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Abbas G.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Arif M.J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashfaq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Aslam M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) has been noted as a sap sucking pest on cultivated cotton Gosspium hirsutum L. in Pakistan from 2005. Since 2005, this New World species has emerged as serious pest of cotton and other crops and weeds in Pakistan and neighbouring countries. The species is polyphagous and invasive, and can attack many other economic crops. The study found the host plant range and the over wintering of the pest in agroecological conditions Pakistan during surveys from 2005 to 2009. This information can be helpful in management of this pest. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers.

Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Shahzad M.S.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Ahmad S.,Cotton Research Station | Karar H.,Entomological Research Sub Station
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

Weather plays a critical role in regulating abundance of cotton insects. Pests forecasting for monitoring and management of such deleterious insects particularly in developing countries where pest management is costly is very important . Keeping in view such delicate issues, pests forecasting model on the basis of past 5 years pests abundance data is proposed. Population data was taken from different locations of Multan district from 2006- 2010 by Pests Warning Wing of Agriculture Department, Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan. Weather in relation to Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) abundance was summarized on the basis of multivariate regression and correlation tactics. Results revealed that maximum temperature had negative impact on American bollworm population while relative humidity had highly significant positive effect on Helicoverpa armigera population. ARIMA model forecast American bollworm percent hot spots will decrease with minimum value -1.4 to maximum value 1.05. Copyright © 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Dutcher J.D.,University of Georgia | Karar H.,Entomological Research Sub Station | Abbas G.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Insects | Year: 2012

Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006-2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in Desirable variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Nadeem S.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Hamed M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Nadeem M.K.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Hasnain M.,Entomological Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2014

Green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) among the predators is an important component of biological control in integrated pest management of crops and vegetables. Reproductive characteristics of C. carnea lead towards its effectiveness against target pests in a particular set of environmental conditions. The present study was carried out to investigate the reproductive characteristics of C. carnea under laboratory conditions. Effect of low temperature and storage durations on the reproductive parameters of C. carnea at adult stage on different temperature conditions have showed that the reproductive parameters as pre-oviposition period, oviposition and adult life span were comparatively better for both short and long term storage durations. Although the adult survived after stored at 6 and 8°C temperature conditions, storage was better for both long and short term durations at 10°C. So, it is obvious from the present findings that whenever, needed to conserve particular strains in laboratories for experimentation or field releases, storage at 10°C gave prolonged survival to adults without the detrimental effects. © Copyright 2014 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Nadeem M.K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmed S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nadeem S.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Ishfaq M.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Fiaz M.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

Insecticides resistance against fourteen field populations of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Chichawatni, District Sahiwal, Pakistan to six insecticides viz., trichlorfon, malathion (Organophosphates), bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin (Pyrethorids), methomyl (Carbamate) and spinosad (Microbial) was assessed by topical assay under laboratory conditions. In insecticides bioassay, trichlorfon was observed susceptible to high resistance level (1.01-fold to 41.13-fold), bifenthrin and malathion were found susceptible to moderate resistance level (1.00-fold to 14.27-fold and 1.00-fold to 20.37-fold), lambda-cyhalothrin and spinosad were showed susceptible to low resistance (1.00-fold to 9.57- fold and 1.20 -fold to 9.95-fold), while effect of methomyl were remained as susceptible to all the tested populations. From the results it is concluded that methomyl was remained susceptible to all the tested populations, while other five tested insecticides have developed the resistance against B. zonata populations, which required adopting new strategies to overcome resistance in this pest.

Khan S.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Javed N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar S.A.,University of Punjab | Haq I.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to determine the survival of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in soil. Entomopathogenic nematodes [(Steinernema asiaticum (Anis), S. glaseri (Steiner), Heterorhabditis indica (Poinar) and H. bacteriophora (Poinar)] were applied to non-sterilized and sterilized soil either with or without tomato plants and roots. Formalin was used for the sterilization of sandy loam soil (72% sand, 17% silt and 8% clay). Nematodes were recovered from the soil immediately after application and 7 days after application using sieving method. There was no significant difference seen in all the treatments immediately after application. Nematode recovery ranged from 43.22 to 45.42%. The percentage of the entomopathogenic nematodes recovered after seven days of application ranged from 1.87 to 7.83%. Number of live S. asiaticum, S. glaseri, H. indica and H. bacteriophora were severely reduced in non-sterilized soil with or without tomato roots after 7 days. There was a significant difference in survival rate of S. asiaticum, S. glaseri, H. indica and H. bacteriophora in sterilized soil. © Copyright 2016 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Rafique M.K.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Quratulain,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Mahmood R.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Stephen E.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

Mango, Mangifera indica is an indigenous fruit of the Indian sub-continent, where it has been cultivated for thousands of years. In Pakistan it is grown mainly in Sindh and Southern Punjab. Despite its long history of cultivation the potential yield has not been achieved. Mango is dependent on insect pollinators to set fruit. Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of mango. A study was conducted in different orchards of Multan for relationship of different pollinator groups with the crop. It was observed that fruit weight and fruit quality is enhanced with increasing number of visitors per panicle, as well as vice versa. Similarly inter-cropping was also strongly associated with the average number of visitors. It can also be concluded that inter-cropping attracted pollinators which increased the fruit weight and quality. Moreover, inter cropping also increased the number of observed hives. Same trend was also observed between number of hives and floral diversity at the orchards. Conclusively, it can be depicted safely that intercrop, diversity and average number of visiting pollinators contributed positively to the fruit weight and fruit quality. Pollinators collected from Multan belonged to seventeen different species under 15 genera and 07 families. Ceratina binghami apparently seems to be the dominant bee species followed by Apis andreniformis though no significant difference was observed. Among flies, Episyrphus balteatus seems to be dominant fly visiting mango orchards compared to other pollinators. Copy 2016 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Ullah Z.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Javed N.,University of Agriculture FaisalabadPunjab | Khan S.A.,University of Agriculture FaisalabadPunjab | Haq I.U.,University of Agriculture FaisalabadPunjab | Shakeel Q.,University of Sargodha
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2015

Biopesticides are being tested in control parasitic nematodes as a replacement for synthetic chemicals. This study was undertaken to investigate effects of the biopesticides abamectin, emamectin, and biosal on egg hatch and mortality of second instar juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood under laboratory and field conditions on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L). Treatments consisted of the biopesticides and water (control). Numbers of J2 hatched was determined at 1, 3, and 6 days and mortality of J2 at 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Evaluation of biopesticides under field conditions was for yield, number of flowers, numbers of fruit per plant, average fruit weight, shoot and root length, numbers of galls and egg masses per root system, and nematode rate of reproduction. Abamectin was more effective than emamectin and biosal against M. incognita under laboratory and field conditions. Application of abamectin produced the highest juvenile mortality and increased fruit weight, reduction in egg hatch, gall number, egg mass number, and rate of reproduction. Abamectin can be used under field conditions for management of M. incognita. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ul Hasan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute | Iqbal J.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Integrated control measures were tested for efficacy against Earias spp. on okra in Pakistan with the over-riding goal of finding the most cost-effective control. Five control methods: (i) biological control with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii., (ii) cultural control of alternate host plants by hand weeding and hoeing, (iii) botanical control by spraying the plants with 5% neem seed kernel extract, (iv) mechanical control by hand-clipping injured plant parts and (v) chemical control with by spraying the plants with a commercial insecticide (Tracer®, Dow AgroSciences). These treatments were tested alone and as seven combinations of two methods and three combinations of three methods. All treatments were applied each week for six weeks and compared by measuring damaged fruits and shoots, yield and cost-benefit ratio in a controlled, replicated field experiment on Diksha cultivar of okra. Fruit and shoot damage was significantly lowest at 7% and 14%, respectively, in the plots treated with only chemical control and fruit yield was highest, at 63 kg/plot, in plots treated with the combination of mechanical and chemical control. Plots treated with only mechanical control had the highest cost: benefit ratio at 1:2.61, followed by plots treated with mechanical control and chemical control, at 1:2.39 and plots treated with chemcial plus botanical plus mechanical control at 1:2.38. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Imran-ul- Haq,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sajjad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan S.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jaskani M.J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ullah Z.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Survey of guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchards was conducted to assess the incidence and severity of fruit anthracnose of guava in Sheikhupura, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Hafizabad, Jhang and Chiniot districts of Punjab province. Maximum disease incidence was recorded in Shiekhupura (24%) followed by Sargodha (18.37%) while minimum in Chiniot (9%). Disease severity in Sheikhupura, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Hafizabad, Jhang and Chiniot districts was recorded as 55%, 42%, 35%, 46%, 31% and 22% respectively. Efficacy of different chemicals (mancozeb, daconil, ridomil gold, derosal, bayleton, aliette), biological agents (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Trichoderma harzianum) and Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) was tested in vitro against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of anthraconose of Guava. Aliette was the most effective at all concentrations followed by mancozeb which was effective at 20 and 40 ppm concentrations but less at 60 ppm. Derosal was least effective at its all concentrations. Aspergillus flavus and Pseudomonas florescence were found to be the most effective treatments among fungi and PGPR evaluated respectively in inhibiting the colony growth of C. gloeosporioides. These findings may provide information regarding chemical and biological control against C. gloeosporioides under in vitro conditions and serve as guide for future field trials.

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