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Sullivan S.G.,Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Feng S.,University of Hong Kong | Cowling B.J.,University of Hong Kong
Expert Review of Vaccines

Background: The test-negative design is a variant of the case-control study being increasingly used to study influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). In these studies, patients with influenza-like illness are tested for influenza. Vaccine coverage is compared between those testing positive versus those testing negative to estimate VE. Objectives: We reviewed features in the design, analysis and reporting of 85 published test-negative studies. Data sources: Studies were identified from PubMed, reference lists and email updates. Study eligibility: All studies using the test-negative design reporting end-of-season estimates were included. Study appraisal: Design features that may affect the validity and comparability of reported estimates were reviewed, including setting, study period, source population, case definition, exposure and outcome ascertainment and statistical model. Results: There was considerable variation in the analytic approach, with 68 unique statistical models identified among the studies. Conclusion: Harmonization of analytic approaches may improve the potential for pooling VE estimates. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Foo S.-S.,Griffith University | Reading P.C.,Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Jaillon S.,Humanitas Clinical and Research Center | Mantovani A.,Humanitas Clinical and Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Microbiology

Innate immunity serves as the frontline defence against invading pathogens. Despite decades of research, new insights are constantly challenging our understanding of host-elicited immunity during microbial infections. Recently, two families of humoral innate immune proteins, pentraxins and collectins, have become a major focus of research in the field of innate immunity. Pentraxins and collectins are key players in activating the humoral arm of innate immunity, taking centre stage in immunoregulation and disease modulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that pentraxins and collectins can also mediate pathogenic effects during some infections. Herein, we discuss the protective and pathogenic effects of pentraxins and collectins, as well as their therapeutic significance. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang J.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research | Moore N.E.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research | Deng Y.-M.,Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Eccles D.A.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research | Hall R.J.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research
Frontiers in Microbiology

Influenza epidemics and pandemics have significant impacts on economies, morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ability to rapidly and accurately sequence influenza viruses is instrumental in the prevention and mitigation of influenza. All eight influenza genes from an influenza A virus were amplified by PCR simultaneously and then subjected to sequencing on a MinION nanopore sequencer. A complete influenza virus genome was obtained that shared greater than 99% identity with sequence data obtained from Illumina Miseq and traditional Sanger sequencing. The laboratory infrastructure and computing resources used to perform this experiment on the MinION nanopore sequencer would be available in most molecular laboratories around the world. Using this system, the concept of portability, and thus sequencing influenza viruses in the clinic or field is now tenable. © 2015 Wang, Moore, Deng, Eccles and Hall. Source

Denholm J.T.,Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Denholm J.T.,University of Melbourne | Matteelli A.,World Health Organization | Reis A.,TB HIV and Community Engagement Unit
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. © 2015 The Union. Source

Oh D.Y.,Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Oh D.Y.,University of Vic | Barr I.G.,Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity | Barr I.G.,University of Vic | And 2 more authors.

Ferrets are the preferred animal model to assess influenza virus infection, virulence and transmission as they display similar clinical symptoms and pathogenesis to those of humans. Measures of disease severity in the ferret include weight loss, temperature rise, sneezing, viral shedding and reduced activity. To date, the only available method for activity measurement has been the assignment of an arbitrary score by a 'blind' observer based on pre-defined responsiveness scale. This manual scoring method is subjective and can be prone to bias. In this study, we described a novel video-tracking methodology for determining activity changes in a ferret model of influenza infection. This method eliminates the various limitations of manual scoring, which include the need for a sole 'blind ' observer and the requirement to recognise the 'normal' activity of ferrets in order to assign relative activity scores. In ferrets infected with an A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, video-tracking was more sensitive than manual scoring in detecting ferret activity changes. Using this video-tracking method, oseltamivir treatment was found to ameliorate the effect of influenza infection on activity in ferret. Oseltamivir treatment of animals was associated with an improvement in clinical symptoms, including reduced inflammatory responses in the upper respiratory tract, lower body weight loss and a smaller rise in body temperature, despite there being no significant reduction in viral shedding. In summary, this novel video-tracking is an easy-to-use, objective and sensitive methodology for measuring ferret activity. © 2015 Oh et al. Source

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