Peter Doherty Institute

Melbourne, Australia

Peter Doherty Institute

Melbourne, Australia
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News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.prlog.org

Architectural Glass & Cladding has put their reputation behind the trusted and innovative products of Okalux GmbH. -- Architectural Glass & Cladding has put their reputation behind the trusted and innovative products of Okalux GmbH. Since 2010, their close partnership has helped the architectural community to discover the advantages of energy efficiency, end user comfort and the use of natural daylight to reduce the running costs of buildings throughout Australia and South East Asia."Our goal is to develop optimum solutions to satisfy architects specific demands – with glass," said Paul Nipperess, Sales and Marketing Manager of Architectural Glass & Cladding. AG&C has more than 20 years experience in the glass and façade industries."Okalux has decades of experience in the development and manufacture of high quality insulating glass for international construction projects. The very first product which sparked off the idea for the founding of the company also set the standard for its powers of innovation. Hollow fibres, which were originally conceived for the textiles industry, produce great advantages when inserted in the space between the panes of a window: they produce a soft diffusion of daylight and deep illumination of interiors," said Paul.This was followed by systems for light deflection and improved diffusion, transparent heat insulation and energy reduction. Paul goes on to say, "Glass is one of the most fascinating materials available to architects. It allows natural light into buildings and contributes decisively towards the end user's comfort. Okalux has dedicated itself to using natural light and ensuring that its products produce a balance of often contradictory demands; supplying a building with light and thermal energy while simultaneously protecting against overheating, heat loss and UV radiation." Because of this, Paul has called on architects, designers and builders to keep windows on their radar early by "creating purpose built solutions."This partnership between Okalux and Architectural Glass and Cladding has provided solutions to many key projects by utilising many of the unique and innovative Okalux products. These projects include: 570 Bourke Street Melbourne, Australian Catholic University NSW, Australian War Memorial ACT, The Peter Doherty Institute (University of Melbourne), Illumin8 Building (Adelaide University), Malaiwana Estate (Phuket Thailand), and 5 Martin Place (Sydney). Projects currently under construction include Monash University (Melbourne), and the Hong Kong Art Museum.For more information contact Architectural Glass & Cladding Pty Ltd, Suite 17, Wharf Central, 75 Wharf Street, Tweed Heads NSW 2485, phone 07 5523 2335, fax 07 5523 2336, email: info@agcproducts.com.au ( mailto://info@ agcproducts.com.au ), website: http://www.agcproducts.com.au


Thousands of patients suffering from invasive fungal infections in intensive-care units or after organ transplantation will benefit from the latest insights into diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, published today in the prestigious journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Fungal infections invading the bloodstream, lungs or other organs can cause prolonged illness and in extreme cases can lead to permanent disability or even death. A new review paper has outlined the gold standard for identifying at-risk patients who are critically ill, or in receipt of organ transplants, for preventing, diagnosing and treating invasive fungal infections, potentially saving countless lives across both the developed and developing world. Senior author, Professor Tania Sorrell from the Westmead Institute for Medical Research and the Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, said that invasive fungal infections can have serious consequences for patients and their families. "These new insights into diagnosing and treating invasive fungal infections are significant because early and correct treatment clearly leads to better outcomes for the patient. "These infections are uncommon but potentially life-threatening. Blood infections such as candidaemia and lung infections such as aspergillosis have high mortality rates of up to 85% in critically ill and immune-compromised patients," Professor Sorrell said. Professor Sorrell added that invasive fungal infections, overall, are a major problem in both developed and developing nations, killing more than 1.5 million people annually. The cost to the global healthcare system runs into billions of dollars each year. "This is an important problem in Australia, but an even more serious issue in developing countries where mortality is unacceptably high despite the best available therapies and care. "The research that has informed the recommendations in this paper will play an important role in educating doctors in both developed and developing countries about these diseases and outlining available diagnostic and therapeutic options in different medical contexts. "It will allow clinicians to tailor their approach to managing these infections in different countries or when working with specific at-risk populations. "This is vital, because rapid and accurate diagnosis, together with the right treatment, will significantly increase the chances of recovery for a patient. "A significant proportion of these infections are preventable. We are also working to improve capability to identify patients at high risk of contracting these infections. The Westmead team is now expanding their research in prevention, new diagnostic strategies, and therapeutic approaches towards infectious diseases of significant public health importance. The paper, which was written collaboratively by Australian and Brazilian researchers, was published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases today as one of a first-of-its-kind series on fungal infections: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30304-3/fulltext The series is intended to provide new insights into the breadth of serious fungal diseases and as a call to world health bodies to prevent millions of infections each year. Authors of papers in the series have been brought together from 6 continents to address fungal infections in AIDS, cancer, the critically ill, post- organ transplantation, after TB, major abdominal surgery and two "neglected tropical diseases" called mycetoma and chromoblastomycosis. Collaborators in the work on invasive fungal infections in the critically ill are based in: Westmead Institute for Medical Research The Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Westmead Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Melbourne Royal Melbourne Hospital at the Peter Doherty Institute Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Central Laboratory Division (LIM03) and Laboratory of Medical Mycology (LIM53), Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo


News Article | August 11, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2) have been associated with the development of autoimmune disease including Type 1 diabetes, Crohn's Disease and rheumatoid arthritis. In important fundamental research, Monash University scientists have identified a crucial part of the enzyme's role in early T-cell development, and have shown that decreased levels of this enzyme can lead to the type of T-cells that can contribute to the development of autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases represent a broad spectrum of diseases, which arise when immune responses are directed against, and damage, the body's own tissues. Collectively their incidence exceeds that of cancer and heart disease and they are a leading cause of death and disability, in particular in the Western world. The Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute researchers had already shown in studies over the years that decreased levels of PTPN2 result in T-cells attacking the body's own cells and tissues. In a paper published this week in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, they drilled deeper, exploring roles for the enzyme in early T-cell development and the development of particular T-cell subsets (αβ and γδ) implicated in the development of different autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. By removing the gene coding for PTPN2 in laboratory trials, the scientists found that the developmental process for T-cells was skewed towards the generation of γδ T cells with pro-inflammatory properties that are known to contribute to the development of different diseases including Irritable Bowel Disease, Crohn's Disease and rheumatoid arthritis. "This is an important advance in our understanding of critical checkpoints in T-cell development," lead researcher Professor Tony Tiganis said. "It helps decide whether the progenitors go on the become T-cells or something else; if they become one type of T-cell or another type," he said. As part of the study, the researchers looked at the pathways that PTPN2 regulates. "There are drugs that target some of these pathways - potentially we might be able to use existing drugs to target these pathways in the context of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases to help a subset of patients with a deficiency in this gene, although that is a long way off," Professor Tiganis said. First author Dr Florian Wiede said, "Understanding the mechanisms that govern early T-cell development and how these are altered in human disease may ultimately afford opportunities for novel treatments. This is very exciting." The study was conducted in collaboration with scientists from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and Peter Doherty Institute. Committed to making the discoveries that will relieve the future burden of disease, the newly established Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute at Monash University brings together more than 120 internationally-renowned research teams. Our researchers are supported by world-class technology and infrastructure, and partner with industry, clinicians and researchers internationally to enhance lives through discovery.


Towns J.M.,Melbourne Sexual Health Center | Leslie D.E.,Peter Doherty Institute | Denham I.,Melbourne Sexual Health Center | Azzato F.,Peter Doherty Institute | And 4 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2016

Background Chancres, the hallmark of primary syphilis, are classically described as single, painless ulcers at the site of Treponema pallidum inoculation. We aimed to determine the frequency of painful or multiple anogenital lesions of primary syphilis among men, whether there was concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and whether HIV status altered clinical presentations. Methods This study was conducted among men with T. pallidum PCR-positive lesions, attending a clinic in Melbourne, Australia, between 2009 and 2014. Lesions were also tested with HSV PCR, and syphilis serology undertaken. Results 183 men with T. pallidum PCR-positive primary anogenital lesions were included. 89% were men who have sex with men, and 10.9% were heterosexual. 38 men (20.8%) were HIV positive. Anal lesions were more common in HIV-positive men (34.2%) than in HIV-negative men (11.6%). Primary lesions were frequently painful (49.2%) or multiple (37.7%), and infrequently associated with HSV (2.7%). Of 37 men with both painful and multiple primary lesions, only 8% had concurrent HSV. Presentation was not significantly altered by HIV status. Conclusions Primary syphilis lesions are often painful and/or multiple in the absence of herpes coinfection, and may be clinically misdiagnosed.


Abbott I.J.,Peter Doherty Institute | Peleg A.Y.,Alfred HospitalVIC | Peleg A.Y.,Monash University
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and nonmelioid Burkholderia species, namely, Burkholderia cepacia complex, collectively are a group of troublesome nonfermenters. Although not inherently virulent organisms, these environmental Gram negatives can complicate treatment in those who are immunocompromised, critically ill in the intensive care unit and those patients with suppurative lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis. Through a range of intrinsic antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, virulence factors, and the ability to survive in biofilms, these opportunistic pathogens are well suited to persist, both in the environment and the host. Treatment recommendations are hindered by the difficulties in laboratory identification, the lack of reproducibility of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, the lack of clinical breakpoints, and the absence of clinical outcome data. Despite trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole often being the mainstay of treatment, resistance is widely encountered, and alternative regimens, including combination therapy, are often used. This review will highlight the important aspects and unique challenges that these three nonfermenters pose, and, in the absence of clinical outcome data, our therapeutic recommendations will be based on reported antimicrobial susceptibility and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles.


PubMed | Peter Doherty Institute, Melbourne Sexual Health Center and Monash University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sexually transmitted infections | Year: 2016

Chancres, the hallmark of primary syphilis, are classically described as single, painless ulcers at the site of Treponema pallidum inoculation. We aimed to determine the frequency of painful or multiple anogenital lesions of primary syphilis among men, whether there was concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and whether HIV status altered clinical presentations.This study was conducted among men with T. pallidum PCR-positive lesions, attending a clinic in Melbourne, Australia, between 2009 and 2014. Lesions were also tested with HSV PCR, and syphilis serology undertaken.183 men with T. pallidum PCR-positive primary anogenital lesions were included. 89% were men who have sex with men, and 10.9% were heterosexual. 38 men (20.8%) were HIV positive. Anal lesions were more common in HIV-positive men (34.2%) than in HIV-negative men (11.6%). Primary lesions were frequently painful (49.2%) or multiple (37.7%), and infrequently associated with HSV (2.7%). Of 37 men with both painful and multiple primary lesions, only 8% had concurrent HSV. Presentation was not significantly altered by HIV status.Primary syphilis lesions are often painful and/or multiple in the absence of herpes coinfection, and may be clinically misdiagnosed.


Ebert G.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Ebert G.,University of Melbourne | Preston S.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Preston S.,University of Melbourne | And 25 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can result in a spectrum of outcomes from immune-mediated control to disease progression, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The host molecular pathways that influence and contribute to these outcomes need to be defined. Using an immuno-competent mouse model of chronic HBV infection, we identified some of the host cellular and molecular factors that impact on infection outcomes. Here, we show that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) attenuate TNF signaling during hepatitis B infection, and they restrict the death of infected hepatocytes, thus allowing viral persistence. Animals with a liver-specific cIAP1 and total cIAP2 deficiency efficiently control HBV infection compared with WT mice. This phenotype was partly recapitulated in mice that were deficient in cIAP2 alone. These results indicate that antagonizing the function of cIAPs may promote the clearance of HBV infection. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


Patterson Ross Z.,University of Sydney | Komadina N.,Peter Doherty Institute | Deng Y.-M.,Peter Doherty Institute | Spirason N.,Peter Doherty Institute | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2015

The factors that determine the characteristic seasonality of influenza remain enigmatic. Current models predict that occurrences of influenza outside the normal surveillance season within a temperate region largely reflect the importation of viruses from the alternate hemisphere or from equatorial regions in Asia. To help reveal the drivers of seasonality we investigated the origins and evolution of influenza viruses sampled during inter-seasonal periods in Australia. To this end we conducted an expansive phylogenetic analysis of 9912, 3804, and 3941 hemagglutinnin (HA) sequences from influenza A/H1N1pdm, A/H3N2, and B, respectively, collected globally during the period 2009-2014. Of the 1475 viruses sampled from Australia, 396 (26.8% of Australian, or 2.2% of global set) were sampled outside the monitored temperate influenza surveillance season (1 May – 31 October). Notably, rather than simply reflecting short-lived importations of virus from global localities with higher influenza prevalence, we documented a variety of more complex inter-seasonal transmission patterns including “stragglers” from the preceding season and “heralds” of the forthcoming season, and which included viruses sampled from clearly temperate regions within Australia. We also provide evidence for the persistence of influenza B virus between epidemic seasons, in which transmission of a viral lineage begins in one season and continues throughout the inter-seasonal period into the following season. Strikingly, a disproportionately high number of inter-seasonal influenza transmission events occurred in tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, providing further evidence that climate plays an important role in shaping patterns of influenza seasonality. © 2015 Patterson Ross et al.


Bruggink L.D.,Peter Doherty Institute | Dunbar N.L.,Peter Doherty Institute | Marshall J.A.,Peter Doherty Institute
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2015

The sensitivity and specificity of the R-Biopharm RIDA®QUICK (N1402) immunochromatography assay for norovirus detection was examined using fecal material from Australian gastroenteritis incidents. The study involved the analysis of 3 groups of specimens; group 1 comprised 100 norovirus open reading frame (ORF) 1 RT-PCR positive specimens; group 2 comprised 100 ORF 1 RT-PCR norovirus negative specimens and group 3 comprised 12 specimens containing common gastroenteritis viruses other than norovirus. The RIDA®QUICK (N1402) assay detected both GI and GII norovirus and had an overall sensitivity of 87%. Genotype analysis of the capsid region of the genome (ORF 2) indicated the RIDA®QUICK (N1402) assay could detect a range of genotypes including GI.1, GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GII.3, GII.4 (including variants GII.4 (2009-like), GII.4 (2012), GII.4 (2012-like) and GII.4 (unknown)), GII.6, GII.13 and GII.21. The assay had good sensitivity for both GI and GII norovirus. The assay had a specificity of 97% and did not cross react with a number of common fecal viruses. However, one of eight rotavirus positive, norovirus negative specimens gave a positive result; rotavirus cannot be taken as the cause of such a false positive but cannot be excluded either. The kit was quick and easy to use and would be valuable in point-of-care testing. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Peter Doherty Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health | Year: 2016

Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all Australian healthcare workers (HCWs). In 2014, a target vaccination uptake of 75% was set for Victorian healthcare facilities. This study aimed to determine the 2014 uptake, describe trends over time and propose an enhanced reporting framework.Annual data submitted to the Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System (VICNISS) regarding HCW influenza were evaluated for 2005-2014. Faculty uptake - the number of vaccinations administered divided by total number of staff employed - was reported as a statewide aggregate and stratified by facility size (number of staff employed).In 2014, 78,885 HCWs were vaccinated across 93 healthcare facilities, corresponding to an overall uptake of 72.2%. During 2005-2014, small facilities (<100 HCWs) generally reported highest uptake while larger facilities (800 HCWs) recorded lowest uptake. Larger facilities recorded the greatest increase (+13.9%) when 2013 and 2014 seasons were compared. For all healthcare facility size categories, the highest uptake was observed in 2014.Influenza vaccination uptake in HCWs has successfully been introduced as a performance indicator in Victorian healthcare facilities and a peak uptake was reported in 2014. Varied trends are evident when uptake is stratified by number of employed HCWs, providing a feasible and meaningful method for benchmarking.

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