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Markovic M.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Cupac S.,University of Belgrade | Durovic R.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Milinovic J.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovča, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in plant products could pose a risk to consumers' health, their continual monitoring before product distribution to city markets is indispensable. ©Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.


Jokic G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Vuksa P.,University of Belgrade | Vuksa M.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

In order to compare the efficacies of new rodenticides (sodium selenite and cellulose) and conventional ones (bromadiolone, brodifacoum and cholecalciferol) in controlling Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778) in wheat and alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2008, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indexes were evaluated by pre-treatment census, and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average M. arvalis census numbers of 230/ha and 132/ha were found to cause 6.85% and 5.55% yield reduction in wheat, while the corresponding average counts of 285/ha and 253/ha caused 21.22% and 15.61% yield decrease in alfalfa crop. Twenty-eight days after treatment in wheat, the conventional rodenticides were found to reach average efficacy of 87% (bromadiolone), 95% (brodifacoum) and 82% (cholecalciferol), while the respective effectiveness in alfalfa was 81% (bromadiolone), 78% (cholecalciferol) and 95% (brodifacoum). Sodium selenite achieved 62% and 67% average efficacy in wheat and alfalfa, respectively, while cellulose reached the respective efficacies of 70% and 85%. Sodium selenite was less effective than either conventional rodenticides or cellulose. Repression M. arvalis with cellulose may significantly improve pest management programmes for rodent control in alfalfa crops. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Andric G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Adamovic M.,Institute of Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Row Materials | Bodroza-Solarov M.,Institute of Food Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2010

The insecticidal effectiveness of two natural zeolite formulations (Minazel plus and Minazel), applied to wheat at selected rates of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 g/kg, and a diatomaceous earth formulation (DE) (Protect-It™), applied at the recommended rates of 0.15 g/kg for Sitophilus oryzae, 0.20 g/kg for Rhyzopertha dominica and 0.30 g/kg for Tribolium castaneum, were tested under laboratory conditions (24 ± 1 °C temperature and 45 ± 5% relative humidity). The highest adult mortality was observed after the longest exposure period of 21 days and 7 days of recovery, when all three zeolite dosage rates and the recommended DE dosage caused 97-100% mortality of S. oryzae and 94-100% of T. castaneum. On the other hand, 100% mortality was not achieved in any test variant involving R. dominica; the highest (about 92%) was detected for DE, while 52% and 79% mortality was achieved with the zeolites at the highest rate of 0.75 g/kg. Progeny reduction by >90% was achieved after 21 days of contact of all three beetle pests with DE-treated wheat, while the same level of reduction was achieved for S. oryzae and T. castaenum only after contact with the highest rate of the zeolite product, Minazel. Thus the two zeolite formulations are comparable to diatomaceous earth in controlling adult S. oryzae, R. dominica and T. castaneum, but only the Minazel formulation could effectively protect wheat from attack by S. oryzae or T. castaneum, and only with a higher rate of application than for the DE formulation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Andric G.G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Markovic M.M.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Adamovic M.,Serbian Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials | Dakovic A.,Serbian Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Insecticidal potential of natural zeolites and diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was evaluated. Two natural zeolite formulations (NZ and NZ Modified) were applied to wheat at rates of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg, while two diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations (DE S-1 and DE S-2) were applied at rates of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg. A bioassay was conducted under laboratory conditions: temperature of 24 ± 1°C, relative humidity in the range 5055%, in tests with natural zeolites, and 6065%, in tests with DEs, and in all combinations for progeny production. Mortality was assessed after 7, 14, and 21 d of insect contact with treated wheat, and the total mortality after an additional 7-d recovery on untreated broken wheat. Progeny production was also assessed after 8 wk for S. oryzae and 12 wk for T. castaneum. The highest mortality for S. oryzae and T. castaneum was found after the longest exposure period and 7 d of recovery, on wheat treated with NZ at the highest rate and DEs at rates of 0.501.0 g/kg. Progeny reduction higher than 90% was achieved after 14 and 21 d of contact of both beetle pests with wheat treated with DE S-1 at 0.501.0 g/kg and DE S-2 at 0.751.0 g/kg, while the same level of reduction was achieved only for T. castaneum after its contact with the highest rate of NZ formulation. NZ Modified, applied even at the highest rate, revealed much lower insecticidal potential. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Solarov M.I.B.,University of Novi Sad | Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Andric G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Golic M.P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Periodica Technologica | Year: 2011

The aim of study was to investigate the influence of naturally occurring zeolite and diatomaceous earth, as inert dusts approved for insect pest control in certified organic crop production, on trading and breadmaking quality of treated wheat. The treatments significantly reduced the trading quality of wheat which was reflected through lowering of test weight. This effect was more marked in the case of low-vitreous wheat rather than in high-vitreous one. Investigation of rheological properties of flours made from the treated wheat demonstrated that treatments with natural zeolite and diatomaceous earth at all applied doses significantly increased the water absorption, which consequently increased the bread yield. However, these changes in the flour properties were not high enough to modify the quality attributes of bread as was shown by instrumentally measuring crumb hardness and springiness as well as sensory evaluation.


Prazic Golic M.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Andric G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2016

The effects of the insecticides deltamethrin, bifenthrin, thiamethoxam, spinosad and abamectin were tested in the laboratory in combination with extreme temperature of 50 °C to discover potential improvements of existing pest management programmes for Sitophilus oryzae (L.) control. Adults were released into wheat grain treated with three insecticide doses ranging 0.125–1.0 mg/kg and exposed to 50±1 °C temperature at the intervals of 0, 65, 75 and 85 min, and direct and combined effects were determined after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days of exposure/recovery at 25±1 °C and 60 ± 5% r. h., as well as impact on F1 progeny production/reduction PR (%) after 8 weeks. The results showed that the mortality of S. oryzae adults increased with exposure/recovery duration more than under the activity of each insecticide alone and its interaction with extreme temperature. After 14 days, all three rates of deltamethrin (0.125–0.5 mg/kg), the two higher rates of bifenthrin (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and the highest rates of abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) and thiamethoxam (1.0 mg/kg) caused maximum adult mortality (100%) and PR (100%) after weevil exposure to 50 °C already after the interval of 65 min, while spinosad had the same effect after 75 and 85 min, which effectiveness was 1.25–20 times higher than the activities of the insecticides and 50 °C temperature alone, considering all trial variants. The lowest rate of bifenthrin (0.125 mg/kg) was found after 65 min activity in combination with exposure to 50 °C, and especially spinosad (0.25 mg/kg) after 65 and 75 min, to have stimulated progeny production 17, 33 and 236%, respectively, while deltametrin showed 100% effectiveness against S. oryzae in all combinations of wheat grain treatment at 50 °C temperature, including the dose 0.125 mg/kg. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Bodroza-Solarov M.,University of Novi Sad | Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Andric G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Filipcev B.,University of Novi Sad | Dokic L.,University of Novi Sad
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2012

This study investigated the changes in quality parameters of wheat (mealy and vitreous) non-infested and infested with Sitophilus oryzae (L.) caused by treatments with inert dusts: natural zeolite, two diatomaceous earths from Serbia, and a commercial product enhanced DE Protect-It ®.Inert dust treatments, regardless of infestation status, significantly reduced wheat test weight. This was more marked in mealy (8.3%) rather than in vitreous wheat grain (2.7%). Content of silicon dioxide (SiO 2) in flour from infested lots was significantly higher than in non-infested ones. Treatments with all formulations of inert dusts significantly affected flour water absorption in the non-infested wheat lots. Non-infested high vitreous wheat treated with Protect-It ® showed the highest moisture absorption (61.9 g.100 g -1) in comparison with the control (59.7 g.100 g -1). Significant improvement in dough rheology was observed in the infested soft and hard wheat, particularly through rise of dough energy. Small-deformation tests implied certain dough weakening effects of inert dusts in vitreous wheat but this was not observed in standard large-deformation rheological tests. Application of inert dusts shows an ability to improve some aspects of the technological quality of wheat. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Jankov D.,University of Novi Sad | Indic D.,University of Novi Sad | Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Almasi R.,University of Novi Sad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to investigate how various types of storage facilities with, e.g., concrete, metal, and plywood surfaces interfere with the activity of different insecticide formulations used for rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) control: malathion (EC), pirimiphos-methyl (EC), and lambda-cyhalothrin (CS and WP). Initial and residual efficacy were determined in the laboratory. Knockdown data for the initial effects were processed by probit analysis and presented as knockdown time (KDT) parameters with kdt-p lines. Delayed effects were shown as knockdown efficacy (%) determined after 24 h of weevils' contact with 7-, 14-, 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-day-old deposits on each surface. Malathion (EC) and pirimiphos-methyl (EC) showed the highest initial knockdown efficacy on metal, while it was 3.6 (3.4)- and 4.4 (3.3)-fold lower on concrete and plywood, respectively. Lambda-cyhalothrin (CS and WP) showed the highest initial efficacy on concrete, and slightly lower (1.3 and 2.4) fold on metal and plywood, respectively. Both formulations of lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion on metal, as well as pirimiphos-methyl on plywood were 100 % efficient against S. oryzae 180 days after the treatment. Delayed efficacy of both formulations of lambda-cyhalothrin decreased on plywood after 120 days, and after 180 days the efficacy was 55 %. All insecticides, except lambda-cyhalothrin (CS), expressed low knockdown efficacy on concrete, while the deposit of lambda-cyhalothrin (CS) on concrete was 100 % efficient during 90 days, and after 120, 150, and 180 days the efficacy was 83, 65, and 17 %, respectively. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kljajic P.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Andric G.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Prazic-Golic M.,Pesticide and Environment Research Institute | Indic D.,University of Novi Sad | Vukovic S.,University of Novi Sad
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

As very little is known about the impact of cold pre-treatments on insecticidal toxicity to the surviving stored-product insects, we examined the effects of cooling (-5 °C) on the toxicity of five contact insecticides to Sitophilus granarius adults from three populations (laboratory, field and selected). We determined: (a) weevil lethal time after exposure to -5 °C, (b) the effects of two cold pre-treatments (LT20 and LT50-lethal time for 20 and 50 % of exposed adults) on 24 and 72 h recovery rates of laboratory adults after exposure to five insecticides and (c) deltamethrin, dichlorvos and malathion toxicity to two weevil populations with altered insecticide susceptibility after exposure to the LT20 and LT50 pre-treatments. The tested S. granarius populations showed no significant differences in their susceptibility to cooling. All insecticides except dichlorvos were more toxic to the laboratory weevils after 24 h than after 72 h recovery from the LT20 pre-treatment. Dichlorvos and deltamethrin were more toxic to the other two populations after 72 h of recovery. Comparing the effects of cold pre-treatment and non-treatment on the laboratory strain, no significant increase in the toxicity of insecticides was detected, while only deltamethrin was significantly more toxic to the field and selected populations recovering for 24 h (12.1 and 11.0 times, respectively) and 72 h (6.9 and 36.6 times) from the LT20 pre-treatment. In conclusion, only the shorter of the two cold pre-treatments was found effective in terms of increasing the insecticidal toxicity, especially against the populations with altered susceptibility to insecticides. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Pesticide and Environment Research Institute
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2012

Insecticidal potential of natural zeolites and diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was evaluated. Two natural zeolite formulations (NZ and NZ Modified) were applied to wheat at rates of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg, while two diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations (DE S-1 and DE S-2) were applied at rates of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg. A bioassay was conducted under laboratory conditions: temperature of 24 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity in the range 50-55%, in tests with natural zeolites, and 60-65%, in tests with DEs, and in all combinations for progeny production. Mortality was assessed after 7, 14, and 21 d of insect contact with treated wheat, and the total mortality after an additional 7-d recovery on untreated broken wheat. Progeny production was also assessed after 8 wk for S. oryzae and 12 wk for T. castaneum. The highest mortality for S. oryzae and T. castaneum was found after the longest exposure period and 7 d of recovery, on wheat treated with NZ at the highest rate and DEs at rates of 0.50 -1.0 g/kg. Progeny reduction higher than 90% was achieved after 14 and 21 d of contact of both beetle pests with wheat treated with DE S-1 at 0.50-1.0 g/kg and DE S-2 at 0.75-1.0 g/kg, while the same level of reduction was achieved only for T. castaneum after its contact with the highest rate of NZ formulation. NZ Modified, applied even at the highest rate, revealed much lower insecticidal potential.

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