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Davydov V.,Permian Research Institute | Krainer K.,University of Innsbruck | Chernykh V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Geological Journal | Year: 2013

The Zweikofel Formation of the Rattendorf Group in the Carnic Alps (Austria) is 95-102m thick and consists of a cyclic succession of thin- to thick-bedded fossiliferous limestone and intercalated thin intervals of siliciclastic sediment. The siliciclastic intervals were deposited in a shallow marine nearshore environment. The variety of carbonate facies indicates deposition in a shallow neritic, normal-saline, low- to high-energy environment. The Zweikofel Formation is characterized by a paracyclic vertical arrangement of facies and represents sedimentary sequences that are not well understood elsewhere in the Tethys. Fusulinids and conodonts from the upper Grenzland and Zweikofel formations in the Carnic Alps clearly suggest that what has been called 'Sakmarian' in the Tethys includes both the Sakmarian and Artinskian stages of the Global Time scale. Fusulinids from the lower part of the Zweikofel Formation at Zweikofel closely resemble those of the Grenzland Formation and approximately correlate with the upper part of the Sakmarian and lower part of the Artinskian of the Global Time scale. The upper part of the Zweikofel Formation correlates approximately with the lower-middle (?) parts of the Artinskian Stage of the Global Time scale. A new regional Hermagorian Stage of the Tethyan scale is proposed between the Asselian and Yakhtashian. The lower boundary of the Hermagorian Stage is proposed to be located at the base of bed 81 in the 1015 section of Darvaz (Tadzhikistan). The boundary between the Hermagorian and Yakhtashian stages is placed at the base of bed 73 in the Zweikofel section at Zweikofel, Carnic Alps. In the Darvaz region, Tadzhikistan, the type area for the Yakhtashian Stage, this boundary has never been precisely defined. The entire fusulinid assemblage of the upper part of the Grenzland and Zweikofel formations reported herein includes 62 species of 18 genera, of which one subgenus and 12 species and subspecies are new. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Arefi Fard S.,Texas A&M University | Davydov V.I.,Permian Research Institute | Davydov V.I.,Kazan Federal University
Geological Journal | Year: 2015

Two new Permian-aged formations 'Kariz Now Formation' and 'Aliyak Formation' are proposed for a 65-150m-thick succession in the Kariz Now area, with the type section for both (79.5m thick) located 9km northeast of Aliyak village ca. 100km southeast of Mashhad city, northeastern Iran. The lower Kariz Now Formation is composed of siliciclastics. The age of this Formation is poorly constrained but its correlation with the Shah Zeid Formation in the Central Alborz suggests a possible Asselian-Hermagorian age for the Kariz Now Formation, which implies a hiatus of Yakhtashian-mid Midian (Artinskian-mid Capitanian) age between the siliciclastics of the Kariz Now Formation and carbonates of the disconformably overlying Aliyak Formation. There is also the possibility of a potential correlation of this Formation with the Kungurian Faraghan Formation in the Zagros area. The succeeding Aliyak Formation is mostly composed of carbonate rocks capped by a thin basaltic lava flow. The Aliyak Formation is unconformably overlain by dolostones that are correlated with the Middle Triassic Shotori Formation. Samples were collected from the Kariz Now and Aliyak formations, but fossils were only recovered from the Aliyak Formation. These include calcareous algae, small foraminiferans, fusulinids, crinoid stems and brachiopods. The recovered fusulinid assemblage from the Aliyak Formation is consistent with that of the upper Capitanian Monodiexodina kattaensis-Codonofusiella erki and Afghanella schencki-Sumatrina brevis zones of the Zagros Mountains and with the upper part of the Ruteh Fm in the Alborz Mountains. Although not radiometrically dated, the basaltic lava flow most probably corresponds to similar basaltic lava flows occurring in the uppermost part of the Ruteh Formation in Central Alborz. Thus, the Permian in the studied region developed in a basin that extended westward as far as the Central Alborz. A late Capitanian age for the Aliyak Formation implies it correlates with the Capitanian KS5 in Al Jabal Al-Akhdar in Oman, with Aliyak Unit 5 potentially representing the Permian maximum flooding surface MFS P25. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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