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Piscataway, NJ, United States

Krause C.D.,Johnson University | Izotova L.S.,Johnson University | Pestka S.,Johnson University | Pestka S.,Pestka Biomedical Laboratories
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Experiments measuring Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between cytokine receptor chains and their associated proteins led to hypotheses describing their organization in intact cells. These interactions occur within a larger protein complex or within a given nano-environment. To illustrate this complexity empirically, we developed a protocol to analyze FRET among more than two fluorescent proteins (multi-FRET). In multi-FRET, we model FRET among more than two fluorophores as the sum of all possible pairwise interactions within the complex. We validated our assumption by demonstrating that FRET among pairs within a fluorescent triplet resembled FRET between each pair measured in the absence of the third fluorophore. FRET between two receptor chains increases with increasing FRET between the ligand-binding chain (e.g., IFN-γR1, IL-10R1 and IFN-λR1) and an acylated fluorescent protein that preferentially resides within subsections of the plasma membrane. The interaction of IL-10R2 with IFN-λR1 or IL-10R1 results in decreased FRET between IL-10R2 and the acylated fluorescent protein. Finally, we analyzed FRET among four fluorescent proteins to demonstrate that as FRET between IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 or between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c increases, FRET among other pairs of proteins changes within each complex. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Krause C.D.,Microbiology and Immunology | Izotova L.S.,Microbiology and Immunology | Ren G.,Microbiology and Immunology | Yuan Z.-R.,Microbiology and Immunology | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction. Local synthesis of interferon within B16 tumors mediates anti-tumor effects. Based on reports that stem cells are recruited to tumors, and because systemic administration of interferon causes dose-limiting undesirable side effects, we wanted to improve the anti-tumor effects of interferon while simultaneously minimizing its systemic side effects by employing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as tumor-localized ectopic producers of interferon. Many vectors exist to fulfill this purpose, but their transfection efficiency and resulting expression levels vary considerably. Methods. To follow both the recruitment to tumors and the synthesis of interferon by MSCs, we designed a bicistronic vector system that permits fluorescent visualization of vector-transfected and interferon-producing MSCs. We used Mu-IFNA cDNA as the first cistron and the cherry fluorescent protein cDNA as the second cistron, whose translation requires the internal ribosome entry sequence (IRES) from the encephalomyocarditis virus 5' untranslated region. Observing inconsistent expression of these cistrons in various vectors and cell lines, especially compared with a control plasmid pmaxGFP, we optimized the expression of this bicistronic message by mutating pcDNA3 to facilitate exchange of the promoter and polyadenylation segments controlling both the gene of interest and the eukaryotic antibiotic resistance gene as well as the eukaryotic antibiotic resistance gene itself, and effectively compare the effects of these exchanges, creating plasmid pc3.5. Results: Murine MSCs stably and ectopically expressing Mu-IFNA inhibited the establishment of tumors in homogeneic C57/BL6 mice. Mu-IFNA expressed from the bicistronic message is fully biologically active, but is expressed at only two-thirds of the level observed from a monocistronic message. Cap-dependent translation is threefold more efficient than IRES-driven translation in 293T, B16, and MSC cell lines. Both efficient expression and good transfection efficiency require strong expression of the gene of interest and a chimeric intron. High doses of Mu-IFNA within tumors inhibited tumor establishment but may not inhibit tumor growth. Conclusions: Our modified vector and its derived plasmids will find use in stem cell therapeutics, gene expression, mRNA regulation, and transcription regulation. Local release of Mu-IFNA within tumors may differently affect tumor establishment and tumor growth. © 2011Krause et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Krause C.D.,Johnson University | Digioia G.,Johnson University | Digioia G.,Pestka Biomedical Laboratories | Izotova L.S.,Johnson University | And 6 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Ectopic coexpression of the two chains of the Type I and Type III interferon (IFN) receptor complexes (IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c, or IFN-λR1 and IL-10R2) yielded sensitivity to IFN-alpha or IFN-lambda in only some cells. We found that IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibit FRET only when expressed at equivalent and low levels. Expanded clonal cell lines expressing both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c were sensitive to IFN-alpha only when IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET in the absence of human IFN-alpha. Coexpression of RACK-1 or Jak1 enhanced the affinity of the interaction between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c. Both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET with Jak1 and Tyk2. Together with data showing that disruption of the preassociation between the IFN-gamma receptor chains inhibited its biological activity, we propose that biologically active IFN receptors require ligand-independent juxtaposition of IFN receptor chains assisted by their associated cytosolic proteins. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Krause C.D.,Johnson University | Digioia G.,Johnson University | Izotova L.S.,Johnson University | Izotova L.S.,Pestka Biomedical Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2013

The observed Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between fluorescently labeled proteins varies in cells. To understand how this variation affects our interpretation of how proteins interact in cells, we developed a protocol that mathematically separates donor-independent and donor-dependent excitations of acceptor, determines the electromagnetic interaction of donors and acceptors, and quantifies the efficiency of the interaction of donors and acceptors. By analyzing large populations of cells, we found that misbalanced or insufficient expression of acceptor or donor as well as their inefficient or reversible interaction influenced FRET efficiency in vivo. Use of red-shifted donors and acceptors gave spectra with less endogenous fluorescence but produced lower FRET efficiency, possibly caused by reduced quenching of red-shifted fluorophores in cells. Additionally, cryptic interactions between jellyfish FPs artefactually increased the apparent FRET efficiency. Our protocol can distinguish specific and nonspecific protein interactions even within highly constrained environments as plasma membranes. Overall, accurate FRET estimations in cells or within complex environments can be obtained by a combination of proper data analysis, study of sufficient numbers of cells, and use of properly empirically developed fluorescent proteins. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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