Perry Veterinary Clinic

Perry, NY, United States

Perry Veterinary Clinic

Perry, NY, United States
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Vasquez A.K.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | Capel M.B.,Perry Veterinary Clinic | Eicker S.,Valley Agricultural Software | Virkler P.D.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017

The purpose was to compare immediate intramammary antimicrobial treatment of all cases of clinical mastitis with a selective treatment protocol based on 24-h culture results. The study was conducted at a 3,500-cow commercial farm in New York. Using a randomized design, mild to moderate clinical mastitis cases were assigned to either the blanket therapy or pathogen-based therapy group. Cows in the blanket therapy group received immediate on-label intramammary treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride for 5 d. Upon receipt of 24 h culture results, cows in the pathogen-based group followed a protocol automatically assigned via Dairy Comp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA): Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., or Enterococcus spp. were administered on-label intramammary treatment with cephapirin sodium for 1 d. Others, including cows with no-growth or gram-negative results, received no treatment. A total of 725 cases of clinical mastitis were observed; 114 cows were not enrolled due to severity. An additional 122 cases did not meet inclusion criteria. Distribution of treatments for the 489 qualifying events was equal between groups (pathogen-based, n = 246; blanket, n = 243). The proportions of cases assigned to the blanket and pathogen-based groups that received intramammary therapy were 100 and 32%, respectively. No significant differences existed between blanket therapy and pathogen-based therapy in days to clinical cure; means were 4.8 and 4.5 d, respectively. The difference in post-event milk production between groups was not statistically significant (blanket therapy = 34.7 kg; pathogen-based = 35.4 kg). No differences were observed in test-day linear scores between groups; least squares means of linear scores was 4.3 for pathogen-based cows and 4.2 for blanket therapy cows. Odds of survival 30 d postenrollment was similar between groups (odds ratio of pathogen-based = 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.7-3.7) as was odds of survival to 60 d (odds ratio = 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.6). The one significant difference found for the effect of treatment was in hospital days; pathogen-based cows experienced, on average, 3 fewer days than blanket therapy cows. A majority (68.5%) of moderate and mild clinical cases would not have been treated if all cows on this trial were enrolled in a pathogen-based protocol. The use of a strategic treatment protocol based on 24-h postmastitis pathogen results has potential to efficiently reduce antimicrobial use. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.


Caixeta L.S.,Cornell University | Ospina P.A.,Cornell University | Capel M.B.,Perry Veterinary Clinic | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

In a prospective cohort study, the daily bodyweight (BW) and milk production of 92 cows were recorded using automatic milking systems. The objectives were to characterize calcium serum concentration variability on days 1-3 post-partum and to evaluate the association between subclinical hypocalcemia (SHPC) and change in BW over the first 30 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows, while controlling for concurrent disease and negative energy balance (NEB). SHPC was defined as total serum calcium concentration between 6 and 8 mg/dL, NEB was defined as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) > 0.7 mEq/L or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥ 1.2 mmol/L. The peak incidence of SHPC was at 1 DIM for all groups (11%, 42% and 60% for parities 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively). All parity groups lost weight (21, 33, and 34 kg) during the first 30 DIM. Parity 1 animals with disease compared with those without disease lost the most weight (2.6 kg/day BW loss vs. <1.9 kg/day, respectively). Normocalcemic parity 2 animals with either NEB or disease lost the most weight (>5 kg/day) compared with those in the SHPC group (≤4.5 kg/day). In parity ≥ 3 animals, SHPC was an important factor for BW loss; SHPC animals lost the most weight (>3.7 kg/day) vs. normocalcemic cows (≤3.3 kg/day) regardless of NEB or disease status. Even though all animals lost weight during early lactation the effect of disease, NEB, and SHPC on BW loss was different in each parity group. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Chapinal N.,University of Guelph | Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | Carson M.E.,University of Guelph | LeBlanc S.J.,University of Guelph | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to examine the associations of peripartum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and calcium with milk production in early lactation and pregnancy at the first artificial insemination (AI) across different management systems. Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds located across the United States and Canada were visited weekly for blood sample collection from 2,365 cows. For each week of sampling (from wk -1 through wk 3 relative to calving) and for each metabolite, serum concentrations were dichotomized at various thresholds to identify the thresholds with the best negative associations with milk production and pregnancy at first AI. These thresholds were used to categorize the serum concentrations into higher and lower risk categories. Repeated-measures ANOVA and multivariable logistic regression were conducted for milk production and pregnancy at the first AI data, respectively, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. In the week before calving, serum NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L, BHBA ≥600μmol/L, and calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L were associated with 1.6 to 3.2 kg/d milk loss across the first 4 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) milk tests. High levels of NEFA and BHBA in wk 1 and 2 after calving (≥0.7 and ≥1.0. mEq/L for NEFA, and ≥1,400 and ≥1,200μmol/L for BHBA), and low levels of calcium (≤2.1. mmol/L) in wk 1, 2 and 3 after calving were associated with milk loss at the first DHIA milk test. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were not associated with pregnancy at first AI in any sampling week, whereas calcium <2.2 to 2.4. mmol/L from wk 1 through wk 3 postpartum were associated with reduced pregnancy at first AI. In conclusion, high serum concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and low concentrations of calcium around parturition were associated with early lactation milk loss, and low calcium concentration around parturition was associated with impaired early lactation reproduction. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Chapinal N.,University of Guelph | Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | LeBlanc S.J.,University of Guelph | Carson M.E.,University of Guelph | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to identify herd-level indicators expressed as a proportion of sampled animals with increased nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) or β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), or decreased calcium in wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving that were associated with herd-level incidence of retained placenta, metritis and displaced abomasum, milk production, and probability of pregnancy at the first artificial insemination (AI). Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds in the United States and Canada were visited weekly. Blood was collected from 2,365 cows around parturition, and serum concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and calcium were determined. Different cow-level metabolite thresholds associated with detrimental health or productivity in previous studies were used to classify animals into high- and low-risk metabolite concentration groups. For wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving, a herd-level threshold was determined as the proportion of sampled animals in the high-risk metabolite concentration groups with the strongest association with increased incidence of disease, milk loss, or decreased pregnancy at the first AI. The odds of displaced abomasum after calving were higher in herds that had ≥25% of the animals with BHBA ≥1,400 μmol/L in wk +1 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-4.2)] or ≥35% of the animals with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk +1 (OR = 2.4; CI = 1.3-4.3). Herd-level thresholds of ≥15% of the cows with BHBA ≥800 μmol/L in wk -1 and ≥15% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk +1 were associated with milk loss (±SE) of 4.4 ± 1.7 and 3.8 ± 1.4. kg/d per cow, respectively. When only multiparous cows were considered, herds with ≥30% of the multiparous cows with NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L in wk -1 were associated with a 3.0 ± 1.5. kg/d per cow milk loss. The odds of pregnancy at first AI were lower in herds that had ≥5% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk -1 (OR = 0.7; CI = 0.5-1.0), or ≥30% of the cows with NEFA ≥1.0. mEq/L (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.4-0.9) or ≥25% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1. mmol/L in wk +1 (OR = 0.7; CI = 0.5-0.9). When only multiparous cows were considered, the odds of pregnancy at first AI were lower in herds that had ≥50% of multiparous cows with NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L in wk -1 (OR = 0.5; CI = 0.2-0.9). In conclusion, several herd-level thresholds for the proportion of cows with increased NEFA or BHBA, or decreased calcium in the week before and after calving were associated with higher risk of displaced abomasum, milk loss at the first Dairy Herd Improvement Association test, and decreased pregnancy at first AI. The association found between precalving BHBA and milk production is promising due to the availability of several cow-side tests for measuring BHBA. Some of the herd-level associations differed from the previously described cow-level associations, suggesting the potential of interpreting periparturient metabolic challenges at the herd level, where changes in diet and management are generally implemented. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Gohary K.,University of Guelph | Leslie K.E.,University of Guelph | Ford J.,University of Guelph | Capel M.,Perry Veterinary Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The effect of administering recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to cows with hyperketonemia during the early postpartum period on health, metabolic parameters, milk production, and early reproductive performance was evaluated in a double-blinded clinical trial. Cows from 8 dairy herds in New York State were tested weekly between 3 and 16. d in milk for elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were enrolled in the study when blood β-hydroxybutyrate was ≥1.3. mmol/L for the first time. Enrolled cows were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 273) or placebo control (n = 270) group. Treated cows were given 325. mg of rbST subcutaneously on the day of enrollment and again 14. d later. Control cows received the same regimen except the syringe contained only the carrier without somatotropin. After enrollment, blood samples were collected weekly for 4. wk and submitted to the laboratory to be analyzed for selected metabolites. Risk ratios for clinical diseases subsequent to treatment were calculated using Poisson regression. Continuous data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Time to first insemination was assessed with survival analysis. In the 42. d following the first administration of rbST, incidence risks of displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, metritis, clinical mastitis, and lameness were not different between treatment groups. Cows treated with rbST had a slightly lower body condition score 28. d after enrollment compared with control cows. In the 4. wk following enrollment, serum nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate amino-transferase were slightly higher for treated than control cows, respectively. Serum glucose, calcium, haptoglobin, and β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between groups. Treatment had no effect on resolution of hyperketonemia in any of the 4. wk after enrollment. Milk production in either of the 2-wk periods after each treatment was not different between treated and control cows. Furthermore, milk production was not different between groups from enrollment to 98. d in milk (42.6 ±0.6 and 42.1 ±0.7. kg/d for treatment and control groups, respectively). Treatment had no effect on time to first insemination (83 and 74. d in milk for treatment and control groups, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.72) or first insemination pregnancy risk (27 and 29% for treatment and control groups, respectively; risk ratio = 0.92). Based on the current results, it is not recommended to use a low dose of rbST as therapy for cows with hyperketonemia. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


Chapinal N.,University of Guelph | Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | Carson M.,University of Guelph | Duffield T.F.,University of Guelph | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this observational field study was to validate the relationship of serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and calcium with disease in early lactation across different management systems. Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds located across the United States and Canada were selected and visited weekly for blood sample collection from 2,365 cows. Only diseases that were consistently recorded across herds and blood samples collected before the disease occurred were considered. Metabolite concentrations in serum in wk -1 relative to calving were considered as predictors of retained placenta (RP) and metritis, and metabolite concentrations in serum in wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving were considered as predictors of displaced abomasum (DA). For each disease, each metabolite, and week of sampling in the case of DA, a critical threshold was calculated based on the highest combined sensitivity and specificity and used to categorize the serum concentrations into high and low risk categories. Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each disease of interest and week of sampling, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Cows with precalving serum NEFA concentrations ≥0.3. mEq/L were more likely to develop RP [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3 to 2.6] and metritis (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.9) after calving than cows with lower NEFA concentrations. Precalving NEFA ≥0.5. mEq/L (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.7), postcalving NEFA ≥1.0. mEq/L (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.7 to 4.4), and postcalving calcium ≤2.2. mmol/L (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.9 to 5.0) were associated with subsequent risk of DA. In conclusion, elevated serum NEFA concentrations within 1 wk before calving were associated with increased risk of RP, metritis, and DA after calving. Serum NEFA and calcium concentrations in the 2 wk around calving in combination were associated with the risk of DA. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


Vasquez A.K.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | Capel M.B.,Perry Veterinary Clinic | Ceglowski B.,Dairy Health and Management Services | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The purpose was to evaluate 2 intramammary treatments for mild-to-moderate cases of clinical mastitis in a noninferiority comparison. Noninferiority trials are intended to show whether a given treatment, hetacillin potassium, has at least comparable efficacy as the reference treatment, ceftiofur hydrochloride. Treatments can be deemed inferior to the reference treatment by an amount less than the margin of noninferiority, or inconclusive if the confidence interval crosses the margin of noninferiority. Cows with clinical mastitis from 6 farms were considered for enrollment. Using a randomized design, cows with mild or moderate mastitis in 1 quarter were assigned to on-label treatment with either ceftiofur or hetacillin. A total of 596 cows met the criteria needed for continued enrollment. Treatment distribution resulted in 309 cows in the ceftiofur group and 287 cows in the hetacillin group. Mixed regression analysis was performed for the following outcomes: bacteriological cure, pathogen cure, clinical cure, postevent milk production and linear score, and survival to d 30 and 60. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to describe treatment effect on survival and mastitis risks. Bacteriological cure, defined as absence of causative organism in samples retrieved at d 14 and 21 postmastitis, was similar between groups. No significant statistical differences were found in cure risk, and noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur for bacteriological cure was conclusive (hetacillin = 67%, ceftiofur = 72%). Absence of a pathogen on both follow-up samples designated a cow as a pathogen cure. Pathogen cure was similar between treatment groups and noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur was shown (hetacillin = 35%, ceftiofur = 32%). Clinical cure (hetacillin = 68%, ceftiofur = 64%), postevent milk production (hetacillin = 37.0 kg, ceftiofur = 38.2 kg), and linear scores (hetacillin = 3.4, ceftiofur = 3.1) were also not statistically different between treatment groups. Noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur was shown for survival to d 30 and survival to d 60, whereas hetacillin was more likely to have a clinical cure than ceftiofur by d 4. No differences were seen between groups when Cox proportional hazards were performed, neither for exit from the herd in the 60 d following the event nor in the risk for a subsequent mastitis event. These findings can be used to develop farm-specific protocols for clinical mastitis treatment. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | University of Guelph and Perry Veterinary Clinic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Treatment of hyperketonemia with oral propylene glycol has proven efficacy but the cure rate remains moderate. Dexamethasone has long been suggested as a treatment for hyperketonemia, even though evidence of its efficacy is contradictory. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of adding a single intramuscular injection of 20mg of dexamethasone to oral propylene glycol therapy for hyperketonemia [blood -hydroxybutyrate (BHB) 1.2mmol/L]. All cows between 3 and 16d in milk on 4 dairy farms in New York State were tested once weekly for hyperketonemia using a handheld ketone meter. All enrolled animals received 312g (300mL) of propylene glycol orally once daily for 4d and either a single injection of dexamethasone or an equivalent volume of sterile saline. A total of 509 animals were enrolled, with 254 and 255 in the placebo and dexamethasone groups, respectively. Treatment with dexamethasone decreased the odds of being hyperketonemic in the second week posttreatment; however, the odds of hyperketonemia in the first week posttreatment only decreased in those animals that were treated at a BHB blood concentration between 1.2 and 1.5mmol/L. For the 8% of cows with blood BHB >3.2mmol/L at enrollment, receiving dexamethasone increased the odds of being hyperketonemic the following week. We detected no difference between treatment groups in the odds of postpartum disease or in milk production. For cows with initial BHB of 1.2 to 1.5mmol/L, treatment with dexamethasone tended to reduce the odds of pregnancy at first insemination. Based on the small and conditional benefits of dexamethasone and a lack of difference in milk yield or disease incidence, we do not recommend the use of dexamethasone to treat hyperketonemia.


PubMed | Perry Veterinary Clinic and Cornell University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) | Year: 2015

In a prospective cohort study, the daily bodyweight (BW) and milk production of 92 cows were recorded using automatic milking systems. The objectives were to characterize calcium serum concentration variability on days 1-3 post-partum and to evaluate the association between subclinical hypocalcemia (SHPC) and change in BW over the first 30 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows, while controlling for concurrent disease and negative energy balance (NEB). SHPC was defined as total serum calcium concentration between 6 and 8mg/dL, NEB was defined as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)>0.7mEq/L or -hydroxybutyrate (BHB)1.2mmol/L. The peak incidence of SHPC was at 1 DIM for all groups (11%, 42% and 60% for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively). All parity groups lost weight (21, 33, and 34kg) during the first 30 DIM. Parity 1 animals with disease compared with those without disease lost the most weight (2.6kg/day BW loss vs. <1.9kg/day, respectively). Normocalcemic parity 2 animals with either NEB or disease lost the most weight (>5kg/day) compared with those in the SHPC group (4.5kg/day). In parity3 animals, SHPC was an important factor for BW loss; SHPC animals lost the most weight (>3.7kg/day) vs. normocalcemic cows (3.3kg/day) regardless of NEB or disease status. Even though all animals lost weight during early lactation the effect of disease, NEB, and SHPC on BW loss was different in each parity group.

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