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Tanakajd, Hungary

Pujade-Villar J.,University of Barcelona | Hanson P.,University of Costa Rica | Medina C.A.,Institute Investigacion Of Recursos Biologicos Alexander Von Humboldt | Torres M.,Institute Investigacion Of Recursos Biologicos Alexander Von Humboldt | Melika G.,Pest Diagnostic Laboratory

A new genus of cynipid oak gallwasp, Zapatella Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with two new species, Zapatella grahami Pujade-Villar & Melika, sp. n. and Z. nievesaldreyi Melika & Pujade-Villar, sp. n., is described from the Neotropics. Zapatella grahami, known only from the sexual generation, induces galls in acorns of Quercus costaricensis and is currently known only from Costa Rica. Zapatella nievesaldreyi, known only from the asexual generation, induces inconspicuous galls in twigs of Q. humboldtii, and is known only from Colombia. Diagnostic characters for both new species are given in detail. Five Nearctic species are transferred from Callirhytis to Zapatella: Z. cryptica (Weld), comb. n., Z. herberti (Weld), comb. n., Z. oblata (Weld), comb. n., Z. quercusmedullae (Ash- mead), comb. n., Z. quercusphellos (Osten Sacken), comb. n. (= Z. quercussimilis (Bassett), syn. n.). A key based on adults for the species belonging to Zapatella is also given. Generic limits and morphological characteristics of Zapatella and closely related genera are discussed. © Juli Pujade-Villar et al. Source

Pujade-Villar J.,University of Barcelona | Hanson P.,University of Costa Rica | Melika G.,Pest Diagnostic Laboratory

A new genus of oak gallwasp, Coffeikokkos Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., is described from Costa Rica. Diagnostic characters and generic limits of the new genus are discussed in detail. The new genus includes Coffeikokkos copeyensis Pujade-Villar & Melika, sp. n., which induces galls on stems of Quercus bumelioides, an endemic oak to Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama. The new species and galls are described and illustrated. Source

Stone G.N.,University of Edinburgh | Lohse K.,University of Edinburgh | Nicholls J.A.,University of Edinburgh | Fuentes-Utrilla P.,University of Edinburgh | And 11 more authors.
Current Biology

How geographically widespread biological communities assemble remains a major question in ecology [1-4]. Do parallel population histories allow sustained interactions (such as host-parasite or plant-pollinator) among species, or do discordant histories necessarily interrupt them? Though few empirical data exist, these issues are central to our understanding of multispecies evolutionary dynamics [3-6]. Here we use hierarchical approximate Bayesian analysis [7] of DNA sequence data for 12 herbivores and 19 parasitoids to reconstruct the assembly of an insect community spanning the Western Palearctic and assess the support for alternative host tracking and ecological sorting hypotheses [2, 8, 9]. We show that assembly occurred primarily by delayed host tracking from a shared eastern origin. Herbivores escaped their enemies for millennia before parasitoid pursuit restored initial associations, with generalist parasitoids no better able to track their hosts than specialists. In contrast, ecological sorting played only a minor role. Substantial turnover in host-parasitoid associations means that coevolution must have been diffuse [4-6], probably contributing to the parasitoid generalism seen in this and similar systems [10, 11]. Reintegration of parasitoids after host escape shows these communities to have been unsaturated [12, 13] throughout their history, arguing against major roles for parasitoid niche evolution or competition [3, 4, 6] during community assembly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Liljeblad J.,Uppsala University | Nieves-Aldrey J.L.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Neser S.,Plant Protection Research Institute | Melika G.,Pest Diagnostic Laboratory

Larvae and adult females of a single species inducing galls on Scolopia mundii (Salicaceae) are described as Qwaqwaia scolopiae Liljeblad, Nieves-Aldrey & Melika sp. n. The genus Qwaqwaia Liljeblad, Nieves-Aldrey & Melika gen. n. is also described as new and placed in a tribe, Qwaqwaiini Liljeblad, Nieves-Aldrey & Melika trib. n., herein erected to encompass this sole species. Diagnostic characters and a key to all eight cynipid tribes are given. With its unique South African distribution and seemingly plesiomorphic morphology, this gall wasp is important for the future untangling of the early evolution of the microcynipoids. Source

Enrique M.,University of Panama | Nieves-Aldrey J.L.,Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia | Melika G.,Pest Diagnostic Laboratory

Two new species of Loxaulus Mayr, Loxaulus championi and Loxaulus panamensis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) are described from Panama. Both new species induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks). The diagnostic characters, gall descriptions, distribution, biological data and a key for the identification of the new species are given. The new species represent the first records of the genus Loxaulus outside North America. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source

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