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Davis S.J.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Davis S.J.,University of Melbourne | Sheppard K.E.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Sheppard K.E.,University of Melbourne | And 28 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Identification of genomic alterations defining ovarian carcinoma subtypes may aid the stratification of patients to receive targeted therapies. We characterized high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) for the association of amplified and overexpressed genes with clinical outcome using gene expression data from 499 HGSC patients in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis cohort for 11 copy number amplified genes: ATP13A4, BMP8B, CACNA1C, CCNE1, DYRK1B, GAB2, PAK4, RAD21, TPX2, ZFP36, and URI. The Australian Ovarian Cancer Study and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets were also used to assess the correlation between gene expression, patient survival, and tumor classification. In a multivariate analysis, high GAB2 expression was associated with improved overall and progressionfree survival (P = 0.03 and 0.02), whereas high BMP8B and ATP13A4 were associated with improved progression-free survival (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02). GAB2 overexpression and copy number gain were enriched in the AOCS C4 subgroup. High GAB2 expression correlated with enhanced sensitivity in vitro to the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PF-04691502 and could be used as a genomic marker for identifying patients who will respond to treatments inhibiting PI3K signaling. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

Crosbie J.C.,Monash University | Crosbie J.C.,William Buckland Radiotherapy Center | Anderson R.L.,PeterMacCallum Cancer Center | Anderson R.L.,University of Melbourne | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2010

Purpose: High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) can be effective at destroying tumors in animal models while causing very little damage to normal tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular processes behind this observation of potential clinical importance. Methods and Materials: MRT was performed using a lattice of 25 μm-wide, planar, polychromatic, kilovoltage X-ray microbeams, with 200-μm peak separation. Inoculated EMT-6.5 tumor and normal mouse skin tissues were harvested at defined intervals post-MRT. Immunohistochemical detection of γ-H2AX allowed precise localization of irradiated cells, which were also assessed for proliferation and apoptosis. Results: MRT significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation by 24 h post-irradiation (p = 0.002). An unexpected finding was that within 24 h of MRT, peak and valley irradiated zones were indistinguishable in tumors because of extensive cell migration between the zones. This was not seen in MRT-treated normal skin, which appeared to undergo a coordinated repair response. MRT elicited an increase in median survival times of EMT-6.5 and 67NR tumor-inoculated mice similar to that achieved with conventional radiotherapy, while causing markedly less normal tissue damage. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a differential response at a cellular level between normal and tumor tissues after synchrotron MRT. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Toivanen R.,Monash University | Frydenberg M.,Monash University | Murphy D.,PeterMacCallum Cancer Center | Pedersen J.,Monash University | And 6 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

A lack of clinically relevant experimental models of human prostate cancer hampers evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. Currently, androgen deprivation therapy is the gold standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer, but inevitably, a subpopulation of cancer cells survives and repopulates the tumor. Tumor cells that survive androgen withdrawal are critical therapeutic targets for more effective treatments, but current model systems cannot determine when they arise in disease progression and are unable to recapitulate variable patient response to treatment. A model system was developed in which stromal-supported xenografts from multiple patients with early-stage localized disease can be tested for response to castration. The histopathology of these xenografts mimicked the original tumors, and short-term host castration resulted in reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in tumor cells. After 4 weeks of castration, residual populations of quiescent, stem-like tumor cells remained. Without subsequent treatment, these residual cells displayed regenerative potential, because testosterone readministration resulted in emergence of rapidly proliferating tumors. Therefore, this model may be useful for revealing potential cellular targets in prostate cancer, which exist before the onset of aggressive incurable disease. Specific eradication of these regenerative tumor cells that survive castration could then confer survival benefits for patients. Copyright 2013 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Phillips K.-A.,PeterMacCallum Cancer Center | Phillips K.-A.,University of Melbourne | Milne R.L.,University of Melbourne | Milne R.L.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | And 42 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods Analysis of pooled observational cohort data, self-reported at enrollment and at follow-up from the International BRCA1, and BRCA2 Carrier Cohort Study, Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Family Registry. Eligible women were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers diagnosed with unilateral BC since 1970 and no other invasive cancer or tamoxifen use before first BC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CBC associated with tamoxifen use were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for year and age of diagnosis, country, and bilateral oophorectomy and censoring at contralateral mastectomy, death, or loss to follow-up. Results Of 1,583 BRCA1 and 881 BRCA2 mutation carriers, 383 (24%) and 454 (52%), respectively, took tamoxifen after first BC diagnosis. There were 520 CBCs over 20,104 person-years of observation. The adjusted HR estimates were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.55) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.50) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. After left truncating at recruitment to the cohort, adjusted HR estimates were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.13) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.05) based on 657 BRCA1 and 426 BRCA2 mutation carriers with 100 CBCs over 4,392 person-years of prospective follow-up. HRs did not differ by estrogen receptor status of the first BC (missing for 56% of cases). Conclusion This study provides evidence that tamoxifen use is associated with a reduction in CBC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further follow-up of these cohorts will provide increased statistical power for future prospective analyses. © 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

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