São Joaquim da Barra, Brazil
São Joaquim da Barra, Brazil

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de SA A.A.,UDESC | Ernani P.R.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Nava G.,Pesquisador da EPAGRI | do Amarante C.V.T.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Pereira A.J.,Pesquisador da EPAGRI
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2014

Boron (B) is normally applied at Brazilian apple orchards, but without any regional experimental support. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forms of B addition on apple yield and quality. The experiment was set up in São Joaquim, Southern of Brazil, using two apple cultivars (Imperial Gala and Fuji Suprema). Treatments consisted of a factorial combination of rates of B applied to the soil, biannually, and time of B sprayed to the plants, annually, from 2002. It was used a randomized block with treatments arranged in a split-plot design. Boron sprays were allocated in the main plots (only water or acid boric solutions applied at 0.3% at the pink stage or at 0.6% just after harvest) and rates of soil B (0, 2.5 and 5.0 kg ha-1 of B as borax) were allocated in the split-plots. Determinations were performed in the seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Application of B to the soil was more effective than foliar B sprays for increasing B concentration in the fruits, leaves and in the soil, however it did not affect any of the fruit attributes related to the physiological quality, regardless of cultivar. Foliar B sprays decreased starch content and titratable acidity, and did not affect soluble solids content and flesh firmness. Sprays of B applied at bloom decreased pollen grain germination in ‘Imperial Gala’ and fruit set in ‘Fuji Suprema’. Fruit yield was not affected by the application of B, regardless of time, form or rate in any cultivar. Thus, there is no need to apply B in orchards containing these cultivars when grown in high organic matter soils in order to increase yield or fruit quality. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved.


do Amarante C.V.T.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Argenta L.C.,Pesquisador da Epagri | Vieira M.J.,Pesquisador da Epagri | Steffens C.A.,CAV UDESC
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2010

It has been shown that the maximum efficiency of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for postharvest preservation of apples is achieved when fruit are treated up to one week after harvesting. However, the full loading of commercial stores with 'Fuji' apples might take more than one week. The effects of delays for 1-MCP treatment of 'Fuji' apples have not been reported. This work was carried out to assess the effects of delaying treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), after fruit harvest, on flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA); soluble solids content (SSC), as well as on prevention of superficial scald, core browning, and decay of 'Fuji Suprema' apples. Fruit were harvested in commercial orchards of the State of Santa Catarina, located at the regions of Fraiburgo (four orchards), Bom Retiro (three orchards), and São Joaquim (three orchards), in April of 2006. Fruits were cold stored 12h after harvesting, and left during nine months in air at 0.5 ± 0.5 oC and 90-95% RH. Fruit were treated with air (control) or 1-MCP (1 μL.L-1, for 24 h), in hermetical chambers, at harvest, or after 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 days at 0.5°C. Fruit quality was assessed after removal from cold storage, followed by seven days at 23°C. The delay of 1-MCP treatment, for up to 20 days after fruit harvesting, did not reduce its efficiency to preserve flesh firmness and to prevent core browning and decay, in fruit from the three regions, as well as to preserve the SSC in fruits from Bom Retiro and São Joaquim. However, the efficiency of 1-MCP to prevent superficial scald was reduced when its application was delayed by 16 or 20 days after harvesting, especially in apples from regions with a high susceptibility to the disorder (Fraiburgo and São Joaquim). The benefits of 1-MCP to preserve the TA were reduced in fruit from Bom Retiro, treated 20 days after harvest. These results show the benefits of 1-MCP to preserve fruit quality of 'Fuji Suprema' during long term storage in air, and the loss of its efficiency to prevent superficial scald with delays of fruit treatment superior to 12 days after harvesting.

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