Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Lima, Peru
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Huillca-Briceno A.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecologia | Year: 2016

Introduction: the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is estimated to be 7% in Peru. One in 100 of these cases is gestational type. A previous report said gestetional diabetes mellitus affects 4% of Peruvian pregnant. Objectives: identify risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: acase-control study was performed in Alberto Sabogal Hospital, collecting medical records from 2009 to 2014. 84 cases and 336 controls were included. A case was defined as a pregnant women diagnosed with GDM by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after an abnormal fasting glucose and control was defined as a pregnant women without GDM indicative values. The study outcome was GDM. The variables of interest were multiparity, previous cesarean section, abortions, newborn with the greatest weight. Logistic regression were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and a confidence interval of 95% (IC95%). Conclusions: this study describes the association of gestational diabetes mellitus with some obstetrical history as multiparity, history of caesarean sections and/or abortions. For this reason, it is recommended to implement prevention and identification of pregnant women with warning signs of gestational diabetes mellitus for early diagnosis and monitoring of these patients in the postpartum period. © 2016, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

Whiting P.F.,University of Bristol | Whiting P.F.,Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd | Wolff R.F.,Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd | Deshpande S.,Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd | And 12 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: Cannabis and cannabinoid drugs are widely used to treat disease or alleviate symptoms, but their efficacy for specific indications is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and adverse events (AEs) of cannabinoids. DATA SOURCES: Twenty-eight databases from inception to April 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized clinical trials of cannabinoids for the following indications: nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, appetite stimulation in HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis or paraplegia, depression, anxiety disorder, sleep disorder, psychosis, glaucoma, or Tourette syndrome. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. All review stages were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Where possible, data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Patient-relevant/disease-specific outcomes, activities of daily living, quality of life, global impression of change, and AEs. RESULTS: A total of 79 trials (6462 participants) were included; 4 were judged at low risk of bias. Most trials showed improvement in symptoms associated with cannabinoids but these associations did not reach statistical significance in all trials. Compared with placebo, cannabinoids were associated with a greater average number of patients showing a complete nausea and vomiting response (47% vs 20%; odds ratio [OR], 3.82 [95% CI, 1.55-9.42]; 3 trials), reduction in pain (37% vs 31%; OR, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.99-2.00]; 8 trials), a greater average reduction in numerical rating scale pain assessment (on a 0-10-point scale; weighted mean difference [WMD], -0.46 [95% CI, -0.80 to -0.11]; 6 trials), and average reduction in the Ashworth spasticity scale (WMD, -0.36 [95% CI, -0.69 to -0.05]; 7 trials). There was an increased risk of short-term AEs with cannabinoids, including serious AEs. Common AEs included dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, fatigue, somnolence, euphoria, vomiting, disorientation, drowsiness, confusion, loss of balance, and hallucination. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There was moderate-quality evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic pain and spasticity. There was low-quality evidence suggesting that cannabinoids were associated with improvements in nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, weight gain in HIV infection, sleep disorders, and Tourette syndrome. Cannabinoids were associated with an increased risk of short-term AEs. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

After several months of arduous deliberations, the National Agreement, a policy coordination forum highest level in Peru, approved a document entitled "The objectives of health care reform." In this article it review the work done and the product reached by consensus, which includes as priorities, among others, strengthening of SIS like public insurance, implementation of a policy of multi-year investment, strengthening the protection of health rights outlined, strengthening the primary health care and improving access to safe and effective medicines. The effect is an agreement that gives significance to a process that has the character of state policy and defines the framework within which they must develop health policies in the following years. © 2016, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

Kaw R.,Cleveland Clinic | Bhateja P.,Respiratory Institute | Mar H.P.,Medicine Institute Center for Value Based Care Research | Hernandez A.V.,Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Among patients with OSA, a higher number of medical morbidities are known to be associated with those who have obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) compared with OSA alone. OHS can pose a higher risk of postoperative complications after elective noncardiac surgery (NCS) and often is unrecognized at the time of surgery. The objective of this study was to retrospectively identify patients with OHS and compare their postoperative outcomes with those of patients with OSA alone. METHODS: Patients meeting criteria for OHS were identified within a large cohort with OSA who underwent elective NCS at a major tertiary care center. We identified postoperative outcomes associated with OSA and OHS as well as the clinical determinants of OHS (BMI, apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used for dichotomous and continuous outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Patients with hypercapnia from definite or possible OHS and overlap syndrome are more likely to experience postoperative respiratory failure (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 3.7-32.3; P .0001), postoperative heart failure (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.9-15.7; P = .002), prolonged intubation (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.6-15.3; P = .2), postoperative ICU transfer (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 3.7-32.3; P .0001), and longer ICU (b-coefficient, 0.86; SE, 0.32; P = .009) and hospital (b-coefficient, 2.94; SE, 0.87; P = .0008) lengths of stay compared with patients with OSA. Among the clinical determinants of OHS, neither BMI nor AHI showed associations with any postoperative outcomes in univariable or multivariable regression. CONCLUSIONS: Better emphasis is needed on preoperative recognition of hypercapnia among patients with OSA or overlap syndrome undergoing elective NCS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pereyra-Elias R.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú | Year: 2011

To determine the proportion of abstracts presented at the Congreso Peruano de Gastroenterología (the major Peruvian gastroenterological scientific meeting), that had been published in scientific journals, the date of publication and its associated factors. Longitudinal retrospective and analytic study; the publicationrate of all the abstracts presented in the biennial Congreso Peruano de Gastroenterología between 1998 and 2008 was assessed. Google Scholar engine was used. The searching strategy performed included: ("Study location" AND "population studied" AND "main outcome") AND (autor:First OR autor:Second OR autor:Last). Logistic regression was used, considering p<0.05 statistically significant. Publication rate was 8.2% (34/217), statistically significant differences were found among meeting years (p<0.001). There were also differences between study design, objectives (more in analytic studies) and measurement (more in longitudinal studies (p<0.001). 82.4% were published in the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú. The median time for publication was 10.8±10.4 months; this variable and the meeting year, study type, journal of publication or accordance between the abstract and publication characteristic showed no statistical differences. The mean authors' number was 5.02±2.4; analytic studies have less authors than the descriptive ones (3.6 vs 6.1; p=0.012). The Congreso Peruano de Gastroenterología presents a low publication rate of the abstracts presented, which can be used as a quality indicator of the abstracts and the reviewing process.

Yhuri Carreazo N.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú | Year: 2011

Fecal leukocytes are widely used to identify invasive diarrhea and to make then the decision of prescribing or not antibiotics. This test has been hardly assessed in small hospitals of developing countries with efficient laboratory processes. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of different thresholds of fecal leukocytes in children under-five with acute diarrhea. Retrospective study of clinical and laboratory records in the Pediatric Emergency Hospital, Lima, Peru. All cases with a stool culture and fecal leukocytes independently and systematically performed were studied. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios (LR), and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated. Out of 1,804 stool samples assessed, 901 (49,9%) were positive for one or more bacterial entheropathogens. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), and positive LR varied for different thresholds: more than 5 (S: 93.2%, Sp: 21.9%, LR+:), more than 20 (Sn: %, Sp: %,+LR: ), more than 50 (Sn: 74.9%, Sp: 56.7%, +LR: 1.73), and more than 100 fecal leukocytes per high power field (Sn: 60.7%, Sp: 71.9%, LR+: 2.17). The general area under the ROC curve was 0.69 (CI 95%: 0.67-0.72). Diagnostic performance of fecal leukocytes is suboptimal and may not warrant its continued use in developing settings, as it promotes antibiotic abuse, and on the other hand increases the risk of overlooking patients with invasive diarrhea who may Benedit from antibiotic treatment. Combination of epidemiological and clinical data with either fecal leukocytes or fecal lactoferrin may provide a more efficient approach.

Solari L.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2015

Peru is negotiating the Transpacific Partnership Agreement, a commercial treaty that could have deleterious implications for the health systems of the included partners. Transparency and Intellectual Property chapters are the most controversial elements. The first mostly because it opens the possibility for groups of interest to refuse decisions being taken by the sanitary authorities concerning the incorporation of health technologies to the public health systems. The second because it poses restrictions to the entrance of generic medical products, widening the period of data exclusivity and implementing mechanisms of opposition to their registry. Other chapters include strategies to block the states from regulating the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and processed foods. We ought to create surveillance systems to evaluate the impact of the agreement if it is signed, and generate mechanisms that prevent the little resources we already have devoted for health to be deviated to top technology that will not necessarily have a positive impact at a population level. © 2015, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

Centurion P.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences | Noriega A.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: The 1210-nm wavelength has absorption-affinity for Lipid-Rich Tissue and has demonstrated to stimulate adipocytes and mesenchymal cells of the subcutaneous tissue, with a new concept: Selective Photothermostimulation (SPS). The application in Liposuction of this wavelength is determined by its preservation of the integrity of adipocytes, making possible the use of these materials for fat grafting in Liposculpture, Breast Reconstruction or as filler in Face Rejuvenation, proven that this technique is less traumatic. Materials and methods: 102 patients diagnosed with lipodystrophy either associated to skin flaccidity or not were applied the 1210-nm diode laser (ORlight ®) between June 2010 and August 2011. The protocol was followed and verified through ultrasound imaging. Intraoperative and subcutaneous cellular tissue temperatures were measured. Samples of the aspirated tissue were sent for histological analysis to prove alteration/preservation of adipocytes and connective tissues, including mitochondrial activity. Results: Histological analyses revealed 98% preservation of aspirated adipocytes. The 1210-nm diode laser shows affinity for adipose tissue. In addition, the technique poses a reduced trauma level on tissues, allowing for the performance of associated procedures for the body or face. No major complications were observed; and only minor complications, mainly ecchymosis on 2% of the total body surface area, have been recorded. The recovery period is 24 hours. The Liposuction Diode Laser (LSDL) 1210-nm is ideal for Liposculpture. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Champin D.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2014

At present, competency-based curriculum is considered to be the most appropriate model in medical education. Much has been written about this model; however, a crucial aspect of the model is the assessment of competency development which is a different point compared to the traditional model of cognitive assessment. Assessment in the context of the competencybased curriculum model must be aligned with the profile of the competencies that the institution offers. This publication reports the evaluation experience in a Medical School of Peru that applies a competency-based curriculum. © 2014, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

Sanchez Zavaleta C.A.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2016

The term “climate change” is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru. © 2016, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All Rights Reserved.

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