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Catenazzi A.,University of California at Berkeley | Catenazzi A.,San Francisco State University | Von May R.,University of California at Berkeley | Lehr E.,Illinois Wesleyan University | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

We describe a new species of glassfrog from the cloud forest of Manu National Park, southern Peru, at elevations of 2750-2800 m. The new species is similar in morphology to Centrolene lemniscatum, which occurs in northern Peru at elevations of 2000-2280 m. Both species have white labial stripes, humeral spines, and lack vomerine teeth. The new species differs from C. lemniscatum by its larger size, labial stripe extending into a distinct lateral stripe instead of a discontinuous lateral stripe, snout profile inclined anteroventrally instead of bluntly rounded, greater depression in the internarial area, and by having strongly protruding nostrils. Males of the new species emit long calls with 8-14 peaked notes, instead of a short tonal note in C. lemniscatum. Another morphologically similar species, C. buckleyi, has a short advertisement call composed of 1-5 notes, and is genetically distinct from the new species. This new Centrolene extends the known distribution of Centrolene to the south by 600 km, and is the southernmost species of this genus. Copyright © 2012. Magnolia Press.

Gehara M.,TU Braunschweig | Gehara M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Crawford A.J.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Crawford A.J.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | And 29 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. © 2014 Gehara et al.

Alonso J.A.,Institute Investigaciones Of La Amazonia Peruana Iiap | Alvan J.D.,Peruvian Center for Biodiversity and Conservation | Shany N.,Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional NCI
Cotinga | Year: 2012

As a result of a series of historical, geological and climatic changes, and the varied ecosystems found in the region, the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve (in the northern Peruvian Amazon) protects a unique biodiversity, among the highest known in the Amazon basin. Two important habitats are white-sand and black-water forests. Among the avian highlights is a suite of species restricted to these habitats, which are very rare in Peru. At least 23 bird species are associated with the area's white-sand forests, several of which are known only from this region in the country. Five species have been discovered and described in recent years from Allpahuayo-Mishana, and seven were recorded for the first time in Peru here. A total of 496 bird species has been recorded in the reserve, belonging to 59 families, with several species currently designated as Incertae Sedis.

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