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Kotschwar B.,Peterson Institute for International Economics
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2014

After decades of low-level commercial interaction, China and Latin America significantly ramped up their economic relationship in the 2000s. China has jumped to first place as an export destination for many countries, and it is a major source of imports for all countries in the Latin America/Caribbean region. While not a major source of foreign direct investment overall, China has built a strong investment presence in certain countries, particularly in the natural resource and infrastructure sectors. China's influence in Latin America has presented a great opportunity for many countries, but it has also brought new risks. Three main challenges face the region: how to mitigate the impacts of increased commodity concentration as a result of China's strong demand for natural resources; how to avoid other natural resource curse effects; and how to manage the tapering of this growth. Latin American countries' relationships with China vary widely, so there is no single, coordinated regional response. © 2014 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2014 Japan Center for Economic Research.

Truman E.M.,Peterson Institute for International Economics
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2011

Sovereign wealth funds have become a prominent feature of the international financial landscape. However, legitimate concerns have been raised about these funds. Many of those concerns can be addressed via increased accountability and transparency by the funds. The Santiago Principles are a good start in doing so. My sovereign wealth funds scoreboard points to areas where these Principles can be improved. At the same time, the OECD effort to address concerns from the host-country side has not resulted in the erection of new barriers to that form of cross-border investment, but the OECD failed to reverse the creeping financial protectionism of the past decade. Because of their size and the source of their funding, some Asian funds stand out. As a result, those funds will be held to a higher standard of accountability and transparency. © 2011 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2011 Japan Center for Economic Research.

Docker is holding its developer conference in San Francisco today, so it’s no surprise that the company is rolling out quite a few updates to its software container solution. Maybe the biggest announcement of the day is the launch of the Open Container Project — an attempt to create a standard container format and runtime under the Linux Foundation that’s supported by the likes of Docker, CoreOS (which had been working on its own competing format), Microsoft, Google, Amazon, RedHat and VMware. The highlight of today’s product releases is a new Docker networking stack that now allows developers to take their networked Docker containers from one platform to another without having to recreate the network. To a large degree, this new feature is the result of Docker’s acquisition of SocketPlane earlier this year and the feedback Docker has been getting from its networking partners. SocketPlane allowed developers to essentially create a software-defined networking layer to connect their containers. This ensures that Docker-based applications can communicate across networks and that they are portable across different network infrastructures. The company’s senior vice president of product, Scott Johnston, told me the idea is to do to networking what Docker already did for compute. “We are super excited to bring the portability that Docker brought to containers to the networking level,” Johnston said. With this, developers now have the ability to take not just the containers with their apps and move them between providers, but to also preserve the networking setup that connected all of these containers during these moves. This new feature takes most of what SocketPlane already offered and wraps it into Docker’s command-line interface. “By bringing SDN directly to the application itself and into the hands of the developers, Docker is driving multi-container application portability throughout the application development lifecycle,” said Solomon Hykes, CTO and chief architect of Docker. “Individual developers, through a single command, can establish the topology of the network to connect discrete Dockerized services into a distributed application. And then through a set of commands be able to inspect, audit and change topology ‘on the fly.’” The new networking features are now also integrated into Docker Swarm and Compose, the company’s tools for setting up Docker clusters and container orchestration. As Docker announced today, Swarm will also now support Mesos (and, by extension, Mesosphere) as a backend, for example. The company is also working with Amazon to provide a native cluster management to AWS users and to optimize scheduling containerized applications on Amazon’s EC2 service. To make this work on different networking setups, the Docker team is also launching a new plug-in architecture today. This allows developers to swap in different implementation APIs as needed when they move between different networking stacks. On the networking side, Docker has already worked with Microsoft, VMWare, Cisco, Nuage Networks, Midokura, Weave and Project Calico. These companies have built extensions for their services on top of the Docker platform, and the Docker team expects others will soon follow suit. Docker has also worked with ClusterHQ, which specializes in container data management, and is probably best known for its Flocker tool to support their storage volumes. With today’s update, Docker is also introducing a rapid-release channel that will give developers the option to always run the latest (and potentially buggy) release of the company’s tools. As Docker also announced today, the team has decided to spin out a lot of the ‘plumbing’ — that is many of the non-core tools the team has built around its services.

Hufbauer G.C.,Peterson Institute for International Economics | Kim J.,Peterson Institute for International Economics
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2010

A successor accord to the Kyoto Protocol was supposed to be wrapped up in Copenhagen in December 2009, but negotiations are now expected to extend through the South African UNFCCC conference in 2011 since the Copenhagen talks failed to yield a binding agreement. To reach a comprehensive deal, major gaps between developing and developed countries must be narrowed. The gaps include the character of common but differentiated responsibilities, financial support, technology transfer, and trade subsidies and sanctions. The paper concludes with some options and recommendations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Japan Center for Economic Research.

Noland M.,Peterson Institute for International Economics | Noland M.,East-West Center | Stahler K.,Peterson Institute for International Economics
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2016

This paper examines Asian exceptionalism at the Olympics. Northeast Asian countries conform to the statistical norm, whereas the rest of Asia lags, but this result obscures underlying distinctions. Asian women do better than men. Non-Northeast Asia's relative underperformance is due to the men. Asian performance is uneven across events, finding more success in culturally connected and weight-stratified contests. The models imply that China, Japan, and South Korea will place among the top 10 medaling countries at the 2016 Games, whereas China will continue to close the medal gap with the United States. © 2016 Japan Center for Economic Research.

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