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Perry, NY, United States

Caixeta L.S.,Cornell University | Ospina P.A.,Cornell University | Capel M.B.,Perry Veterinary Clinic | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

In a prospective cohort study, the daily bodyweight (BW) and milk production of 92 cows were recorded using automatic milking systems. The objectives were to characterize calcium serum concentration variability on days 1-3 post-partum and to evaluate the association between subclinical hypocalcemia (SHPC) and change in BW over the first 30 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows, while controlling for concurrent disease and negative energy balance (NEB). SHPC was defined as total serum calcium concentration between 6 and 8 mg/dL, NEB was defined as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) > 0.7 mEq/L or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥ 1.2 mmol/L. The peak incidence of SHPC was at 1 DIM for all groups (11%, 42% and 60% for parities 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively). All parity groups lost weight (21, 33, and 34 kg) during the first 30 DIM. Parity 1 animals with disease compared with those without disease lost the most weight (2.6 kg/day BW loss vs. <1.9 kg/day, respectively). Normocalcemic parity 2 animals with either NEB or disease lost the most weight (>5 kg/day) compared with those in the SHPC group (≤4.5 kg/day). In parity ≥ 3 animals, SHPC was an important factor for BW loss; SHPC animals lost the most weight (>3.7 kg/day) vs. normocalcemic cows (≤3.3 kg/day) regardless of NEB or disease status. Even though all animals lost weight during early lactation the effect of disease, NEB, and SHPC on BW loss was different in each parity group. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Chapinal N.,University of Guelph | Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | Carson M.E.,University of Guelph | LeBlanc S.J.,University of Guelph | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to examine the associations of peripartum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and calcium with milk production in early lactation and pregnancy at the first artificial insemination (AI) across different management systems. Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds located across the United States and Canada were visited weekly for blood sample collection from 2,365 cows. For each week of sampling (from wk -1 through wk 3 relative to calving) and for each metabolite, serum concentrations were dichotomized at various thresholds to identify the thresholds with the best negative associations with milk production and pregnancy at first AI. These thresholds were used to categorize the serum concentrations into higher and lower risk categories. Repeated-measures ANOVA and multivariable logistic regression were conducted for milk production and pregnancy at the first AI data, respectively, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. In the week before calving, serum NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L, BHBA ≥600μmol/L, and calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L were associated with 1.6 to 3.2 kg/d milk loss across the first 4 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) milk tests. High levels of NEFA and BHBA in wk 1 and 2 after calving (≥0.7 and ≥1.0. mEq/L for NEFA, and ≥1,400 and ≥1,200μmol/L for BHBA), and low levels of calcium (≤2.1. mmol/L) in wk 1, 2 and 3 after calving were associated with milk loss at the first DHIA milk test. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were not associated with pregnancy at first AI in any sampling week, whereas calcium <2.2 to 2.4. mmol/L from wk 1 through wk 3 postpartum were associated with reduced pregnancy at first AI. In conclusion, high serum concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and low concentrations of calcium around parturition were associated with early lactation milk loss, and low calcium concentration around parturition was associated with impaired early lactation reproduction. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Gohary K.,University of Guelph | Leslie K.E.,University of Guelph | Ford J.,University of Guelph | Capel M.,Perry Veterinary Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The effect of administering recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to cows with hyperketonemia during the early postpartum period on health, metabolic parameters, milk production, and early reproductive performance was evaluated in a double-blinded clinical trial. Cows from 8 dairy herds in New York State were tested weekly between 3 and 16. d in milk for elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were enrolled in the study when blood β-hydroxybutyrate was ≥1.3. mmol/L for the first time. Enrolled cows were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 273) or placebo control (n = 270) group. Treated cows were given 325. mg of rbST subcutaneously on the day of enrollment and again 14. d later. Control cows received the same regimen except the syringe contained only the carrier without somatotropin. After enrollment, blood samples were collected weekly for 4. wk and submitted to the laboratory to be analyzed for selected metabolites. Risk ratios for clinical diseases subsequent to treatment were calculated using Poisson regression. Continuous data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Time to first insemination was assessed with survival analysis. In the 42. d following the first administration of rbST, incidence risks of displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, metritis, clinical mastitis, and lameness were not different between treatment groups. Cows treated with rbST had a slightly lower body condition score 28. d after enrollment compared with control cows. In the 4. wk following enrollment, serum nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate amino-transferase were slightly higher for treated than control cows, respectively. Serum glucose, calcium, haptoglobin, and β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between groups. Treatment had no effect on resolution of hyperketonemia in any of the 4. wk after enrollment. Milk production in either of the 2-wk periods after each treatment was not different between treated and control cows. Furthermore, milk production was not different between groups from enrollment to 98. d in milk (42.6 ±0.6 and 42.1 ±0.7. kg/d for treatment and control groups, respectively). Treatment had no effect on time to first insemination (83 and 74. d in milk for treatment and control groups, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.72) or first insemination pregnancy risk (27 and 29% for treatment and control groups, respectively; risk ratio = 0.92). Based on the current results, it is not recommended to use a low dose of rbST as therapy for cows with hyperketonemia. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


Chapinal N.,University of Guelph | Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | LeBlanc S.J.,University of Guelph | Carson M.E.,University of Guelph | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to identify herd-level indicators expressed as a proportion of sampled animals with increased nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) or β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), or decreased calcium in wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving that were associated with herd-level incidence of retained placenta, metritis and displaced abomasum, milk production, and probability of pregnancy at the first artificial insemination (AI). Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds in the United States and Canada were visited weekly. Blood was collected from 2,365 cows around parturition, and serum concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and calcium were determined. Different cow-level metabolite thresholds associated with detrimental health or productivity in previous studies were used to classify animals into high- and low-risk metabolite concentration groups. For wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving, a herd-level threshold was determined as the proportion of sampled animals in the high-risk metabolite concentration groups with the strongest association with increased incidence of disease, milk loss, or decreased pregnancy at the first AI. The odds of displaced abomasum after calving were higher in herds that had ≥25% of the animals with BHBA ≥1,400 μmol/L in wk +1 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-4.2)] or ≥35% of the animals with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk +1 (OR = 2.4; CI = 1.3-4.3). Herd-level thresholds of ≥15% of the cows with BHBA ≥800 μmol/L in wk -1 and ≥15% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk +1 were associated with milk loss (±SE) of 4.4 ± 1.7 and 3.8 ± 1.4. kg/d per cow, respectively. When only multiparous cows were considered, herds with ≥30% of the multiparous cows with NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L in wk -1 were associated with a 3.0 ± 1.5. kg/d per cow milk loss. The odds of pregnancy at first AI were lower in herds that had ≥5% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk -1 (OR = 0.7; CI = 0.5-1.0), or ≥30% of the cows with NEFA ≥1.0. mEq/L (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.4-0.9) or ≥25% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk +1 (OR = 0.7; CI = 0.5-0.9). When only multiparous cows were considered, the odds of pregnancy at first AI were lower in herds that had ≥50% of multiparous cows with NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L in wk -1 (OR = 0.5; CI = 0.2-0.9). In conclusion, several herd-level thresholds for the proportion of cows with increased NEFA or BHBA, or decreased calcium in the week before and after calving were associated with higher risk of displaced abomasum, milk loss at the first Dairy Herd Improvement Association test, and decreased pregnancy at first AI. The association found between precalving BHBA and milk production is promising due to the availability of several cow-side tests for measuring BHBA. Some of the herd-level associations differed from the previously described cow-level associations, suggesting the potential of interpreting periparturient metabolic challenges at the herd level, where changes in diet and management are generally implemented. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Chapinal N.,University of Guelph | Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | Carson M.,University of Guelph | Duffield T.F.,University of Guelph | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this observational field study was to validate the relationship of serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and calcium with disease in early lactation across different management systems. Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds located across the United States and Canada were selected and visited weekly for blood sample collection from 2,365 cows. Only diseases that were consistently recorded across herds and blood samples collected before the disease occurred were considered. Metabolite concentrations in serum in wk -1 relative to calving were considered as predictors of retained placenta (RP) and metritis, and metabolite concentrations in serum in wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving were considered as predictors of displaced abomasum (DA). For each disease, each metabolite, and week of sampling in the case of DA, a critical threshold was calculated based on the highest combined sensitivity and specificity and used to categorize the serum concentrations into high and low risk categories. Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each disease of interest and week of sampling, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Cows with precalving serum NEFA concentrations ≥0.3. mEq/L were more likely to develop RP [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3 to 2.6] and metritis (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.9) after calving than cows with lower NEFA concentrations. Precalving NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.7), postcalving NEFA ≥1.0. mEq/L (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.7 to 4.4), and postcalving calcium ≤2.2. mmol/L (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.9 to 5.0) were associated with subsequent risk of DA. In conclusion, elevated serum NEFA concentrations within 1 wk before calving were associated with increased risk of RP, metritis, and DA after calving. Serum NEFA and calcium concentrations in the 2 wk around calving in combination were associated with the risk of DA. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.

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