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Vaiko M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Evans P.,PO Box 876 | Tan T.G.,Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope
Astronomische Nachrichten | Year: 2015

We present the first follow-up study of the transiting system WASP-41 after its discovery in 2011. The main goal of this paper is to refine the physical parameters of the system and search for possible signs of transit timing variations. The observations used for analysis were taken from the public archive of the Exoplanet Transit Database (ETD). Assuming three different limb darkening laws, we found the best-fitting model and redetermined parameters of the system. Although system parameters obtained in this study were found to be in good agreement with the discovery study, the planetary radius determined here is notably smaller, namely 1.12+0.06 -0.07 RJup. The Safronov number Θ = 0.071 ± 0.002 and equilibrium temperature Teq = 1271 ± 50 K were also determined. Both values indicate that the planet WASP-41b belongs to Class I of transiting planets. No significant transit timing variations were detected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Reddy V.,Planetary Science Institute | Vokrouhlicky D.,Charles University | Bottke W.F.,Southwest Research Institute | Pravec P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 13 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2015

We explored the statistical and compositional link between Chelyabinsk meteoroid and potentially hazardous Asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 to investigate their proposed relation proposed by Borovička et al. (Borovička, J., et al. [2013]. Nature 503, 235-237). First, using a slightly more detailed computation we confirm that the orbit of the Chelyabinsk impactor is anomalously close to the Asteroid 1999 NC43. We find ~(1-3)×10-4 likelihood of that to happen by chance. Taking the standpoint that the Chelyabinsk impactor indeed separated from 1999 NC43 by a cratering or rotational fission event, we run a forward probability calculation, which is an independent statistical test. However, we find this scenario is unlikely at the ~(10-3-10-2) level. Secondly, we note that efforts to conclusively prove separation of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid from (86039) 1999 NC43 in the past needs to meet severe criteria: relative velocity ≃1-10m/s or smaller, and ≃100km distance (i.e. about the Hill sphere distance from the parent body). We conclude that, unless the separation event was an extremely recent event, these criteria present an insurmountable difficulty due to the combination of strong orbital chaoticity, orbit uncertainty and incompleteness of the dynamical model with respect to thermal accelerations. This situation leaves the link of the two bodies unresolved and calls for additional analyses. With that goal, we revisit the presumed compositional link between (86039) 1999 NC43 and the Chelyabinsk body. Borovička et al. (Borovička, J., et al. [2013]. Nature 503, 235-237) noted that given its Q-type taxonomic classification, 1999 NC43 may pass this test. However, here we find that while the Q-type classification of 1999 NC43 is accurate, assuming that all Q-types are LL chondrites is not. Our experiment shows that not all ordinary chondrites fall under Q-taxonomic type and not all LL chondrites are Q-types. Spectral curve matching between laboratory spectra of Chelyabinsk and 1999 NC43 spectrum shows that the spectra do not match. Mineralogical analysis of Chelyabinsk (LL chondrite) and (8) Flora (the largest member of the presumed LL chondrite parent family) shows that their olivine and pyroxene chemistries are similar to LL chondrites. Similar analysis of 1999 NC43 shows that its olivine and pyroxene chemistries are more similar to L chondrites than LL chondrites (like Chelyabinsk). Analysis of the spectrum using Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) suggests 1999 NC43 is similar to LL or L chondrite although we suspect this ambiguity is due to lack of temperature and phase angle corrections in the model. While some asteroid pairs show differences in spectral slope, there is no evidence for L and LL chondrite type objects fissioning out from the same parent body. We also took photometric observations of 1999 NC43 over 54 nights during two apparitions (2000, 2014). The lightcurve of 1999 NC43 resembles simulated lightcurves of tumblers in Short-Axis Mode (SAM) with the mean wobbling angle 20°-30°. The very slow rotation of 1999 NC43 could be a result of slow-down by the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. While, a mechanism of the non-principal axis rotation excitation is unclear, we can rule out the formation of asteroid in disruption of its parent body as a plausible cause, as it is unlikely that the rotation of an asteroid fragment from catastrophic disruption would be nearly completely halted. Considering all these facts, we find the proposed link between the Chelyabinsk meteoroid and the Asteroid 1999 NC43 to be unlikely. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Mancini L.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Mancini L.,University of Salerno | Ciceri S.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Chen G.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | And 54 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We present new ground-based, multi-colour, broad-band photometric measurements of the physical parameters, transmission and emission spectra of the transiting extrasolar planet WASP-19b. The measurements are based on observations of eight transits and four occultations through a Gunn i filter using the 1.54-m Danish Telescope, 14 transits through an Rc filter at the Perth Exoplanet SurveyTelescope (PEST) observatory and one transit observed simultaneously through four optical (Sloan g', r', i', z') and three near-infrared (J,H,K) filters, using the Gamma Ray Burst Optical and Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope. The GROND optical light curves have a point-to-point scatter around the best-fitting model between 0.52 and 0.65 mmag rms. We use these new data to measure refined physical parameters for the system. We find the planet to be more bloated (Rb = 1.410 ± 0.017RJup; Mb = 1.139 ± 0.030MJup) and the system to be twice as old as initially thought. We also used published and archived data sets to study the transit timings, which do not depart from a linear ephemeris. We detected an anomaly in the GROND transit light curve which is compatible with a spot on the photosphere of the parent star. The starspot position, size, spot contrast and temperature were established. Using our new and published measurements, we assembled the planet's transmission spectrum over the 370-2350 nm wavelength range and its emission spectrum over the 750-8000 nm range. By comparing these data to theoretical models we investigated the theoretically predicted variation of the apparent radius of WASP- 19b as a function of wavelength and studied the composition and thermal structure of its atmosphere. We conclude that: (i) there is no evidence for strong optical absorbers at low pressure, supporting the common idea that the planet's atmosphere lacks a dayside inversion; (ii) the temperature of the planet is not homogenized, because the high warming of its dayside causes the planet to be more efficient in re-radiating than redistributing energy to the night side; (iii) the planet seems to be outside of any current classification scheme. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Han C.,Chungbuk National University | Udalski A.,University of Warsaw | Choi J.-Y.,Chungbuk National University | Yee J.C.,Ohio State University | And 34 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2013

We report the discovery of a planetary system from observation of the high-magnification microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0026. The lensing light curve exhibits a complex central perturbation with multiple features. We find that the perturbation was produced by two planets located near the Einstein ring of the planet host star. We identify four possible solutions resulting from the well-known close/wide degeneracy. By measuring both the lens parallax and the Einstein radius, we estimate the physical parameters of the planetary system. According to the best-fit model, the two planet masses are ∼0.11 M J and 0.68 MJ and they are orbiting a G-type main-sequence star with a mass ∼0.82 M⊙. The projected separations of the individual planets are beyond the snow line in all four solutions, being ∼3.8 AU and 4.6 AU in the best-fit solution. The deprojected separations are both individually larger and possibly reversed in order. This is the second multi-planet system with both planets beyond the snow line discovered by microlensing. This is the only such system (other than the solar system) with measured planet masses without sin i degeneracy. The planetary system is located at a distance 4.1 kpc from the Earth toward the Galactic center. It is very likely that extra light from stars other than the lensed star comes from the lens itself. If this is correct, it will be possible to obtain detailed information about the planet host star from follow-up observation. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Yee J.C.,Ohio State University | Shvartzvald Y.,Tel Aviv University | Gal-Yam A.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Bond I.A.,Massey University | And 75 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Because of the development of large-format, wide-field cameras, microlensing surveys are now able to monitor millions of stars with sufficient cadence to detect planets. These new discoveries will span the full range of significance levels including planetary signals too small to be distinguished from the noise. At present, we do not understand where the threshold is for detecting planets. MOA-2011-BLG-293Lb is the first planet to be published from the new surveys, and it also has substantial follow-up observations. This planet is robustly detected in survey+follow-up data (Δχ2 5400). The planet/host mass ratio is q = (5.3 ± 0.2) × 10-3. The best-fit projected separation is s = 0.548 ± 0.005 Einstein radii. However, due to the s↔s -1 degeneracy, projected separations of s -1 are only marginally disfavored at Δχ2 = 3. A Bayesian estimate of the host mass gives ML = 0.43+0.27 - 0.17 M, with a sharp upper limit of ML < 1.2 M from upper limits on the lens flux. Hence, the planet mass is mp = 2.4+1.5 - 0.9 M Jup, and the physical projected separation is either r ≃ 1.0AU or r ≃ 3.4AU. We show that survey data alone predict this solution and are able to characterize the planet, but the Δχ2 is much smaller (Δχ2 500) than with the follow-up data. The Δχ2 for the survey data alone is smaller than for any other securely detected planet. This event suggests a means to probe the detection threshold, by analyzing a large sample of events like MOA-2011-BLG-293, which have both follow-up data and high-cadence survey data, to provide a guide for the interpretation of pure survey microlensing data. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

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