected well placements and found that none of the randomly set wells surpassed the optimized well placement. The optimization results indicated that higher permeability and well interference have a positive effect on the optimal location.After history matching, the rearrangement of 10 vertical wells and an optimization of infilling scenarios were performed in a 5-year-old CBM district located in the southeast of Ordos basin. The optimization results demonstrated that cumulative gas production (CGP) increased by 22.01%, while cumulative water production (CWP) remained nearly unchanged after optimization. Optimal locations tend to be in regions with higher permeability and/or gas content. The NPVs in six infill scenarios exhibited an initial increase, but later exhibited a decline as the number of infill wells increased from zero to seven. A peak NPV value occurred at one infill well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Cheng R.-H.,Jilin University | Ren Y.-G.,Petrochina | Shen Y.-J.,Jilin University | Xu Z.-J.,Jilin University
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2012

The reorganization of volcanic cooling unit is a key to analyze volcanic stratigraphy and litho-facies.. The study of the sections of Yingcheng Formation in Songliao basin shows that there are four types of cooling unit including pyroclastic, lava, pyroclastic+lava and lava+pyroclastic in the outcrop of the southeast margin and Xujiaweizi fault depression.. The type of pyroclastic is an end unit reflecting the processes of hydro explosion.. The type of lava is another end unit reflecting the processes of magma effusion.. The type of pyroclastic+lava is a basic unit reflecting the consequent processes of hydro-magma eruption.. The type of lava+pyroclastic is a reformed or special unit.. Cooling unit itself and its stacking contain meaning of litho-facies.. The cooling unit is a genetic stratigraphic unit in volcanic stratigraphy, which is fundamental to learn architecture, forming and preservation of volcanic strata.. The recognition of volcanic cooling units and analysis of superimposition give a stratigraphic architecture of the First Member, Yingcheng Formation in Xujiaweizi of Songliao basin..

Li J.-H.,Petrochina
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2012

Favorable exploration areas and oil and gas reservoir can be predicted more accurately though analysis of sequence architecture pattern in different tectonic settings. Using seismic, drilling, logging, core, paleontology and so on, according to sequence interface characteristics, Lower Cretaceous in Huhehu depression is divided into 3 second-order sequences, 5 third-order sequences. On the base of structure background, Huhehu depression is divided into fault controlled steep slope zone, gentle slope fault terrace zone and depression zone. Different tectonic units show different sequence architecture patterns: fault controlled steep slope zone sequence architecture patterns, gentle slope fault terrace zone sequence architecture patterns and depression zone sequence architecture patterns. The results show that different tectonic units have specific characteristics of sequence architecture patterns and sedimentary system composing model, and different types of sequence architecture patterns control oil-gas formation models. Fault-lithology oil and gas reservoir, fault oil and gas reservoir mainly develop in fault controlled steep slope zone sequence architecture patterns; Fault-lithology oil and gas reservoir, and stratigraphic overlap oil and gas reservoir mainly develop in gentle slope fault terrace zone; Authigenic reservoir lens reservoir mainly develops in depression zone. Moreover, depression edge can develop fault-lithology oil and gas reservoir.

Tang X.,Petrochina
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, APOGCE 2015 | Year: 2015

Early water breakthrough occurs frequently in naturally fractured gas reservoirs. To minimize the impact on gas production, gas dewatering technology has been applied successfully since 1969 in South-Sichuan gas sector, China. During past over 40 years, gas dewatering technology has been utilized in 326 naturally fractured gas pools, including pilot tests at individual wells and field wide applications in entire gas reservoirs at both initial geopressured and late pressure-depleted development phases, forming systematic and mature practices. This paper presents and analyzes five typical, innovative dewatering practices: 1). Water and gas production simultaneously from updip wells in massive gas reservoirs with weak edge water. 2). Gas production in updip wells while water production from downdip wells with strong bottom water drive. 3). Water and gas production simultaneously in downdip wells in geopressured formation below gas/water contact. 4). Combination of water/gas co-production in downdip wells near gas/water contact and pure gas production in updip wells 5). Newly drilled horizontal wells located below gas/water contact are used for water and gas co-production, in order to bring updip, prolific, and watered-out gas wells back production. The results are that production decline trends in gas pools at different stages have been arrested and flattened out, offsetting previous double-digit decline. The best field case is plateau production rate sustained for eight years without additional drilling, with peak off-take rate of above 8%, relatively stabilized flowing wellhead pressures, gas flow rates and gas/water ratios. The paper also addresses some of the lessons learned and the criteria of the optimal practice for selecting and designing gas dewatering technology. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

In view of a series of questions, such as the obvious decline of oil output and oil-steam ratio, the change of components of the crude oil, the change of transfusion condition and the worse effect of injecting steam in the middle and later periods of stream hut- puff thermal production of heavy oil in Liaohe oil region, Huan 17 and Jin 16, based on the basic situation and development present situation of the two oil region, a kind of oil displacement agent (YQ-1) for heavy oil thermal exploitation was developed by laboratory experiment, and the indoor and the field tests were carried to evaluate the performance of the obtained YQ-1. The results showed that, the YQ-1 had good performance of heat-resistance; the surface activity of the YQ-1 declined a little after treated at 280°C for 96 h. The viscosity reducing rate of the heavy oil (Jin 16 and Huan 17) reached above 90% after mixed with 0.5% ∼ 2% YQ-1 solution in the volume ratio of 3:7; the washing-oil degree to the heavy oil, reached about 90% by using 0. 2% YQ-1 solution; after injecting the 2% YQ-1 solution, the recovery ratio of the core permeability was 96% and the injection pressure dropped by 23. 5% ∼ 78. 7% ; the compatibility between YQ-1 and the union station demulsifier was good, and the addition of the YQ-1 had little influences in the dehydration of the crude oil. A total of 10 times of heavy oil thermal production using YQ-1 had been implemented in the field test. Contrasting the period with the last period, the average single well oil production was increased by 288. 6 t, average ratio of gas and oil was enhanced by 0. 1, the average production cycle was lengthened 71. 4 days, and the water recovery rate was enhanced by 19. 2%.

High leak-off, high ISIP (instantaneous shut-in pressure) and high friction near wellbore resulted from natural fracture development and rapid structural changes of volcanic layers in the Daqing Xushen Gas Field, Songliao Basin. In order to improve the success rate of fracturing of tough reservoirs in this field, the generalized "G Function" theoretical model (3D), based on the previous minifrac method (2D), was built for the interpretation of fracturing parameters in favor of volcanic beds in this field. Specifically, the total 31 strata from 11 wells were selected for field experiment to work out the five "G Function" type curves according to different features of the selected strata with comparatively developed natural fractures, extremely developed natural fractures, low level of leak-off, fracture-height recession, and the integration of the former four cases. As a result, the coincidence rate of sand fracturing design was greater than 80% for 27 strata. The statistics of field application results indicates that the new theoretic model made the coincidence rate of sand fracturing design increased from 72.4% to 87.1%, thus effectively resolving the problem of low fracturing success rate in such tough volcanic beds. The new model introduces a theoretical principle for improving the fracturing success rate and is of great significance to the application of hydraulic fracturing especially in fractured volcanic beds.

HU W.,China National Petroleum Corporation | BAO J.,Petrochina | HU B.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | HU B.,China National Petroleum Corporation
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2013

Major progress achieved in oil and gas exploration in terms of reserves, number of oil and gas fields and discovery of large oilfields were analyzed, trend and progress of global oil and gas exploration in eight aspects were elaborated, and four enlightenments for oil and gas exploration in China were proposed. The following aspects have become the shifting trend of oil and gas exploration around the world: from oil and gas reservoirs to source rocks, from trap to large area reservoir, from structural reservoirs and lithological reservoirs to unconventional continuous reservoirs, from structural highs to low sags and slopes, from conventional hydrocarbon to unconventional hydrocarbon, from middle depth layers to deep and ultra-deep layers, from shallow and middle depth sea to deep and ultra-deep sea, and from conventional zones to extreme zones. China should put more effort into the research on basic exploration theory and key techniques, attach more attention to the role of exploration engineering technology, seek the effective way for comprehensive exploration of oil and gas resources, and strengthen secondary exploration of old oil and gas fields. The major transformation in oil and gas exploration field and strategy will be beneficial to the discovery of more oil and gas fields in China. © 2013 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Li J.,Petrochina | Li J.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Li Q.,CAS Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

The peak-shaving gas contributed by underground gas storage (UGS) of the reservoir type accounts for 83% of the total working gas provided by the UGS put into operation all over the world. Recently, this type of UGS is the most popular reserves for peak-shaving and emergency use in China. In view of this, this paper first analyzed the status quo of the global peaking reserves and the demand for peaking and emergency reserves in China. The process of UGS in those developed countries has experienced the infancy and growth periods and come to the present stable stage of development. Then, it discussed the important role this reservoir type UGS plays in the natural gas supply-demand chain in China because of its unique advantages like available abundant information about geological conditions and development history of the chosen hydrocarbon reservoirs, a short construction period needed, fast commissioning, and cost-effectiveness. In common, a reservoir type UGS only needs 3-5 years to be put into operation, so it is the fastest way to achieve the peak-shaving and emergency use especially in those areas in urgent and high needs for natural gas. Moreover, the core technologies for this type of UGS were also discussed: optimization of the UGS capacity to restore and effective working gas, optimization of peak-shaving and emergency capacity, and optimization of the wellbore configuration in the case of an alternating load.

Cheng F.-J.,Guangxi Normal University | Wang Y.-S.,Petrochina | Liu Y.-C.,Guangxi Normal University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2011

In the title compound, [Ni(C 7H 3NO 4)(C 12H 9N 5)(H 2O) 2], the Ni II atom is coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral geometry by one N and two O atoms from a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate ligand, one N atom from a 3,5-bis-(4-pyrid-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole ligand in equatorial positions and two water mol-ecules in axial positions. The crystal packing is consolidated by inter-molecular O -H⋯O, O -H⋯N and N -H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang J.,Petrochina
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on the distribution and coexistence mechanism of the various pressure systems in the Malang depression of the Santanghu basin, northeast of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. According to the classification standard of formation pressure, The calculated pressure coefficient showed that the Xishanyao Formation (J2x) is underpressured, the reservoirs of the Lucaogou Formation (P1l) are both normally and overpressured, and the Upper Pennsylvanian (C2) presents the coexistence of a normally pressured system and an underpressured system. The permeability of the Xishanyao Formation (J2x) improve from the southwest to the northeast of the basin, resulting in a relatively easy fluid supply to the reservoirs, and the pressure coefficient increases gradually. Tectonic uplift had a significant influence on the decrease in the reservoir pressure. However, a difference in source-reservoir assemblages caused a difference in fluid recharge and original pressure in reservoirs during hydrocarbon accumulation. The difference in reservoir connectivity causes a difference in the fluid supply during later tectonic movement, finally leading to the formation of different pressure systems. Thus, the basic mechanism for the coexistence mechanism of the various pressure regimes in this area is the disequilibrium of the fluid supply under the restriction of oil accumulation conditions. © 2013.

Ye L.,Sichuan University | Zhang Y.,Sichuan University | Zhang X.,Sichuan University | Hu T.,Sichuan University | And 3 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2013

Triple-layer broadband abrasion-resistant antireflective (AR) coatings with excellent transmittance at 400-800 nm were designed with the aid of thin film design software (TFCalc™). SiO2, TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films with refractive indices of 1.44, 2.20 and 1.71 for the up, middle and bottom layers, were dip-coated from SiO2, TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 hybrid sols by sol-gel process, respectively. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. These designed triple-layer broadband AR coatings with an average transmittance as high as 98.4% at visible region were successfully obtained. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was further used to modify the surface of the AR coatings, which greatly improved the hydrophobicity of the coatings, and thus gave the AR coatings some self-cleaning property. These triple-layer abrasion-resistant broadband AR coatings with excellent transmittance in the visible region have potential value in the field of solar cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Chen K.,Petrochina
Jisuan Wuli/Chinese Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

We propose an equivalent first-order hyperbolic velocity-stress Biot two-phase isotropic medium elastic wave equation in order to separate pure fast and slow compress waves and pure shear wave in full wave field of two-phase medium. Feasibility of the method is demonstrated with divergence and curl theory. In a high-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme forward simulating operator is constructed. PML absorbing boundary condition and stability condition are derived. Isotropic and heterogeneous layered two-phase medium models are tested. Full elastic wave field, completely separated pure compress wave and pure shear wave of the solid & fluid phase components are obtained. Boundary absorbing effect is perfect, and numerical precision is high. It shows that the fast compress wave and slow compress wave are coupled which can't be separated. They belong to pure compress wave fields. Energy of slow compress wave in fluid phase is greater than that in solid phase which is important in understanding propagating laws and validating elastic wave theory for two-phase medium.

Wang D.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Qin Z.,National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service | Spence G.,University of Victoria | Lu F.,Petrochina
Marine Geology | Year: 2013

Mass transport deposits (MTDs) occur in the South China Sea region, within the Qiongdongnan Basin, north of Guangle Uplift and west of Xisha Uplift. The MTDs (termed the Huaguang MTDs) are widely distributed in the late Miocene sedimentary strata, which belong to the upper Huangliu Formation (8.2-5.5Ma). Their general flow direction is from south to north. As a large-scale buried MTD system, it covers an area of more than 18,000km2. The system must be closely related to regional tectonic events, climate change, and variations in sedimentation rate. The dominant period when the Huaguang MTDs developed corresponds to the phase when the Red River Shear Zone reversed from left- to right-lateral slip. This event may have a close relationship with local uplift of Indochina, volcanism, and fault activation or re-activation within the surrounding area. Later in the Miocene, the accelerated onshore denudation and offshore basin subsidence of eastern Vietnam, and development of a mountainous river system, led to filling of the Yinggehai Basin and rapid accumulation of sediment which formed the regional steep bathymetry and weak cementation within the sediments. The sediment characteristics provide the critical conditions for forming MTDs. Polygonal faults within the MTDs and underlying strata show that fluid leakage took place following deposition of the MTDs. We suggest that the dominant trigger mechanism for large-scale MTDs was the activation or re-activation of major faults and associated volcanism in the late Miocene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sun Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Sun Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Cartwright J.,University of Cardiff | And 2 more authors.
Basin Research | Year: 2013

In this article, we document a large number of focused fluid escape structures using high quality 2D seismic reflection data and multibeam bathymetry data from a poorly known area at the intersection of the northern South China Sea (SCS) and the western SCS. Three types of focused fluid escape systems are identified and described: mud volcanoes, pipes and associated pockmarks. The mud volcanoes occur singly or as clustered groups. The overpressure driving the mud volcanism is argued herein to be related to the generation of thermogenic hydrocarbons. The clustered distributions are related to localized tectonic uplift in the basin. Pipes mainly occur within the Guangle Uplift or accompany the mud volcano clusters. The pipes located within the Guangle Uplift are attributed to carbonate dissolution caused by hydrothermal fluids. Fluids ascended through these structures and were expelled at the palaeo-seabed or present seabed forming palaeo-pockmarks and present-day pockmarks. Some 'mega-pockmarks' show evidence of enlargement due to bottom currents. The marginal basins of the SCS are petroliferous, with attention gradually shifting to the deep-water area. Our results show that fluid migration must be taken into account when assessing seabed stability. This analysis also improves our understanding the petroleum geology in the study area, and is also useful for predicating where chemosynthetic ecosystems may be located. © 2013 The Authors. Basin Research © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers and International Association of Sedimentologists.

Sun M.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Sun M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Feng J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Feng J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

A novel multi-interaction stationary phase based on 4,4′-dipyridine modified silica was synthesized and characterized, by infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Mechanism involved in the chromatographic separation is the multi-interaction including π-π, hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic and anion-exchange interactions. Based on these interactions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols were successfully separated respectively in reversed-phase chromatography; inorganic and organic anions were also separated individually in anion-exchange chromatography by using the same column. Furthermore, the simultaneous separation of neutral organics, inorganic and organic anions was obtained on this stationary phase with the appropriate mobile phase. Therefore, such stationary phase has the characteristics of multi-interaction mechanism and multi-modal separation, and has potential application on complex samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

An F.-C.,Petrochina
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2011

Segment markets of CNPC's polypropylene are obtained by applying STP theory. The promising segment markets which can meet the objective and capability of the company are chosen as the target market, afterwards, it is essential for the company to put its passion into a market position based on the target customer-oriented principle, and take a series of marketing activities to attract the target customers.

Zhang G.M.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Liu H.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Liu H.,Petrochina | Zhang J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2010

Estimation or determination of fracture geometry has been one of the most difficult technical challenges in hydraulic fracturing treatment. A three-dimensional non-linear fluid-solid coupling finite element model was established based on the finite element software ABAQUS. The staged fracturing process of a horizontal well in Daqing Oilfield, China was simulated with the model, in which perforation, wellbore, cement casing, one pay zone, two barriers, micro-annulus fracture and transverse fracture are included. The field data of Daqing Oilfield were used in numerical computation. Micro-annulus fracture and transverse fracture generate simultaneously and a typical T-shaped fracture occurs at the early stage of treatment history, then the micro-annulus disappears and only the transverse fracture remains and propagates. The pore pressure distribution in the formation and the fracture configuration during the treatment history are obtained. The evolution of bottomhole pressure as the direct output of simulation is well coincident with the corresponding data from the field measurements. The validation of the model is approved. The effects of several parameters on fracture characteristic are studied with the model. The parameters include in-situ stress contrast, modulus contrast, tensile strength contrast and viscosity of fracturing fluid. © 2010.

Bai Z.-Q.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2010

Considering the production situations of braided fluvial sandbodies at late high water-cut stage under dense pattern condition in Daqing Sabei Oilfield, the hierarchy analysis method combined with matching model is applied in subsurface architecture anatomy. According to this method, three aspects of braided fluvial sandbody including sedimentation model, intercalated bed style, intercalated bed spread scale are identified and analyzed. The sedimentation model that channel sand dam forms large-scale sandy flat or overlap extensive sandbody on surface are described. Based the sedimentation model, intercalated bed is divided into three types and it's spread scale is identified. Based on these achievements, 3D reservoir architecture model and petro physical property models are established with the target algorism. The remaining oil potential is little in braided fluvial sand bodies at late high water-cut stage. The results show that intercalated bed spread scale is between 90m and 140m. Inner layer subdivided water shut-off in nineteen oil wells for different types of remaining oil have achieved better effects. This paper will serve as a guide for tapping the potential of in-layer remaining oil during late oilfield development periods.

Dakuang H.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

Most oil fields in China are reservoirs with strong heterogeneity and relatively viscous crude in continental sediments. Due to the low waterflooding oil recovery factor, there is still a great potential to improve the oil recovery. The remaining oil in high water-cut mature oilfields has the characteristics of " highly scattered in general, but locally abundant". As a result, a sophisticated reservoir characterization and an accurate quantification of the remaining oil distribution are necessary in rebuilding knowledge to the reservoir. Different strategies and measures including well pattern realignments should be applied to the area with varying abundance level of remaining oil. Three integrated measures are proposed: (1) the combination of non-uniform well patterns (infill drilling of efficient wells in area with abundant remaining oil), and uniform well patterns (in un-compartmentalized reservoir) or relatively uniform well patterns (in fault-block reservoir); (2) combination of uniform or relatively uniform well patterns and measures of more efficient recovery techniques such as moveable gel displacement for recovering the scattered remaining oil; and (3) combination of vertical and horizontal wells. Therefore, new technologies in multiple disciplines of geology, seismology, well-logging and advanced reservoir simulation are needed to be developed and applied in determining the location and abundance level of remaining oil. In this paper, a systematic and feasible technical approach as well as specific requirements is proposed. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Natural gas is a clean energy source and its CO 2 emission is lower than that of coal and oil. To keep balance between meeting the rapidly increasing demand for energy and reducing the discharge amount of greenhouse gases, the energy structure has to be optimized. Thus, the percentage of natural gas needs to be improved, which is the shortest way for China to step into a low carbon economy. A discussion on improving the percentage of natural gas in China's energy structure covers the potential of global natural gas resources; ideal consumption of natural gas in China in 2030; concerns on imports; impact of the international financial crisis on world demand for gas consumption; development of US shale gas; developments concerning LNG projects; and pricing trends.

Lu J.,China University of Geosciences | Lu J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2010

Being a new gas importer in the world, China has rapidly increased its gas imports in recent years. Because of the recurrent gas famine and its pervasive range of bad effect, it is urgent to guarantee safe gas supply by optimizing gas import sources and channels and learning good experiences in natural gas trade from big importers. A discussion on the diversification of gas importing sources as key to guaranteeing the safe and long-term gas supply in China covers global gas resources; gas trade status and features; good experiences from different gas importers; strengthening international cooperation to promote the development of various trade modes; exploration and development of domestic energy resources, with emphasis on strengthening the strategic energy reserves; the principle of the energy safe strategy; promoting economic development and the concept of a harmonious society via the steady and safe supply of gas.

Xin S.,Petrochina
Materials China | Year: 2014

Continuous silicon carbide filament is, up to date, an artificial fiber that has the highest tensile strength and the highest tensile modulus, as well as very high thermostability. Its production technology experienced several key stages, from high oxygen content to ultra-low oxygen content, and from trace element composites to multiple elements composites. There are four key processes of continuous silicon carbide (SiC) filament production technology mainly. These are: the chemical or catalytic process that converts organosilane monomer into organo-polysilane (PS); the process of converting a viscous PS solution or molten PS into long and dry fibers, i.e. filament fabrication; the process that converts the original PS filament into polycarbosialne (PCS) in an inert and/or chemical vapor environment under controlled temperatures; and finally the high temperature thermochemical cross-linking process of converting the PCS filament into highly crystalline SiC filament in an inert and/or chemical vapor environment under high temperature conditions. It is obvious that only if one is completely familiar with and rigorously grasp these key processes, one would be able to effectively select a suitable technical process, to choose or create suitable manufacturing facilities, and therefore to be able to produce high strength and high modulus continuous silicon carbide filament. And then one would be able to provide high quality source of continuous silicon carbide filaments for the nation's aero and space, as well as high performance manufacturing industries.

Xiao H.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2013

Lasaxing Oilfield has come into a development stage with ultrahigh water cut and highly decentralized remaining oil. Remaining reserves are mainly stored in channel sand reservoir, which accounts for about 70% of water flooding remaining geologic reserve. Underwater distributary channel sand is typical channel sand body, mainly distributing in non major reservoirs from Lamadian Oilfield to Xingshugang Oilfield of Daqing Oilfield. Underwater distributary channel in Lasaxing Oilfield was taken to be main research object, using stratification testing of sealed coring inspection well & oil-water well, well log interpretation of water flooded layer and production data, remaining oil formation mechanism of underwater distributary channel in Lasaxing Oilfield was studied by using sealed coring inspection well data analysis method, reservoir engineering method, reservoir numerical simulation method, physical simulation and comprehensive analytic approach. The remaining oil distribution pattern was presented.

Hu Y.,Southwest Petroleum University | Jia S.,Petrochina | Zhao J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhang Y.,Sinopec | Mi Q.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2013

In this paper, by combining the practice shale reservoir volume stimulation with microseism fracture monitoring and observation in North America, we discuss the mechanics controlling conditions of controlling network cracks at hydraulic fracturing treatment. Rock brittleness index is fundament of inducing initiation points and multi-fractures; well-grown structure weak planes (such as joints and natural fissures) are necessary conditions of inducing networks; horizontal stress contrast in reservoir formation and intersect angle of natural fracture are principal controlling conditions of induced network; low-permeability tight reservoirs are the precondition applying network hydraulical fracturing. Technology conditions were expounded as follows: low-viscosity fluid is necessary for inducing the network fracture, and higher net pressure (factor) is an important technic measure to increase the affected area of network fractures. Lastly, stimulation design ideas differences from conventional and non-conventional hydraulic fracturing are compared, so new ideas for correctly judgment and application network fracturing, it is important to guiding the practice of hydraulically network fracturing.

Zhao G.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2014

The horizontal well productivity prediction method was analyzed in theory. However, the existing mathematical model and evaluation method does not consider the influence of start-up pressure gradient and the pressure-sensitive effect on fracturing horizontal well productivity, which is not reasonable in low permeability reservoirs. A method considering the effect of start-up pressure gradient and the pressure sensitive was provided in this paper. The results showed that the larger the start-up pressure gradient, the greater impact on the fracturing of the horizontal well productivity. Therefore, when the fracturing horizontal well productivity model was established in low permeability reservoir, the parameters of start-up pressure gradient must be considered. The larger integrated compression coefficient, the greater impact on fracturing horizontal well productivity. The greater the pressure drop, the influence on coefficient of the comprehensive capacity is larger. Therefore, when the elastic reservoir was exploited, a feasibility of optimization design of production pressure were needed. The best crack number was 4~5, and crack length was about 120 m. ©, 2014, Fushun Petroleum Institute. All right reserved.

Waveform consistency is an important factor in seismic merging processing, the waveform difference is small in seismic data processing of single block because the properties of the sources and receivers are similar. The wavelet amplitude, frequency and phase are different in multi-blocks processing because the data acquisition is in different time and also, the data has different source and receiver properties. The mediod of frequency consistency, amplitude consistency and deconvolution are applied to adjust the relationship between wavelet frequency and phase for different seismic data and different blocks in conventional seismic data processing, but the above consistency processing can reduce the seismic data prestack processing quality. The unified waveform consistency processing is presented in this paper, the proposed mediod can eliminate the waveform difference which results from the source type and acquisition factor in different blocks, the crosscorrealtion coefficient of wavelet in different block is above 0. 9, that means, the original data quality is kept efficiendy during the course of prestack consistency processing. We have got good result in waveform consistency processing in 19 blocks, about 5 058. 8 km2 in Xujiaweizi, this is also the biggest 3D seismic onshore data merging processing in China.

Dong W.-K.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Sun Y.-X.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Xing S.-J.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Wang Y.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Gao X.-H.,Petrochina
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section B Journal of Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

A supramolecular Cu(II) complex [CuL(H 2O)] with an asymmetric salen-type bisoxime ligand (H 2L = 4-nitro-6'-methoxy-2,2'- [ethylenediyldioxybis(nitrilomethylidyne)]diphenol) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, TG-DTA analysis, and molar conductance measurements. The crystal structure of the Cu(II) complex has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cu(II) atom is penta-coodinated by N 2O 2 donor atoms from the asymmetic salen-type bisoxime L 2- unit and one oxygen atom from the coordinated water molecule, resulting in an almost regular square-pyramidal geometry. With the help of intermolecular O-H· · · O, C-H···O hydrogen bonding and π ··· π stacking interactions, a self-assembled 3D supramolecular structure is formed. © 2012 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung.

Hu W.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Bao J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

Up till June in 2012, there are 62 shale gas wells in total in present China, 24 among which have obtained industrial flow mostly with 100 thousand m3 gas per day at their early stage. This shows a good prospect of shale gas development in China. With a high enthusiasm, researchers, decision-makers, engineers or operators are present at many seminars, are busy with making various programming plans, and are helping establish all kinds of new organizations, and are going on various investigation trips abroad. On the other hand, they have to also face with so many problems such as a low cost, little support from policies, and not enough input work. Through the analysis of such present status in China, this paper emphasizes the fact that we need to walk our way of Chinese-style shale gas exploration and development, that is to say, not only will foreign experience be important for us to learn, but geological topography in China needs to study more carefully. In summary, the following feasible ways are presented herein in this paper. (1) The correct development concept should be established; (2) High level models should be set up; (3) The successful mode of tight gas development should be followed; (4) Basic research should be strengthened with great breakthrough made in key technologies; (5) The basic conditions of exploration and development must be clarified; (6) Both technical and management innovation should be implemented as the development duralism. (i. e., to smooth out each thorny issue by only focusing on something really essential); (7) Successful technical practices of unconventional natural gas development at home and abroad should be learned from. Additionally, the suggestions for speeding up shale gas development in China are as follows: to advocate and support the development and utilization of unconventional natural gas from a strategic perspective; to require supportive policies stipulated by the government, to establish state-level exemplary zones for shale gas development and utilization, to tackle technical problems by obeying the old rule of 80-20 split, to follow the principle of "advancing and retreating together" for both business owners and service providers, to insist on everything in market-oriented operation, to develop a perfect government regulatory system, and to explore a new way for state-owned and private enterprises to make concerted efforts in tapping and exploiting more low-grade hydrocarbon resources.

The proved high-sulfur gas reserves are over 9000X 108 m 3 in the Sichuan Basin, accounting for more than 90% of the cumulative national gas reserves of the same kind. Over the past nearly 47 years, the operators in the Sichuan Basin as the main field of high-sulfur gas exploitation in China have collected rich technical experience and obtained numerous achievements, which can represent the most advanced level for China in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs and provide guidance for the developing trend in this domain in the future. To further promote the cooperative project of the Right Bank of the Amy Darya River in the Turkmenistan, we analyzed the characteristics and difficulties of high-sulfur gas reservoir development. (1) The complexity of geological features of this type reservoirs leads to an extremely high requirement for the involved technologies. (2) Stringent demand has to be first considered for both geographical environment and human settlements. (3) The pre-development evaluation quality is required to be perfect. (4) Safety guarantee and cost control are also great challenge. (5) The real-time HSE assessment and control techniques have to be guaranteed as well. This paper also summarizes about 28 items of specific technologies of the PetroChina Southwest Company in the past years of producing high-sulfur gas in the Sichuan Basin in terms of high-sulfur gas reservoir evaluation and development mode optimization, safe drilling and completion, gas production, ground gas gathering & transportation and corrosion control, natural gas sweetening process, HSE, etc. Furthermore, the developing trend for the related technologies is pointed out and technical difficulties await us to overcome in the domains of geology and gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, ground gathering & transportation and corrosion control, natural gas sweetening, and HSE; only in this way will a sustained high level be kept of technologies for high-sulfur reservoir development.

Dong W.-K.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Sun Y.-X.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Liu G.-H.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | Li L.,Lanzhou Jiaotong University | And 2 more authors.
Zeitschrift fur Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie | Year: 2012

Two nickel(II) complexes, namely {[NiL(MeOH)(μ-OAc)] 2Ni} ·2CH 2Cl 2·2MeOH (1) and {[NiL(EtOH)(μ-OAc) ] 2Ni}·2EtOH (2) {H 2L = 5, 5'-dimethoxy-2, 2'-[(ethylene)dioxybis(nitrilomethylidyne)]diphenol}, were synthesized and structurally characterized. Two trinuclear Ni II complexes are both hexacoordinate around the central Ni II atoms, showing octahedral coordination arrangements, and each complex comprises three divalent Ni II atoms, two deprotonated L 2- ligands, in which four μ-phenoxo oxygen atoms forming two [NiL(X)] (X = MeOH or EtOH) units, and coordinated and non-coordinated solvent molecules. Complex 1 exhibits a 2D supramolecular network through intermolecular O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π interactions, whereas complex 2 forms an infinite 1D chain by intermolecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhu Z.,Southwest Petroleum University | Huang Y.,Southwest Petroleum University | Wang Y.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

Brecciated carbonates were widely developed in the upper Carboniferous Huanglong Formation of the eastern Sichuan Basin, and they include two main types: penecontemporaneous brecciated carbonates and karst brecciated carbonates. In order to effectively distinguish the said two types of brecciated carbonates and recognize diagenesis evolution of reservoirs, this study focuses on the characteristics of the latter type. Therefore, all types of data were first collected in this study area: the observation and description of core samples from 89 wells, well logging interpretation, and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes. On this basis, an in-deep investigation was then made into the characteristics of karst brecciated carbonates in the Huanglong Formation. a. The karst brecciated carbonates can be further divided into slacktip packing type, transport packing type and crack-corrosion type, and the second type is the dominant one confined to the upper and middle parts of the Huanglong Formation. b. There is a big difference in the features of carbon and oxygen isotopes between matrix and breccia: compared to the impure matrix, there filled in breccia with muddy, argillaceous, or argilloferruginuous carbonate cement. c. The karst brecciated carbonates presents a high gamma ray value and low resistivity. Finally, through a comparative study of the said three types of karst brecciated carbonates in this study area, the following findings were concluded: The slacktip packing type brecciated dolomites are rather thick but is only distributed in a limited area, thus are not favorable reservoirs; the transport packing type brecciated dolomites are much thinner, but some of them can be possibly developed as favorable reservoirs through water dissolution; the crack-corrosion type brecciated dolomites are most favorable reservoirs with developed corroded pores and fissures but distributed in a small area.

Poly(acrylamide-co-octylphenol polyoxyethylene (10) acrylate) hydrophobic association hydrogels, which is abbreviated to poly(AM-co-OP10/AC) HA-gels, were prepared through micellar copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and a small amount of octylphenol polyoxyethylene (10) acrylate (OP10/AC) in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). For poly(AM-co-OP10/AC) HA-gels, formation mechanism was discussed in detail, which can reasonably explain the reason that tensile mechanical properties of the hydrogels (containing SDS) are much higher than those of the hydrogels (not containing SDS). In addition, according to the tensile experimental results of poly(AM-co-OP10/AC) HA-gels, the effect of composition content in the initial solutions on tensile mechanical properties was investigated in detail. The results clearly indicate tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongations for poly(AM-co-OP10/AC) HA-gels strongly depended on composition content in the initial solutions. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hou D.,Petrochina
China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2011

Causes of scale deposition in flue gas turbine expander of FCCU were analyzed based on some aspects, including the types and operating conditions of flue gas turbines, properties and composition of feedstocks and catalysts, and operating conditions of the reactor and regenerator. Some countermeasures were proposed for preventing scale deposition in flue gas turbine of FCCU.

Xiaodong W.,China University of Geosciences | Yongle H.,Petrochina | Yiping D.,China University of Geosciences
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

The production data analysis is one of hot spots of reservoir engineering recently, which combines conventional reservoir engineering analysis and modern well test analysis. Based on the theory of transient porous flow, the analysis provides a mathematical model, which not only reasonably predicts the production decline of oil or gas wells but also effectively evaluates the physical properties of reservoirs. Theoretical charts of Agarwal-Gardner production decline curves and derivative curves for common horizontal wells are presented by solving the transient 3D porous flow in the bounded reservoir. The Agarwal-Gardner curves can be divided into two stages: the derivatives are dispersed in the early transient decline stage and drawn to Arps harmonious decline in the late pseudo-steady state stage. The influence of vertical location of horizontal wells on production decline in the mid-long term is negligible in a homogenous reservoir. A field example illustrates that, given production data, the results in this article can be directly used to evaluate the reservoir characteristics and effectively forecast the long-term productivity for horizontal wells. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Chen S.,Southwest Petroleum University | Fan X.,Southwest Petroleum University | Lu J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Wang X.,Petrochina | Fei A.,Southwest Petroleum University
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

Bitumen is similar to the cement and autogenic clay filled in reservoir pores, and it dramatically reduces reservoir porosity and permeability, increases reservoir heterogeneity and even changes the oil/gas accumulation history at a later stage. Taking Santai-north Santai in the east of Junggar Basin as an example, through the experiment of comparing reservoir properties before and after the reservoir was soaked by organic solvent, this article analyzed the impact of bitumen on reservoir properties. After soaking, the porosity and permeability of the reservoir with bitumen has increased dramatically while that of the reservoir without bitumen has little change. The distribution and maturity difference of bitumen and oil in different horizons and different sandstones indicates that bitumen prevents oil/gas from entering the reservoir at a later stage. Therefore, oil/gas can only migrate into the reservoir with little or no bitumen, affecting the accumulation regularity in the area. Based on the above reasons, the exploration in Santai-north Santai should avoid the bitumen accumulation zone and find the reservoir with little interstitial material and featuring pure sandstone which is favorable for the accumulation of oil/gas at a later stage.

Zeng L.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu H.,Petrochina
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper studies the influence of fracture on the development of low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. There are four assemblages of high angle tectonic fractures assuming east-west, south-north, northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest strikes respectively in the Putaohua oil layer of the Taizhao district, leading to a gradual weakening in their development. In light of the influences of the present-day stress field, the east-west fractures are considered to have the best connectedness, the biggest aperture, the highest permeability and the lowest opening pressure, present the main channel for fluid flow in the low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. These fractures impact on the well pattern deployment, water injection and hydraulic fracturing in the low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. Based on the distribution and flow characteristics of fractures, favorable effects can be obtained by rectangular and rhombus well patterns along the principal seepage fractures of the east-west orientation in the primary period of development. Due to their minimum opening pressure, the east-west fractures are the earliest to open during the water flooding development, so we should control the injection pressure under the open pressure of east-west fractures. Artificial fractures formed by hydraulic fracturing in low-permeability sandstone reservoirs are controlled by natural fractures and the presented-day stress. If the angle between natural fractures and the present-day stress is less than the critical angle, the artificial fractures extend mainly along the natural fractures and do not generate new fractures. If the angle between natural fractures and the present-day stress is bigger than the critical angle, the artificial fractures extend vertically to the minimum stress (σ3) of the present-day stress field. These results demonstrate the importance of assessing the fracture distribution in the low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang Z.,Petrochina | Gao C.,Yangtze University | Gao Y.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

Because of the many factors influencing the resistivity of carbonate reservoir and the complex conductive mechanism, it is difficult to identify the reservoir and interpret the property of fluids. On the basis of pore-structure physical model, we simulated the resistivity of reservoir, and analyzed the factors which affect the resistivity of reservoir. The factors include the throat size, the resistivity of formation water, and the resistivity of matrix, and the vuggy size, and so on. At last, the influencing degree to resistivity of reservoir is discussed and the reason of abnormal resistivity in carbonate is interpreted in this paper. The resistivity of reservoir gradually reduces with the throat diameter increasing, and increases as the resistivity of matrix and formation water increases. Vuggy extension influence on resistivity along the direction of the current is higher than that along the vertical current direction. With the vuggy size along current direction increasing, the resistivity reduces. The effect of throat diameter on the resistivity of reservoir is bigger than vuggy size. The effect of throat diameter on the resistivity of completely water-saturated rocks is bigger than on completely oil-saturated rocks, but for the resistivity of the matrix and the formation water, the extended direction and size of the vuggy, the condition is opposite.

Quality and measurement during natural gas trade have already aroused government and public concern in China because acceptable quality and accurate metering is directly related to the profits of a country, an enterprise, and a consumer. Therefore, by analyzing ISO 13686 Natural Gas Quality Designation and OIML/R140 Gas Fuels Metering System, we extracted the core requirements and main technologies for natural gas quality and metering. Also, we introduced regularly used gas measuring technologies and methodologies as well as the two main important standards in China: GB 17820 Natural Gas and GB/T 18603 Technical Requirements for Natural Gas Metering System. Then, we pointed out that many challenges still exist in the traceability and transferring chain, analysis and measurement techniques, flow volume comparison, flow detection, and so on, and presented the following proposals for enhancing the natural gas quality and metering to a high level such as implementing natural gas energy measurement, enhancing the international capacity identifying and key round comparisons, increasing the automation level of the employed apparatus and instruments, perfecting the standard system, leading drafting and revising international standards, and improving the analysis and measurement techniques. We should focus on tackling those bottlenecking problems in natural gas quality control and metering technologies and keeping on tracking, studying, formulating and revising the related standards in order to ensure the justice and reliability in natural gas trade in China and provide a robust technical support for China to transfer from volume metering to energy measuring.

Li J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Dong X.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Shangguan J.,Petrochina | Hook M.,Uppsala University
Energy | Year: 2011

The use of natural gas in China is still relatively immature, as gas production only supplies a low percentage of the domestic energy system. In contrast, Chinese economy mainly relies on coal with a 67% share of the total primary energy supply. The environmental impact from this high coal dependence is significant and planners have sought for cleaner energy sources. Natural gas is both cleaner and generally more efficient than coal and gas consumption is rising quickly due to these facts. The growth tendency indicates that natural gas will become an important substitution for coal in some parts of the Chinese primary energy consumption. To quantify this tendency, this paper uses a system dynamics model to create a possible outlook. The results show that the gas consumption in China will continue to increase fast to 89.5 billion cubic meters in 2010; 198.2 billion cubic meters in 2020, before finally reach 340.7 billion cubic meters in 2030. Scenario analysis is used to assess the accuracy of the results. Finally, this paper gives policy suggestions on natural gas exploration and development, infrastructure constructions and technical innovations to promote a sustainable development of China's natural gas industry. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Yijie Z.,Petrochina | Jian C.,Nanjing University | Wenxuan H.,Nanjing University
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

Timing of petroleum accumulations and distribution of vertical basin-scale sealing beds are important in the study of superimposed basins. This information can be used to divide petroleum accumulations of different times into different petroleum-forming assemblages vertically so as to reconstruct the petroleum accumulation process and distribution more accurately. The Mahu-West Well Pen 1 combination petroleum system in the Junggar Basin is taken as the case study. By isotopic K-Ar dating of authigenic illite, optical feature of organic inclusions, and fluid inclusion homogenization temperature, combined with burial and thermal history analysis, timing of petroleum accumulations is defined, i.e., P2-3, T3, J2-K1 and N. According to the vertical sealing mudstones of T3b, J1s1, and K1tg, four petroleum-forming assemblages were divided including C-T3, T3-J1, J2-K1, and K-N. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Shi J.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2014

Natural gas is the only one alternative clean energy source which can replace coal and oil on a large scale at present. Natural gas industry in China has a bright prospect in the near future and its steady and healthy development will highly depend upon a reasonable gas pricing system. In view of this, through an investigation into the rich experiences from those developed countries in natural gas industry as well as the characteristics of gas pricing in futures markets, this paper concludes that it is necessary for China to build its own natural gas futures markets for the following reasons. (1) Gas prices discovered in futures markets are most close to the ideal equilibrium price. (2) In futures markets, gas prices will be possibly predicted in a continuous long-term period. (3) On the contract expiration date (or the settlement day), gas prices in futures and in spot markets will come to convergence. In addition, it is also feasible for China to own a natural gas futures market because (1) participators in a natural gas futures market have been more than enough and such a market demand is still soaring high; (2) natural gas pipelines and storage reserves facilities have been almost completed, providing good conditions for physical delivery in a futures market; (3) those futures markets for other products are developing well in present China and have collected good management experiences and accumulated rich talents resources; and (4) due to its predominant geological location, China will be expected to become an important center for natural gas pricing and delivery in East Asia. In conclusion, China needs to build its own natural gas futures markets as soon as possible, thereby to help explore the future gas prices in the global market.

Cai D.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

Evaluation on water flooded layer in the sandstone reservoir is a complex and difficult problem which has persecuted oilfield workers for many years. It is a new field of geochemical investigation for evaluating waterflooded layer by geochemical logging, which may be an effective and new way for finding residual oil in the secondary development stage. Based on the depth analysis on the mechanism of the watered-out oil layer, gas chromatogram, pyrolysis chromatography and coring data, the evaluation model of waterflooded layer and interpretation chart are established by calculating the parameter of porosity, oil saturation, oil displacement efficiency, and so on, which provides the quantitative calculation and qualitative identification for the evaluation method of waterflooded layer in the sandstone reservoir. The method is applied in the D group of C area in B Field of A Basin. The result indicates that the effectiveness is very great, with the agreement rate of 95percent compared with the result of well testing interpretation. The study revealed that the chemical logging method is applicable with great utilization value, which lay the foundation for the scheme adjustment and the enhancing oil recovery of the oilfield in the mid-late period of oilfield development.

A new goal was presented in the National 12th Five-Year Plan for the optimized energy structure, natural gas proportion in which will be improved to 8% from the previous 4% by the end of last Five-Year Plan period. It is known that unconventional natural gas development may alleviate some pressure on our environment and has become another alternative gas resource so China will possibly build an important demonstration industrial zone for global shale gas development. However, there are many challenges in unconventional natural gas industry in China, such as uncertainty of such reserves, inadequate support from imperfect policies, bottlenecking technical difficulties, conflict between resource development and environment protection, restrictions in market, etc. Therefore, the following proposals were presented for stimulating unconventional natural gas development in China: to formulate supporting policies, laws and regulations, to encourage international cooperation and communication, to strengthen overall planning and implementation, to cultivate utilization industrial clusters, to train more excellent talents with technical and leadership skills, and to establish the spot and futures markets. It is concluded that China unconventional natural gas is developing rapidly at present and with so many opportunities, its development will have a bright future.

Zhang T.,Southwest Petroleum University | Guo J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Liu W.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

Water hydraulic fracture treatments are widely used in of exploitation for tight gas reservoirs such as shale gas because of its low cost and little damage to formation's permeability. In the process of fracturing, turbulence effects, particle-particle and particle-wall interactions are important factors which affect proppant transportation and settling behavior. Because conventional proppant settlement calculation methods don't consider the two-way coupling of fluid-solid and solid-solid, Euler-Euler twophase flow model is established to study the proppant transportation and settling behavior in the process of water-fracturing. Turbulence effects and friction stress between high concentration particles are taken into consideration to study the particlewall interaction, and Johnson-Jackson boundary conditions are also considered. By using this model, the two-phase flow of fracturing fluid and proppant in the slot under different inlet-velocity position, particle density are studied. The simulation results coincide with experimental results well, which verifies the effectiveness of the model used. In the meanwhile, the effect of these parameters to proppant transportation and settling law is also discussed in the paper.

Wang X.,China University of Geosciences | Luo W.,China University of Geosciences | Hou X.,China University of Geosciences | Wang J.,Petrochina
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2014

A new analytical solution of fluid unsteady flow was presented for wells with finite-conductivity vertical fractures by determining impact functions of fracture conductivity. Based on the new solution, the transient pressure distribution of a fractured horizontal well with multiple finite-conductivity vertical fractures was obtained using the principle of superposition. Calculation results show the pressure transient behavior of fractured horizontal wells under the condition of constant bottom rate. In the ideal fracture arrangement, flow patterns occur in the order of early bilinear flow → early linear flow → middle radial flow → middle linear flow → late pseudo steady state. Uneven length of fractures with equal conductivity and uniform arrangement may affect the transform of early linear flows from earlier bilinear flows and the premature birth of middle radial flows. Nonuniform arrangement of fractures with even length and equal conductivity may influence middle radial flows. Different conductivity of fractures with equal length and uniform arrangement shortens the period of bilinear flows and lengthens the linear flows. Increase in the number of fractures with even length, equal conductivity and uniform arrangement accelerates pressure drops in the reservoir, shortens the period of middle radial flows and lengthens the middle linear flows. Increase in length of all fractures shortens the period of middle radial flows and may result in absence of radial flows. It is demonstrated that the horizontal well with multiple vertical fractures may improve fluid flow patterns.

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that the physiological process of the ovary, including follicle development, maturity, ovulation, corpus luteum formation and regression, is related to the formation of extracellular matrix. However, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and connective tissue growth factors had a close relationship with the formation of extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: The female SD rats with regular estrous cycle were randomly divided into control and model groups. The rats in the model group were intragastrically with letrozole to establish the model of polycystic ovary syndrome, while the rats in the control group were intragastrically with the same amount of carboxymethyl cellulose. When the natural law of estrous cycle of rats in the model group did not exist and consecutive interval appeared, rat serum and ovarian tissues were collected. Rats in the control group were detected by collecting specimen in the interval. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical staining results showed that compared with the control group, the expression of serum luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin levels, connective tissue growth factor in preantral follicles theca cytoplasm, connective tissue growth factors in follicular basement membrane cytoplasm, connective tissue growth factors in albuginea and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in corpus luteum significantly increased (P < 0.05). The contents of follicle stimulating hormone and serum estradiol, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in follicular basement membrane significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The results indicate that connective tissue growth factors may be related to the excessive growth of small follicles and ovulation disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome, while matrix metalloproteinase 9 may be related to ovulation disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome. © 2015, Journal of Clinical Rehabilitative Tissue Engineering Research. All rights reserved.

Wang H.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

SAGD is one of the oil recovery improvement methods after cyclic steam stimulation in super heavy oil reservoir. It has been applied successfully in Liaohe Oilfield already. But the steam chamber could not extended to upper part of reservoir due to the reservoir thickness and the non-developed inter-bed, which led to low using degree and OSR, and restricted the further application of SAGD. Aiming at solving the key problem, this paper innovates a new technology named steam flooding and gravity drainage tridimensional development in super heavy oil reservoir on the basis of both physical simulation and numerical simulation study. Its mechanism is steam flooding in flat and gravity drainage vertically. The inter-bed distribution, influence and the sealing ability are also studied. This paper discusses the technical limitation of steam flooding and gravity drainage technology, and proposes tridimensional well pattern All above provide a powerful technology reference for the development of steam flooding and gravity drainage.

Shi L.,Petrochina
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

With the rapid development of horizontal well drilling technology, the staged reservoir stimulation technology and supporting tools of horizontal wells has become increasingly popular. As a component of the staged reservoir stimulation tool to communicating reservoir and wellbore, shiftable sliding sleeves are used to stimulate reservoir and to improve oil, gas and water management throughout the life of the well. Because of the large shifting force and extended reach required to operate sliding sleeves in horizontals, the coiled tubing(CT) is typically used for sleeve management. But there is some uncertainty to ensure sleeve shifted successfully by observing the change of surface load and there is a possibility of misuse. At the same time, this method can't determine the sleeve position, so if the operation is not fully in place, CT operation was needed again. To solve this problem, this paper introduces a new shifting tool which is connected by CT with fiber. This tool can shifting sleeve by locating sleeve position precisely and monitoring string load, pressure and temperature in the downhole; by processing and interpreting the measurement data on the ground, the operators can judge the situation downhole accurately and switch sleeves reliably. It also can determine sleeve position by the change of CCL curve to save a lot of cost and time caused by operational errors.

Gao W.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Shen D.,Petrochina | Li F.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2014

The heavy oil relative permeability curve is an important parameter in heavy oil reservoir performance prediction. The error in the relative permeability test caused by experimental factors will result in wrong information for reservoir development analysis. Due to the long exit end pipeline and more dead volume in the high temperature relative permeability test, the oil-water phases flowing law in the exit end pipeline of core holder and method of dead volume calibration will have important effect on relative permeability experimental results. The phenomenon of non-piston like displacement and pressure hysteresis effect have been discovered based on the water flooding experiment of heavy oil in the exit end pipeline. The breakthrough recovery and ultimate recovery factor decrease with increasing oil viscosity and water drive velocity, and the metering oil volume is behind the data corresponding to the pressure. The conventional data correction by oil volume deducting space volume of pipeline may lead to the deviation of experimental results from the actual flow behavior, so a new method of data calibration is proposed.

Jia A.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2011

Geological model is the most representative and comprehensive achievement of development geology researches, which is compromised of reservoir sedimentary characteristics, reservoir heterogeneity, petrophysics and formation fluid characteristics. As the only effective mean to supply quantitative data directly to reservoir engineering and numerical simulation, geological modeling has shown its importance increasingly. Base on the analysis of quantitative geology, multidisciplinary reservoir geology, different types of geological model and reservoir modeling method, the main achievements on reservoir geological modeling of China in the past two decades were summarized. At the same time, it was pointed out that geophysical application, coal bed methane and shale gas reservoir modeling, reservoir architecture modeling and multidisciplinary integration would be a development trend.

Liu H.,Petrochina
Jisuan Wuli/Chinese Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2016

An actual physical model which shows partial penetration of heterogeneous reservoir formations was built and a three-dimensional mathematical model for instability of anisotropic rectangular reservoirs was built. The mathematical model takes impermeable top, combination of boundary conditions of constant pressure and top border and bottom border into consideration. By using dimensionless transformation, Laplace transformation, Fourier cosine transformation and variable separation methods analytical solution of Laplace domain was obtained. By using Stephenson numerical methods numerical solution pressure of real domain was obtained. Dynamic pressures were plotted and sensitivity analysis was carried out.Pressures obtained are basically consistent with numerical simulation, which shows reliability of the method. Sensitivity analysis shows that: Dynamic pressure curve can be divided into early linear flow, mid-radial flow, late spherical flow and boundary control flow. Fracture length mainly affects early linear flow. Permeability anisotropy mainly affects mid-radial flow.Degree of penetration in reservoir and fracture orientation mainly affect late spherical flow.Boundary conditions and reservoir border width mainly affect boundary control flow. Optimal degree of open shot, vertical permeability and other parameters can be obtained easily.It provides theoretical guidance for reservoir engineering analysis and fracturing process design. © 2016, Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Computational Physics. All right reserved.

Jin J.,Lanzhou University | Yang F.,Petrochina | Zhang F.,Lanzhou University | Hu W.,Lanzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

A water-dispersible and supermagnetic nanocomposite (PAD-PEG-Fe 3O 4@PEI) has been successfully synthesized using polyethylenimine (PEI, Mol MW = 10000) coated supermagnetic Fe 3O 4-NH 2 which was modified with 2, 2′- (phenylazanediyl) diacetic acid (PAD) through the bridge of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol MW = 2000). The average particle size of PAD-PEG-Fe 3O 4@PEI was determined by TEM, and was about 50 nm. From magnetic hysteresis cycles for PAD-PEG-Fe 3O 4@PEI at room temperature, the saturation magnetization (Ms) was shown to be 58.14 emu g -1. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) analysis showed that the designed magnetic nanocomposite can remove 98% and 80% of Cd 2+ from water and blood, respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Shi G.-R.,Petrochina | Yang X.-S.,University of Cambridge
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2010

The application of optimization and data mining in databases in geosciences is becoming promising, though still at an early stage. We present a case study of the application of data mining and optimization in the prediction of fractures using well-logging data. We compare various approaches, including multiple regression analysis (MRA), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and support vector machine (SVM). The modelling problem in data mining is formulated as a minimization problem, showing that we can reduce an 8-D problem to a 4-D problem by dimension reduction. The MRA, BPNN and SVM methods are used as optimization techniques for knowledge discovery in data. The calculations for both the learning samples and prediction samples show that both BPNN and SVM can have zero residuals, which suggests that these combined data-mining techniques are practical and efficient.

Ji X.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Tian M.,Petrochina | Wang Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular
Langmuir | Year: 2016

The aggregation behaviors of the mixtures of cationic gemini surfactant 1,4-bis(dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide)-2,3-butanediol (C12C4(OH)2C12Br2) and anionic amino acid surfactant N-dodecanoylglutamic acid (C12Glu) in aqueous solution of pH = 10.0 have been studied. The mixture forms spherical micelles, vesicles, and wormlike micelles at 25 °C by changing mixing ratios and/or total surfactant concentration. Then these aggregates undergo a series of transitions upon increasing the temperature. Smaller spherical micelles transfer into larger vesicles, vesicles transfer into solid spherical aggregates and then into larger irregular aggregates, and entangled wormlike micelles transfer into branched wormlike micelles. Moreover, the larger irregular aggregates and branched micelles finally lead to precipitation and clouding phenomenon, respectively. All these transitions are thermally reversible, and the transition temperatures can be tuned by varying the mixing ratios and/or total concentration. These temperature-dependent aggregate transitions can be elucidated on the basis of the temperature-induced variations in the dehydration, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen bonds of the headgroup area and in the hydrophobic interaction between the hydrocarbon chains. The results suggest that the surfactants carrying multiple binding sites will greatly improve the regulation ability and temperature sensitivity. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Hu A.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2014

Although natural gas trading centers are well-developed in Europe and the USA, this is still a fresh thing in present China, where few related researches and literatures can be found. Along with the ever-changing supply-demand situation, it is imperative for China to establish its own natural gas trading center and promote the relevant system and mechanism innovation. In view of this, the positions and roles of a natural gas trading center in the development of natural gas markets were first analyzed. On this basis, the following findings were achieved. (1) Under the present situation and developing trend of the natural gas market in China, a natural gas trading center is necessary to be built to ensure the supply security, improve natural gas utilization efficiency, and fight for a speaking right in global natural gas market pricing. (2) With a brisk demand for gas and multiple gas supply sources, China has got ready for a natural gas trading center in the wake of the improvement of gas pipeline networks. (3) A natural gas trading center should be built step by step and the price regulation should be gradually relaxed; regional trading markets will be developed into a state-level natural gas trading center, where then benchmark prices should be formed in the Northeast Asian markets and a natural gas futures market will be timely introduced. (4) Relevant laws, regulations and policies should be issued by the government to support the establishment of a natural gas trading center with convenience to be further regulated.

Xiaodong W.,China University of Geosciences | Wanjing L.,China University of Geosciences | Xiaochun H.,China University of Geosciences | Junlei W.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2014

A new analytical solution of fluid unsteady flow was presented for wells with finite-conductivity vertical fractures by determining impact functions of fracture conductivity. Based on the new solution, the transient pressure distribution of a fractured horizontal well with multiple finite-conductivity vertical fractures was obtained using the principle of superposition. Calculation results show the pressure transient behavior of fractured horizontal wells under the condition of constant bottom rate. In the ideal fracture arrangement, flow patterns occur in the order of early bilinear flow → early linear flow → middle radial flow → middle linear flow → late pseudo steady state. Uneven length of fractures with equal conductivity and uniform arrangement may affect the transform of early linear flows from earlier bilinear flows and the premature birth of middle radial flows. Nonuniform arrangement of fractures with even length and equal conductivity may influence middle radial flows. Different conductivity of fractures with equal length and uniform arrangement shortens the period of bilinear flows and lengthens the linear flows. Increase in the number of fractures with even length, equal conductivity and uniform arrangement accelerates pressure drops in the reservoir, shortens the period of middle radial flows and lengthens the middle linear flows. Increase in length of all fractures shortens the period of middle radial flows and results in absence of radial flows. It is demonstrated that the horizontal well with multiple vertical fractures may improve fluid flow patterns. © 2014 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Li T.,Tianjin Chengjian University | Zhu J.,Tianjin University | Xin S.,Petrochina | Zhang W.,Tianjin University
Geothermics | Year: 2014

Oil wells in the high water-cut period become geothermal wells, thereby increasing the recoverable reserve. A novel geothermal system involving organic Rankine cycle (ORC), absorption refrigeration, gathering heat tracing, direct and indirect heating, and oil recovery was presented. The objective is to improve the system efficiency. The results show that R601a has the highest cycle performance and auxiliary cold sources do increase the power output. Replacing oil boilers with geothermal water as the heat source of gathering heat tracing (GHT) can save about 8163. tons of oil a year. About 34,600. tons of oil can be recovered each year. Moreover, the system can also provide heating for sixty 5000-square-meter residential buildings and domestic hot water for over 8000 people. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ni C.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhao Q.,Petrochina | Boukehili A.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

Hybrid electric vehicles(HEVs) generate the power required to drive the vehicle via a combination of internal combustion engines and motor, the mode switch between internal combustion engines and motor is essential to vehicle's power and drivability performance. In single-axle parallel hybrid electric vehicle, considering the difference of dynamic characteristics between ICE and motor, there are fluctuation of torque and the longitudinal impact during mode switch, making drivers uncomfortable. Dynamic torque control strategy is designed in order to solve drivability issues caused by propulsion mode's switch during motor-drive mode to engine-drive mode and engine-motor-drive mode. This strategy includes fuzzy adaptive proportional-integral-differential(PID) control for engine speed and dynamic torque compensation control. The control strategy is finally validated by experimental tests based on the test bench of hybrid electric vehicle. The bench test results show that the proposed control strategy can effectively suppress the longitudinal degree of jerk caused by power coupling, which is the fundamental for our deeply research in the future. © 2013 Journal of Mechanical Engineering.

Wang S.,Petrochina
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

Shale gas & oil has been tapped as one of the most important unconventional hydrocarbon resources since the discovery of petroleum, and its exploration and development has been one of the most inspiring technical achievements in petroleum geology and engineering during the past half century. In particular, the commercial extraction of shale oil & gas in North America has brought a worldwide energy revolution, which is quickly spreading to China, resulting in a nationwide shale gas rush. However, the discussion from any angle shows that it will be a long and tough road for whatever country to duplicate the shale gas success in North America. Since China shale gas exploration started in 2009, PetroChina, Sinopec and Shell China have made major achievements in the exploration of the Lower Paleozoic marine shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, which has made China the only nation that has registered commercially viable production of shale gas through pipelines outside of North America. Although the extracted shale gas at present is only a drop in the bucket of China's total natural gas production, it would be a good start. Therefore, through the analysis of the status quo of shale gas exploration and the reflection on the great shale gas rush in recent years, this paper discloses all kinds of issues in shale gas exploration and appraisal. It also suggests that further studies should be made in the aspects of terrestrial and marine shale gas exploration in complex geological settings in South China, and more scientific studies on and serious thinking over the assessment of shale gas resources and development planning. Not only should importance be attached to shale gas development opportunities, but the extremely high risks should be mitigated in shale gas exploitation.

Yang Y.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2014

In view of the different flooding degree of waterflooding oil field, the oil saturation model established with oil saturation curve from logging interpretation in the past can't meet the demand of oilfield development. In order to reflect the original oil-bearing state of strata more truly, the capillary pressure of reservoir is converted into J function firstly. And then we get the relationship between J function and water saturation with multiple regression. Finally, via multiple regression, we establish the relation between oil saturation and porosity, permeability and oil column height calculated with oil-water interface and reservoir structure depth, and thus obtain three-dimensional oil saturation field, which provide accurate basis for reserves recalculation and reservoir numerical simulation. ©, 2014, Fushun Petroleum Institute. All right reserved.

He Y.,Petrochina
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2014

The application of the BCND catalyst in a 200 kt/a Unipol gas-phase polypropylene unit was investigated. The results indicated that when an imported catalyst was changed into the BCND catalyst, the reactor temperature kept stable and the static electricity was less than that using the imported catalyst. The polymerization activity of the BCND catalyst was a little higher than that of the imported catalyst. With the use of the BCND catalyst, the external electron donor dosage and the fine powder in obtained polypropylene could be decreased. The quality of the polypropylene product could meet the demand of consumers. ©, 2014, Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry. All right reserved.

Wu Z.,Nanjing University | Yin H.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Zhejiang University | Zheng J.,Petrochina | Wang X.,Nanjing University
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2014

In rift basins, salt rock deposition leads to the formation of complex and diverse types of oil- and gas-bearing structural traps, greatly increasing the difficulty in oil and gas exploration, especially in subsalt strata. Taking as an example the Sudanese Red Sea rift basin, this study explored the evolutionary mechanism and influencing factors of salt-related structures in rift basins through scaled physical modeling. Combined with seismic profiles and stratigraphic lithology, this paper discussed the significance of salt-related structures to the formation of oil-and gas-bearing structural traps and associated hydrocarbon accumulation. The results from physical modeling indicate that syn-tectonic deposition and basement faulting are two major factors influencing the evolution of salt-related structures in the Sudanese Red Sea rift basin. Additionally, the initial thickness of salt rocks has a significant impact on the evolution of salt-related structures. Combined with the interpretation of seismic profiles, it is considered that in the Sudanese Red Sea rift basin include, the major types of supra-salt structural traps include salt-related barrier trap, rolling anticline trap and drape fold trap, whereas the sub-salt structural traps mainly include basement-fault-block-related structural traps such as fault-related anticlines. Due to the influence of stratigraphic lithology, salt rock deposition and salt structure distribution, two oil-and-gas-accumulation systems are developed in the rift basin: the self-generating and self-preserving reservoir in the supra-salt strata, and the lower-generating and upper-preserving reservoir in the subsalt strata. Comparison analysis shows that the supra- and sub-salt reservoirs have comparable properties. However, the sub-salt reservoir has better hydrocarbon source rocks, which contains a dense salt rock cover and abundant pathways for hydrocarbon migration through the basement faults. Hence, it is believed that the sub-salt basement fault blocks have huge potential for oil and gas accumulation and provide an important area for future oil and gas exploration in the Sudanese Red Sea rift basin.

Feng Y.,Petrochina
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2014

In the design of storage tanks, large height to diameter ratio will be adopted when the tank layout is limited. For the tanks with height to diameter ratio greater than 1.6 and the volume less than 100 m3, the calculation shall be performed to determine whether there is possibility of overturning. In a case study of sixteen 60 m3 tanks, the overturning stability of tanks was calculated based upon standard API 650-2013 " Steel Welded Tanks". The calculation shows that the overturning stability of thanks meets the requirement of API standard and no additional anchoring is needed. The calculation method in API standard is more comprehensive and specific although it is more complicated. The calculation results are more realistic and reliable.

Chen S.-L.,Petrochina
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2014

A major part of Chinese remaining oil reserves is located in low-permeability reservoirs, which are naturally fractured. Natural fractured suffer from poor recovery, high water cut, and generally low performance, for which as one of the most important and challenging issues in reservoir engineering. Focusing on the point to find proper model of natural fractured low-permeability reservoirs, stream-tube method is applied to the equivalent continuous medium model. In order to prove the model's correctness, a nine-spot pattern conceptual model is established first, stream-tube fluid template and water saturation filed is drawn. Also the method to conduct oil-filed exploration effect evaluation is clarified. In addition actual oilfield block study, which based on stream-tube method applied to the equivalent continuous medium model is conducted, that put forward a new method to conduct actual oil-filed simulation in a much faster and well method. Results show that stream-tube method applied to the fractured low-permeability equivalent continuous medium model can simulate fractured low-permeability accurately. © 2015 ejge.

Li S.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.,China University of Geosciences | Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Yang Z.,Petrochina | Guo L.,China University of Geosciences
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

To better apply low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to the evaluation of the physical properties of the coal reservoirs, this work established the NMR porosity and permeability models for coals based on a large number of NMR experiments. For low rank coals, the T 2 distributions show continuous bimodal or trimodal characteristics; the relative amplitude (T 2 distributions amplitude per unit volume) of the flow space is up to 12%; while the relative amplitude of the adsorption space is only 0-2%. For medium rank coals, the T 2 distributions have a similar shape as those of the low rank coals; the relative amplitude of the flow space is 0-5%, and the relative amplitude of the adsorption space is 0-3%. For high rank coals, the T 2 distributions have two separated crests or a single peak; in these samples, the adsorption space is well developed with the relative amplitude up to 50%, and the relative amplitude of the flow space is 0-5%. High rank coals have the best developed adsorption space; in contrast, low rank coals have the largest flow space. Since coals with different ranks have different T 2 distributions and different amplitude, it is necessary to establish the NMR porosity and permeability models for coals with different ranks, respectively. Thus, we can accurately calculate the porosity and permeability of the coal in different metamorphic stage. Experimental results show that porosity and permeability parameters calculated by these models have a high correlation with the data measured by conventional methods. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Dong B.,Tongji University | Xu Y.,Tongji University | Deng H.,Tongji University | Luo F.,Tongji University | Jiang S.,Petrochina
Desalination | Year: 2013

It has aroused great concern that oil and total suspended solid (TSS) contents in the Water Injection Well (WIW) exceed the standard for injection water quality in Liaohe oilfield in recent years. The quality of water from Water Treatment Station (WTS) and WIW was analyzed. Corrosivity of injection water from WTS and simulation of re-injection process were considered. The TSS from WTS and WIW was characterized using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). It revealed that the major composition of TSS in both of them was organic substance, but there were some inorganic crystals (Lithium Iron Oxide, Fe3O4, Fe(OH)3 and Iron Silicon Oxide) in WIW. The simulation model for oil, TSS and ferrous ion contents was established to explain quantitatively the relevance between the corrosion of pipeline and the deterioration of injection water quality. However, it is concluded that pipeline corrosion is the dominating reason for deterioration of injection water quality. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jiang G.,Petrochina
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2014

Hydrophobic association hydrogels (HA-gels) were prepared through micellar copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and a small amount of octylphenol polyoxyethylene acrylate (OP-10-AC) in an aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) For the P(AM/OP-10-AC) HA-gels, the effect of crosslinking method, synthesis temperature, mineral salt (NaCl) and swelling on their tensile mechanical properties was investigated in detail. The experimental results show that crosslinking method, synthesis temperature, NaCl and swelling powerfully influenced tensile mechanical properties of the P(AM/OP-10-AC) HA-gels. In addition, according to the tensile experimental results of the P(AM/OP-10-AC) HA-gels swollen, an effective crosslinking density change model is proposed. The effect of swelling on tensile mechanical properties of the P(AM/OP-10-AC) HA-gels was discussed on the basis of the model. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Duan G.,Petrochina
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2014

Long fracturing in high temperature (200 °C) reservoirs was in the past achieved by cooling down of fracturing fluid of 160 °C and optimization of relevant techniques. This technology was expensive and needed plenty of fluid. Aterpolymer thickening agent was developed using acrylamide as the major raw material, and a fracturing fluid was prepared with the newly developed terpolymer. This fracturing fluid is stable at high temperature of 200 °C, and the gel formed is transparent and has good elasticity. After shearing 2 hours under 200 °C and 170 s-1, the viscosity of the fracturing fluid is still 170 mPa · s, meaning that the fracturing fluid has good suspending capacity and filtration property. The fracturing fluid after gel-breaking has low surface tension and the residue content is only 41mg/L, characteristic of low impairment to pay zones and low friction. This fracturing fluid was used in Well Niudong-101, in which daily production of 63 m 3 oil and 10.2×104 m3 natural gas was obtained at half fluid consumption of the Well Niudong-1, and the cost spent in stimulating was reduced by 45.6%. This new fracturing fluid can be used in improving the production of ultra high temperature reservoirs.

Zhang S.,Petrochina
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2014

In deep well, ultra deep well or well with long cementing length, changes in density of cement slurry, errors in temperature prediction, and emergency shut-off of pumping are frequently encountered, resulting in discrepancies in measured cement slurry properties and the actual cement slurry properties downhole. There are some shortages in the presently used method of cementing slurry measurement, and a modified method is presented. The new method includes the thickening test at the highest slurry density, stability test and compression test at the lowest slurry density, thickening test under changing temperatures, thickening test when cement slurry is not flowing, thickening test when temperature is increasing and decreasing respectively, and testing method thereof. These tests are able to simulate changes in density of cement slurry, discrepancy between actual bottom hole temperature and temperature under which laboratory experiments are done, and sudden stop of pumping during cementing.

Xu J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xing S.,East China University of Science and Technology | Qian H.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chen S.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

Comb-type poly(maleic alkylamide-co-α-octadecene) copolymers (MACs) with various ratios of polar carboxyl group/nonpolar octadecyl group were synthesized. Upon cooling, MACs change the size and shape of paraffin crystals, and reduce the pour point and yield stress of waxy oils, as observed by rheology, polarizing light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. They also reduce the paraffin crystallization temperature and enthalpies, inhibit the formation of layer structure of paraffin crystals. Their efficiency to improve the cold flowability was found to correlate to the ratio of polar/nonpolar group (r). MAC with r of 0.4, is more effective than the other two in improving the flowability of waxy oils. It seems that MAC2 can balance the competitive assembly behaviors of copolymers with paraffins and asphaltenes. The assembly between the carboxyl and amide groups of MACs with polar aromatic asphaltenes appears to stabilize crude oil by the steric effects of the long-chain alkyl branches of MAC polymers, thereby improving the flowability of paraffin/asphaltene gels formed upon cooling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang J.-H.,Petrochina
Wutan Huatan Jisuan Jishu | Year: 2013

Systematic sedimentary mircofacies research has never been done in Quan 1 section that is the principal section of Fulongquan gas field located in the south Songliao basia The authors start with core analysis and regional geological data, logging data, using petrologic phase and electrofacies switching technology to divide and compare the sedimentary mircofacies of the Quan 1 section in the area, first put forward braided river deposition system. And therefore to further recognize sedimentary mircofacies such as channel lag, mid-channel bar crevasse splay, flood plain, establish vertical sedimentary sequencesthe of braided river, study on the planar distribution characteristics, provide an important basis for prediction of sand body distribution and reservoir 3-d attribute modeling, provide necessary warrant for high effective development of Fulongquan gas field.

Sun P.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Long X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | He H.,Petrochina | Xia C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | And 2 more authors.
ChemSusChem | Year: 2013

Considerable effort has been applied to the development of new processes and catalysts for cellulose conversion to valuable platform chemicals. Isosorbide is among the most interesting products as it can be applied as a monomer and building block for the future replacement of fossil resource-based products. A sustainable method of isosorbide production from cellulose is presented in this work. The strategy relies on a bifunctional Ru catalyst supported on mesoporous niobium phosphate in a H2 atmosphere under pressure without further addition of any soluble acid. Over 50 % yield of isosorbide with almost 100 % cellulose conversion can be obtained in 1h. The large surface area, pore size, and strong acidity of mesoporous niobium phosphate promote the hydrolysis of cellulose and dehydration of sorbitol; additionally, the appropriate size of the supported Ru nanoparticles avoids unnecessary hydrogenolysis of sorbitol. Under a cellulose/catalyst mass ratio of 43.3, the present bifunctional catalyst could be stably used up to six times, with its mesoporous structure well preserved and without detectable Ru leaching into the reaction solution. Reap what ye isosorbide: A high yield of isosorbide from the one-pot hydrolytic hydrogenation and dehydration of inedible cellulose is achieved under hydrothermal conditions over a recyclable ruthenium catalyst supported on mesoporous niobium phosphate without the addition of soluble acids. This efficient and sustainable protocol could close the carbon cycle as a result of plants taking up CO2 generated from the end products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Chen W.L.,Chengdu University of Technology | Zhou W.,Chengdu University of Technology | Luo P.,Petrochina | Deng H.C.,Chengdu University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2013

The shale thickness in the Longmaxi Formation, Lower Silurian is approximately 147m in Changxin 1 well, Changning structure, southeastern region of the Sichuan Basin. Longmaxi Formation lithofacies include laminated mudstone/shale, laminated lime mudstone/shale, laminated and silty mudstone/shale, alcareous concretions and pyrite band. The bottom 30m of which is organic-rich laminated mudstone/shale, whose quartz, feldspar and pyrite average content is 51. 9%, the clay mineral average content is 24. 7% and the calcite and dolomite average content is 23. 4%, which is similar with the typical American shale reservoirs. The average porosity of Changxin lwell is 5. 68% and the average permeability is 5. 96 × 10-3μm 2. They are positively correlated. The micropores in the shale observed in the SEM are dominated the minerals intergranular (dissolution) pores, intergranular gaps, intragranular pores, the organic matter micro-pores and micro-fractures. Based on the Mercury intrusion porosimetry, The max of the radius of the pore throat is 33nm, the average is lOnm. The study shows that the development of micro-pores of marine shale gas reservoir in the Longmaxi Formation in Changxin 1 well are controlled by lithology, diagenetic evolution and the characteristic of organic matter. The organic-rich shale porosity is better than the organic-lean shale, silty shale and calcareous mud stone/shale. In the late diagenetic stage, arrangement of clay minerals is changed, the montmorillonite changes to illite, which forms new micro-pores to increase the porosity. TOC is one of the main factors to control the shale gas reservoir in the Longmaxi Formation and also is the important material to provide the storage space to shale gas.

Li J.-S.,Petrochina
Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science and Technology Edition) | Year: 2013

The Bei'er sag is one of the most rich oil sags in the south of Hailaer Basin in China. The author of the paper focuses on the research of the source rock feature of the Bei'er sag, and finds that there are high-quality source rock in Member 1 of Lower Cretaceous Nantun Formation of the sag. This source rock is the alternating beds of the dark peat, muddy limestone, oil shale and calcium shale, and the source rock has the high abundance of organic matter, good organic matter type, high hydrocarbon-generating potential and high hydrocarbon-exhausting efficiency. All of these are the material base to form the large scale oil and gas accumulation. The formation represents the anoxic event early in Cretaceous period and is the significant stratigraphic correlation marker bed of the Bei'er sag. In Member 1 of Nantun Formation, the high-quality source rock controls the plane distribution of the oil and gas. Above and below the high-quality source rock bed, the oil and gas are very rich.

Sulige gas field is a typical lithology-controlled gas reservoir with low permeability, low pressure, and low abundance. Development of this gas field faces varisou challenges, such as low degree of well control in drilling area, uncertainty of micro structure in some area, strong heterogeneity of reservoir and unstable sand distribution, making horizontal well drilling being highly risky. To guarantee drilling success and increase the ratio of target penetration, we first performed high-resolution stratigraphic correlation based on proper selection of marker beds, and then carried out detailed studies of the micro structure, deposition and reservoir distribution. Based on seismic prediction of gas-bearing properties and under the constraints of structure and sedimentary facies, we built a delicate 3D geologic model with fine geologic modeling technique and micro structure forecasting technology. With this model, we mapped the reservoir distribution and micro structures before drilling operation. During drilling operation, these study results can be integrated with the drilling, mud logging, MWD data to predict the change of subsurface microstructures and rapid identification of bottom hole lithology, which in turn can be used in the real-time modification of geologic model and drilling design.

Mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks are widely developed in the Cretaceous Yixian Formation (K1y) in the periphery of Liaohe oilfield in southern Songliao Basin, and commercial oil flow has been tested in these volcanic rocks in Zhangqiang depression. Based on core observation and slice analysis, 14 different rock types have been recognized in the Yixian Fm vocanic rocks. Among them, andesitic lava and andesitic volcanoclastic rocks have the greatest thickness and most extensive distribution. The volcanic lithofacies can be divided into 3 lithofacies and 7 subfacies, of which effusive lithofacies accounts for about 84%. The volcanic reservoirs have 6 main types of primary and secondary reservoir spaces and 4 kinds of pore associations. The plane and vertical distribution of reservoirs are jointly controlled by lithology, lithofacies and faults. The reservoir space types, reservoir capacity, permeability and connectivity are determined by diagenesis and tectonism. According to analyses of physical property and reservoir data, the most favorable reservoir facies belts include the pyroclastic lava, vesicular mandelstone lava, volcanic conduit facies (volcanic neck lithofacies or concealed explosion breccia lithofacies) and the upper effusive lithofacies. It is highly possible for the hydrocarbons to accumulate in the vent and proximal vent lithofacies, as well as the upper and top of volcanic eruption cycle/stage in areas adjacent to hydrocarbon kitchen and/or the structural high of deep large faults.

The structural feature of the strike-slip faults in eastern Jiyang Depression as a key oil-gas production area is studied on structural feature and dynamic mechanism to analyze its impact on hydrocarbon accumulation. By seismic section interpretation and coherence slice analysis, the distribution feature of the strike-slip faults in eastern Jiyang Depression is studied. Negative flower structures are found around strike-slip faults on seismic profiles and a group of echelon faults develop beside the strike-slip faults on coherence slice. The echelon faults and strike-slip fault are oblique crossing with an angle of 45° with the shape of "λ" style. At the middle Eocene, the Pacific Plate westward subducted beneath Eurasia Plate and the India Plate northeastward extruded the Eurasia Plate. The eastern China was under the NE-SW compression. For the limit of block of the Qingtuozi uplift and Chenjiazhuang uplift located at the south of Kendong buried hill, the Kendong-Gudong buried hill structural belt is anticlockwise rotated around its southeast corner. For the different rotation radius, the turning extents of Kendong buried hill and Gudong buried hill are quite different. The boundary faults of buried hills arewrenched and finally became strike-slip faults.

Zhang M.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Wang X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Wang X.,Petrochina | Liu W.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology | Year: 2013

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the influences of test conditions to the tribological behavior of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive to a polyalphaolefin (PAO). Design/methodology/approach - An Optimol-SRV4 oscillating friction and wear tester (SRV) were used to investigate the tribological properties of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive in a polyalphaolefin (PAO). The 3-D morphologies and wear loss volume of the worn scar were measured using a surface profilometer. The chemical state and the intensity of La and F elements on worn surface after friction test was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interpret the possible mechanisms of friction-reduction and anti-wear with LaF3 nanoparticles. Findings - The experimental results show that LaF3 nanoparticles added to PAO exhibit excellent load-carrying capacity, anti-wear and friction-reduction properties. LaF3 nanoparticles deposited on the worn surface under lower test temperature during the friction test, and higher applied load, higher test frequency and longer test duration are propitious to the deposition of LaF3 nanoparticles accumulated on the rubbing surface. Under higher temperature, a complicated tribo-chemical reaction occurred during the friction process, the tribo-chemical reaction product of La2O3 deposit on worn surface, which also exhibits good lubricating performance. Originality/value - This paper investigates the tribological properties of LaF3 nanoparticles as green oil additive in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) under variable temperature, applied load, sliding speed and sliding duration. The results could be very helpful for the further applications of LaF3 nanoparticles additives in industry. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Lu G.,Petrochina | Tong C.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Xia B.,China National Petroleum Corporation | Yu L.,China National Petroleum Corporation
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2014

This study invesitgates vector description of the spatial arc model for simplifying the calculation of wellbore trajectory parameters at any point of spatial arc. A vector describption method is established with vector algebra as the basic mathematical tool by starting from the basic mathematical properties of spatial arc and the defination of toolface angle. Two sets of formulas are deduced respecticely for relevant vectors (trajectory direction vector, arc's normal vector, position vector) and parameters (inclination angle, azimuth angle, toolface angle, and directional azimuth angle) at any point of the spatial arc. Basic parameters for first set of formulas are arc-curvature and initial toolface angle, and those for the second set are depth, inclination, azimuth of the end points of the arc. A new rule is proposed for calculation of the toolface angle using sine and cosine of the toolface angle. Compared with the existing formula, the proposed calculation method not only has a concise form with geometric intuition, but also greatly simplifies the calculations of trajectory monitoring, hitting-target analysis, and anti-collision derivation. Additinally, it achieves programming implementation more easily and thereby facilitates code maintenance.

Zhao J.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Aimed at the development situation for horizontal wells in low permeability reservoirs in the Jilin Oilfield, evaluation standards are established for the geological parameters of horizontal well adaptability in low permeability reservoirs. According to different permeability grade, eight blocks of two kinds, suitable for the development with horizontal wells, were selected. Take M block, N block, and E block as examples of reservoir development with horizontal wells. Five aspects, including fine geological description, parameter optimization of reservoir engineering, optimization of production and injection program, horizontal well trajectory control, and energy supplement are researched on horizontal well reservoir engineering optimization design. Reservoir engineering design parameters adapting to geologic characteristics of the Jilin Oilfield are given and a series of horizontal well development techniques is formed. Different energy supplement programs in N block are researched by Eclipse numerical simulation software. The cumulative production of horizontal well reaches the peak when water injection in vertical well is in the toe of horizontal well. The horizontal well application result in M block shows that the cumulative production of horizontal well is 2.5 times that of vertical Well 130-6 of the same period. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Cheng Y.,Tsinghua University | Zhai X.,Tsinghua University | Zhang Z.,Petrochina | Jin Y.,Tsinghua University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

A comprehensive study on the catalytic performance of Ni catalyst to implement millisecond steam reforming of methane (SRM) reaction in micro-channel reactors was conducted in this work. A new method to manufacture the metal-ceramics complex substrate as catalyst support was presented, that is, a layer of nano-particles, α-Al2O3, was thermally sprayed on a metallic substrate, usually FeCrAlloy. Ni or Rh catalyst was then impregnated on the substrate, forming firm and active catalyst coatings. The fall-off rate of the catalyst can be neglected after the plates experienced the high-temperature SRM reaction, showing the reliability in long-term use and the excellent catalytic performance for SRM reaction in micro-channel reactors. In comparison with the expensive Rh catalyst, Ni also showed wonderful performance to catalyze the SRM reaction in micro-reactors within milliseconds. Using the appropriate reactor design, CH4 conversion reached above 90% when the residence time was as short as 32 ms for catalyst loading of 6.8 g/m 2. When the residence time was longer than 100 ms, CH4 conversion was above 98%. Besides, catalyst deactivation was not detected for 500 h on stream with S/C ratio of 3.0, and for 12 h with S/C of 1.0 as well. Extensive characterizations on these Ni catalyst plates using XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS demonstrated that Ni catalysts prepared in this work did not show any sign of deactivation after being used in the micro-channel system under high-temperature operation. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liang X.-f.,Lanzhou Oilrefinery Co. | Gao J.-p.,Petrochina
Corrosion and Protection | Year: 2012

An exhaust boiler stopped running and was repaired because the pipes of economizer were corroded many times. The corrosion leakage of economizer was analyzed. The main reason was that the temperature of the heat exchanger was not high enough and the structure defect. Some protection proposals were suggested.

Zhibo L.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Linsong C.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Youjun J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Qicheng L.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Using the numerical simulation method and the drafting software of Surfer, we charted the temperature fields and remaining oil saturation fields of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and steam and gas push (SAGP) in oil drainage periods, including beginning, peak stage and last stage of oil drainage. An intuitive and reliable comparative research was done about the formation and expanding process of steam chambers, the shape of steam chambers and flow features in different oil drainage periods. The recovery effectiveness of the two production methods was compared. The results show that: in the SAGP production process, the lateral expansion of the steam chamber is faster than that in SAGD and the vertical expansion slower than that in SAGD. By adding non-condensate gas in the steam of SAGD, it can reduce the amount of steam injection, increase thermal efficiency, improve the ratio of oil to steam, and ultimately improve the development effectiveness of SAGD. The case study indicates that SAGP can slow the decline of oil rate and extend the development time of heavy oil reservoir and improve the development effectiveness. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Zheng M.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The technology was used for handling heavy aging oil by demulsifier and three phases horizontal scrow centrifuge. Through laboratory and field test, it showed that the water content of the processed aging oil dropped from 50% to 5% below, purity oil recovery rate reached more than 95%, meeting export quality requirements. The technology improved the effective storage capacity of flow station, is of great significance to the safe and steady operation of flow station. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wang H.,Petrochina
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Both the single fluid and double-fluid method for water shutoff and profile control have their limitations. If the two kinds of working fluids are used in combination for water shutoff and profile control, each of them exhibits its own plugging capability while they can form plugging materials when they contact and react with each other. This method can be used as a plugging system in the formations, eliminating the low utilization ratio and huge waste of the single or double-fluid chemicals. It can enhance the plugging capability and improve the water shutoff and profile control results. The single and double fluid (SAD) system has been proved satisfactory in the field tests of conventional chemical water shutoff and profile control, high temperature chemical water shutoff and high temperature profile control and channeling-plugging in thermal recovery wells. The economic benefits are remarkable from the field tests of 14 wells. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang K.,CAS Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics | Qin J.S.,Petrochina
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2011

With the technical development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), the alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) compound flooding technique has been the necessary choice in Daqing oilfield. Compared to average polymer flooding, ASP compound solution decreases the interfacial tension (IFT) between water and crude oil; however, the viscosity and viscoelasticity of ASP solution were performed by surfactant and alkali, both of which could affect the polymer moleculal structure and the oil recovery of ASP flooding. Considering practical requirements in oilfield development, much effort has been focused on the effect of alkali and surfactants on polymer solution by laboratory experiment and theoretical analysis. The results indicate that alkali and surfactants cause the interfacial tension decrease; at the same time, the molecular structure of the polymer is changed and the viscosity and viscoelasticity of polymer solutions are decreased. In addition, alkali neutralizes with negative ion on polymer molecular and causes the polymer molecular chains to curl up, forming a band molecular structure. Those actions could make viscoelastic behavior and rheological property of ASP solution weak. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Tang K.,Liaoning University of Technology | Hong X.,Liaoning University of Technology | Zhao Y.H.,Liaoning University of Technology | Wang Y.G.,Petrochina
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2011

FAU-type (NaY) zeolite nanocrystals have been synthesized through crystallization of gel in a mesoporous system of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an internal diameter of 20-30 nm. Investigation using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the nanocrystals possess the typical nanosized zeolite structural characteristics, which are different from those of microsized zeolites. Desulfurization of various model fuels containing about 500 ţg/g sulfur was studied over the synthesized nanosized NaY with a liquid hourly space velocity of 7.5 hr-1 at ambient conditions. The sulfur adsorption capacity was 7.2, 1.7, 6.7, 6.9, and 6.5 mg(S)/g adsorbent for thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene (THT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzo-thiophene (4,6-DMDBT), respectively. The charges on the S atom in thiophene, THT, DBT, 4-DMDBT, and 4,6-DMDBT, calculated using density functional theory (DFT), were -0.159, -0.298, -0.211, -0.188, and -0.214, respectively, implying that the S-M bond between the adsorption sites and these sulfides is much weaker than other bonds (maybe due to π complexation). Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.