Sacramento, CA, United States
Sacramento, CA, United States

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Godfrey K.E.,University of California at Davis | Galindo C.,Pest Detection and Emergency Projects | Patt J.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Luque-Williams M.,Pest Detection and Emergency Projects
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2013

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is a serious pest of citrus due to its ability to vector the putative causal agent of huanglongbing, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Populations of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) can increase in density in urban areas and then move out into adjacent commercial citrus production. Current presence/absence detection methods for ACP in urban areas rely on the use of yellow sticky traps without a scent lure. This method was selected because of its accepted use in commercial production, however, in urban areas it may not be the most efficient method for trapping ACP. Therefore, we investigated the relative trapping efficiency of 4 different colored traps (2 hues of yellow and 2 hues of green) and the addition of 2 scent lures to yellow sticky traps. The lures were based on the volatiles emitted either from flush growth of Eureka lemon or Mexican lime. The tests were conducted in residential areas in Los Angeles, California in 2011. All of the sites were dooryard sites and trapping was done with homeowner permission. There were no statistically significant differences in trap catch between the yellow and green traps, suggesting that any of the traps tested could be used for ACP detection in an urban environment. There was no correlation between flush density and trap catches. The host plant on which the colored traps were placed did not significantly influence trap catch, although numerically more ACP adults were captured on lemon and lime trees, regardless of trap color. When scent lures were added to yellow sticky traps, no statistically significant differences were found between traps with lures and those without lures, regardless of host plant. Trapping studies for ACP in the urban environment need to be continued using more sample sites to determine if the addition of scent lures based on plant volatiles will increase trap catches.

Baloch G.N.,University of Karachi | Tariq S.,Pest Detection and Emergency Projects | Ehteshamul-Haque S.,University of Karachi | Athar M.,University of Karachi | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality | Year: 2013

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and watermelon (Citrullus la-natus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) are highly susceptible to root rotting fungi Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) causing huge losses each year in Pakistan. In field experiments, application of asafoetida, a medicinal gum from Ferula assafoetida and seaweeds Spatoglossum variabile, Stokeyia indica and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii showed significant suppressive effect on root rotting fungi Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita) attacking watermelon and eggplant and improved plant growth in soil naturally infested with root rotting fungi and artificially infested with root knot nematode. Length of vine of watermelon, shoot length of eggplant and fresh shoot weight were higher in seaweed and asafoetida treated plants as compared to control or Topsin-M, a fungicide, treated plants. Seaweed and asafoetida treated plants also showed earlier fruiting than control or fungicide treated plants. At farmer's field seaweed showed similar suppressive effect on F. solani and M. phaseolina and root knot nematode on watermelon in soil naturally infested by these pathogens. Application of seaweed produced healthy plants and number of fruits and weight were significantly higher in seaweed and asafoetida treated plants. Asafoetida and seaweeds offer a non-chemical means of disease management.

Sultana V.,University of Karachi | Baloch G.N.,University of Karachi | Ara J.,University of Karachi | Ehteshamul-Haque S.,University of Karachi | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality | Year: 2011

With the rising popularity of organic farming, due to adverse effect of chemicals, the seaweed fertilizer industry is growing rapidly worldwide. Seaweeds act as natural plant growth stimulator and enable the plants to withstand drought, disease or frost. Root diseases of tomato and sunflower caused by root rotting fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, and root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., are the major constraints in tomato and sunflower production. In our studies, ethanol and water extracts of several seaweeds showed significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne javanica. In this study, efficacy of three seaweeds Spatoglossum variabile, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and Halimeda tuna was compared with a fungicide Topsin-M and a nematicide carbofuran both in screen house and under field condition. Seaweed and pesticides showed more or similar suppressive effect on root pathogens of tomato and sunflower by reducing fungal root infection and nematode's galls on roots and nematode's penetration in roots. However, mixed application of S. variabile with carbofuran caused maximum reduction in nematode's penetration in roots and produced greater fresh shoot weight, root length and maximum yield of tomato under field condition. Seaweeds offer a non-chemical means of disease control, which would also protect our environment from the use of hazardous chemicals.

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