Lee C.K.,University of Sydney |
Brown C.,University of Sydney |
Gralla R.J.,Yeshiva University |
Hirsh V.,McGill University |
And 13 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2013
Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is crucial for regulating tumorigenesis and cell survival and may be important in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the impact of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in advanced NSCLC patients with and without EGFR mutations.MethodsRandomized trials that compared EGFR-TKIs monotherapy or combination EGFR-TKIs-chemotherapy with chemotherapy or placebo were included. We used published hazard ratios (HRs), if available, or derived treatment estimates from other survival data. Pooled estimates of treatment efficacy of EGFR-TKIs for the EGFR mutation-positive (EGFRmut +) and EGFR mutation-negative (EGFRmut-) subgroups were calculated with the fixed-effects inverse variance weighted method. All statistical tests were two-sided.ResultsWe included 23 eligible trials (13 front-line, 7 second-line, 3 maintenance; n = 14570). EGFR mutation status was known in 31% of patients. EGFR-TKIs treatment prolonged PFS in EGFRmut + patients, and EGFR mutation was predictive of PFS in all settings: The front-line hazard ratio for EGFRmut+ was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38 to 0.49; P <. 001), and the front-line hazard ratio for EGFRmut- was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.94 to 1.19; P =. 35; P interaction <. 001). The second-line hazard ratio for EGFRmut + was 0.34 (95% CI = 0.20 to 0.60; P <. 001), and the second-line hazard ratio for EGFRmut- was 1.23 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.46; P =. 01; Pinteraction <. 001). The maintenance hazard ratio for EGFRmut+ was 0.15 (95% CI = 0.08 to 0.27; P <. 001), and the maintenance hazard ratio for EGFRmut- was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.97; P =. 02; Pinteraction <. 001). EGFR-TKIs treatment had no impact on OS for EGFRmut+ and EGFRmut- patients.ConclusionsEGFR-TKIs therapy statistically significantly delays disease progression in EGFRmut+ patients but has no demonstrable impact on OS. EGFR mutation is a predictive biomarker of PFS benefit with EGFR-TKIs treatment in all settings. These findings support EGFR mutation assessment before initiation of treatment. EGFR-TKIs should be considered as front-line therapy in EGFRmut+ advanced NSCLC patients. © 2013 The Author. Source
Perpetual | Date: 2015-10-06
A data expansion system that provides continuum of discrete wireless small cell coverage areas for mobile terminals includes a set of roadway reflectors configured to provide wireless broadband data services to a mobile terminal. Each reflector includes processing circuitry configured to establish communications between the mobile terminal and a backhaul network. Each reflector includes a wireless transceiver configured to transmit and receive data. Each reflector includes a power source that converts solar energy into electricity. Each reflector includes a housing configured to contain the processing circuitry, the transceiver, and the power source. The housing has a raised reflective surface.
Perpetual | Date: 2011-02-14
Perpetual | Date: 2014-09-26
The disclosure provides a device for converting wave motion into electricity, and methods of using the devices for generating electricity. The disclosure also provides a power generation device that includes a water blanket having a plurality of pods arranged in a grid for floating on the surface of a body of water. In one example, ball joints and hydraulic cylinders couple each of the pods to adjacent pods. Motors are coupled to the hydraulic cylinders such that a flow of hydraulic fluid created by expansion and compression of the cylinders due to movement of the pods causes rotational motion in the motor. Generators are coupled to respective motors to generate electricity from the rotational motion of the motors. Power from the ocean blanket can be supplemental with wind turbines, water paddles, water turbines, and solar cells.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Innovation Voucher | Award Amount: 5.00K | Year: 2013
The amount of carbon being used within the retail / distribution industry to provide power to commercial locations is rising in proportion to the increase in size of the company in question. More and more stores / locations need more and more distribution locations, which use a significant amount of electricity to keep them operational. I believe there is an opportunity to reduce not only the amount of electricity consumed, but also to reduce carbon usage by a significant amount. Perpetual V2G Systems will offer a solution that can contribute to the electricity usage within a series of locations. Whilst reducing the electricity consumption, it will in turn reduce the amount of carbon needed to create the energy used. The system involves installation of large batteries in the rear load carrying section of distribution vehicles. As the vehicles travel from location to location, the batteries are charged. Once the HGV arrives at location, the battery is offloaded with the rest of the stock, and is plugged into the dedicated grid tie system, which then reduces the amount of electricity pulled from the grid. With large scale fleets in use, a huge amount of electric / carbon can be offset.For the realisation of Perpetual V2G Systems, I have brought together existing technology in the form of large output battery cells, off grid supply systems, and existing automotive high output alternators. The cells will be charged as the distribution vehicles travel to each location. Once charged, the cells will then be linked into the grid, and assist with the reduction of grid electricity consumption. Current systems of installing small wind generators and PV panels on the roofs of the commercial premises are contributing a small amount of energy reduction and are expensive to install. These systems do not run 24hrs a day, i.e. if wind speed is low, the generator will not output any electricity. Perpetual V2G will be available for utilisation 24hrs a day, regardless of uncontrollable factors such as weather conditions. The output level in electricity from Perpetual V2G is significantly higher than that of existing systems Perpetual V2G Systems currently hold Patent Pending status in the UK. . Patent Pending No - GB1308463.7.