News Article | May 10, 2017
"The average floor area of New Zealand houses almost doubled from 1974 to 2011. Over the same period, occupancy rate decreased—meaning fewer people are living in larger houses," explains Iman. His study found that regardless of house size, people spend the majority of their time in a few core spaces of the house and many rooms remain unused. "My results indicate New Zealanders on average spend 16 hours per day indoors at home, and house size does not affect this. On average 55 percent of this is spent in their own bedrooms, and 30 percent of their time in the living room, dining room and kitchen—the 'core' house," he says. "Houses with more space than the appropriate 'core' are considered to be at the level of large housing based on number of additional rooms on top of the core house. Features of large houses include extra bedrooms, specialised rooms like a study or media room, more than one living space, several bathrooms including ensuites and double or triple garages." Having a large house means using more furniture, appliances and tools to fill additional rooms, more resources for construction and higher operating energy over the life cycle of the house, says Iman. "On average New Zealanders who live in owner-occupied houses use double the energy compared to what is required for living in that 'core' house. For example, a couple with two children living in a house with three extra rooms will use 66 percent more energy over 100 years." House size is not just a matter of additional initial cost for buying a house, says Iman, but it has more significant future consequences. "While decisions in terms of house size selection seem personal, they can have significant impacts on resource use as well as the environment. More public awareness is needed regarding the role of house size in achieving sustainable architecture, and more consideration put into other options, such as co‐housing, so that little used spaces can be shared by more people." Iman's research was supervised by Professor Brenda Vale and Dr Nigel Isaacs from Victoria's School of Architecture, and had several studies including a questionnaire survey and analysis of 287 floor plans. Iman travelled to New Zealand from Iran, where he worked as a lecturer at Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. He now teaches at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand and plans to continue research into the potential environmental impacts of living in larger houses. Explore further: One radiator to heat a whole floor More information: An investigation of the effects of large houses on occupant behaviour and resource-use in New Zealand. researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/handle/10063/6199
Shekouhy M.,Islamic Azad University at Bandar Abbas |
Hasaninejad A.,Persian Gulf University
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2012
A catalyst-free one-pot four component methodology for the synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-triones under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [Bmim]Br, as a neutral reaction medium is described. A broad range of structurally diverse aldehydes (aromatic aldehydes bearing electron withdrawing and/or electron releasing groups as well as heteroaromatic aldehydes) were applied successfully, and corresponding products were obtained in good to excellent yields without any byproduct. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malekzadeh P.,Persian Gulf University
Composite Structures | Year: 2011
The thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded (FG) arbitrary straight-sided quadrilateral plates is presented. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the thickness direction. The thermal buckling equilibrium equations are based on the three-dimensional (3D) elasticity theory. The differential quadrature method as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is adopted to discretize the governing equations. The principle of virtual work in conjunction with the geometric mapping technique is used to derive the equilibrium equations and the related boundary conditions. After discretizing the governing equations, the resulting nonlinear eigenvalue system of equations is solved by an iterative procedure. The convergence of the method is shown through different examples and its accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the obtained solutions with the existing results in literature for FG plates. Finally, the effects of temperature dependence of material properties, temperature field, volume fraction index, geometrical parameters and the boundary conditions on the thermal buckling characteristic of the FG plates of various shapes are studied. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Gheisari R.,Persian Gulf University
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2010
The emission of tμ atoms in a two-layer arrangement consisting of H/T and D2 is investigated with an alternative kinetic model. The slowing down of tμ(1s) atoms in pure deuterium and their falling down into resonance regions force chemical confinement fusion (μCF). By considering the resonance escape probability of tμ(1s) atoms, point kinematic equations are numerically solved to obtain the muon conversion efficiency and also the cycling coefficient. Under the optimal condition we show that the μ-cycling coefficient and the efficiency equal 104.5 ± 2.5 and ∼0.7%, respectively. Our model is compared with previous suggestions. The muon conversion efficiency is estimated for a possible design and compared with recent experimental results for H/T ⊕ D/T. © 2010 IAEA, Vienna.
Hashemi M.,Persian Gulf University
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2015
The structures of [Pt(bpy)R2] complexes (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, R = Me, Ph, 4-MeC6H4, 4-MeOC6H4, 3-MeOC6H4, 4-NMe2C6H4, 4-FC6H4, 3-FC6H4, 4-ClC6H4, CCH, CCPh, CF3, CN) were optimized. Energy of neutral, cationic and anionic forms of these complexes were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Nucleophilicity indexes and electron-donating powers were calculated for these complexes. A relatively good correlation for nucleophilicity index and a very good correlation for electron-donating power were found between these descriptors and logk2 (when available) (k2 is the second order rate constants for oxidative addition of methyl iodide on these complexes). Also a good correlation was found between the energy of platinum dZ2 orbital and logk2. The condensed-to-atom Fukui functions for nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks on these complexes show that in all of these complexes, Pt center is the especially preferable site for electrophilic attack. These observations support the mechanism of SN2 type for oxidative addition of polar organic reagents on organoplatinum(II) complexes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malekzadeh P.,Persian Gulf University |
Heydarpour Y.,Persian Gulf University
Composite Structures | Year: 2013
The influences of centrifugal and Coriolis forces in combination with the other geometrical and material parameters on the free vibration behavior of rotating functionally graded (FG) truncated conical shells subjected to different boundary conditions are investigated. The initial dynamic equilibrium equations and the free vibration equations of motion around this equilibrium state and also the related boundary conditions are derived based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) of shells. The material properties are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction. The differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is adopted to discretize the governing equations and the related boundary conditions. The convergence behavior of the method is demonstrated and in the limit cases, comparison studies with the available solutions in the literature are performed. Finally, the effects of angular velocity, Coriolis acceleration, material property graded index and geometrical parameters on the frequency parameters of the rotating FG truncated conical shells with different boundary conditions are studied. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Malekzadeh P.,Persian Gulf University |
Shojaee M.,Persian Gulf University
Composite Structures | Year: 2013
The application of a two-variable refined plate theory is extended to the free vibration of nanoplates. The theory takes into account the effects of small scale and the quadratic variation of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the nanoplate and hence, it does not require the use of shear correction factors. The equations of motion and the related boundary conditions are derived based on the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen in conjunction with the refined plate theory via Hamilton's principle. The obtained equations are only dynamically coupled. Exact solution for the simply supported nanoplates is obtained to verify the theory by comparing its results with other available solutions in the open literature. Then, using the differential quadrature method (DQM) as an accurate and computationally efficient numerical method, the effect of small scale parameter on the frequency parameters of the nanoplates with some different types of boundary conditions are studied. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Razminia A.,Persian Gulf University
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2013
In this paper, full state hybrid projective synchronization of two new incommensurate fractional hyperchaotic systems are presented. The synchronization is achieved under a master-slave configuration in which these systems have different fractional orders. The synchronization scheme and control technique are performed subject to parameter uncertainty in both master and slave systems. The main idea of such asymptotical synchronization is an adaptive mechanism which employs Lyapunov stability criterion. Numerical simulations support the proposed techniques. © 2012 Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.
Abbasi-Tarighat M.,Persian Gulf University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: A simple, selective and sensitive multi-component method for the simultaneous determination of Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ based on complex formation with 2-benzylspiro[isoindoline-1,5'-oxazolidine]-2',3,4'-trione using artificial neural networks is proposed. RESULTS: The analytical data showed that metal-to-ligand ratios in Zn2+ and Fe3+ complexes was 1:1 and for Mn2+ complex was 1:2. It was found at pH 6.5 and 5 min after mixing, the complexation reactions were completed. The coloured complexes exhibited absorption bands in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. The results showed that Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ could be determined in the range 0.1-18.0, 0.3-10.0 and 0.5-20.0 mg L-1, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data obtained from synthetic mixtures of metal ions were processed by radial basis function networks (RBFNs) and back-propagation neural network. The optimal conditions of the neural networks were obtained by adjusting various parameters. Satisfactory precision and accuracy were obtained with all networks, although, because of surprisingly lower root mean square error (%) values, RBFNs were the preferred approach. The proposed approach was tested by analysing the composition of the different mixtures containing Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ ions in milk and vegetable samples. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Eslamizadeh H.,Persian Gulf University
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2012
A stochastic approach based on three-dimensional Langevin equations was used to calculate the average pre-scission neutron multiplicities, fission probabilities and the mean kinetic energy of fission fragments. The chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula was applied to determine the dissipative forces in Langevin equations. The analysis of the results shows that the above-mentioned experimental data can be reproduced using the chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula. However, for heavy nuclei the results of calculations for the average pre-scission neutron multiplicities and the variances of the mass and kinetic energy distributions are lower than the experimental data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.