Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Waterloo, Canada

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Waterloo, Canada
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Lehner L.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Pretorius F.,Princeton University
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Throughout the Universe many powerful events are driven by strong gravitational effects that require general relativity to fully describe them. These include compact binary mergers, black hole accretion, and stellar collapse, where velocities can approach the speed of light and extreme gravitational fields (ΦNewt/c2≃1) mediate the interactions. Many of these processes trigger emission across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact binaries further source strong gravitational wave emission that could directly be detected in the near future. This feat will open up a gravitational wave window into our Universe and revolutionize our understanding of it. Describing these phenomena requires general relativity, and where dynamical effects strongly modify gravitational fields the full Einstein equations coupled to matter sources. Numerical relativity is a field within general relativity concerned with studying such scenarios that cannot be accurately modeled via perturbative or analytical calculations. In this review, we examine results obtained within this discipline, with a focus on its impact in astrophysics. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

Derevianko A.,University of Nevada, Reno | Pospelov M.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Nature Physics | Year: 2014

The cosmological applications of atomic clocks so far have been limited to searches for the uniform-in-time drift of fundamental constants. We point out that a transient-in-time change of fundamental constants can be induced by dark-matter objects that have large spatial extent, such as stable topological defects built from light non-Standard Model fields. Networks of correlated atomic clocks, some of them already in existence, such as the Global Positioning System, can be used as a powerful tool to search for topological defect dark matter, thus providing another important fundamental physics application for the ever-improving accuracy of atomic clocks. During the encounter with an extended dark-matter object, as it sweeps through the network, initially synchronized clocks will become desynchronized. Time discrepancies between spatially separated clocks are expected to exhibit a distinct signature, encoding the defect' s space structure and its interaction strength with atoms. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Blume-Kohout R.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

This Letter proposes and analyzes a new method for quantum state estimation, called hedged maximum likelihood (HMLE). HMLE is a quantum version of Lidstone's law, also known as the "add β" rule. A straightforward modification of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), it can be used as a plug-in replacement for MLE. The HMLE estimate is a strictly positive density matrix, slightly less likely than the ML estimate, but with much better behavior for predictive tasks. Single-qubit numerics indicate that HMLE beats MLE, according to several metrics, for nearly all "true" states. For nearly pure states, MLE does slightly better, but neither method is optimal. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Miyake A.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We elaborate the idea of quantum computation through measuring the correlation of a gapped ground state, while the bulk Hamiltonian is utilized to stabilize the resource. A simple computational primitive, by pulling out a single spin adiabatically from the bulk followed by its measurement, is shown to make any ground state of the one-dimensional isotropic Haldane phase useful ubiquitously as a quantum logical wire. The primitive is compatible with certain discrete symmetries that protect this topological order, and the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1 finite chain is practically available. Our approach manifests a holographic principle in that the logical information of a universal quantum computer can be written and processed perfectly on the edge state (i.e., boundary) of the system, supported by the persistent entanglement from the bulk even when the ground state and its evolution cannot be exactly analyzed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Bombin H.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Anyon models can be symmetric under some permutations of their topological charges. One can then conceive topological defects that, under monodromy, transform anyons according to a symmetry. We study the realization of such defects in the toric code model, showing that a process where defects are braided and fused has the same outcome as if they were Ising anyons. These ideas can also be applied in the context of topological codes. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Dittrich B.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

Discrete models usually represent approximations to continuum physics. Cylindrical consistency provides a framework in which discretizations exactly mirror the continuum limit. As a standard tool for the kinematics of loop quantum gravity, we propose a coarse-graining procedure that aims at constructing a cylindrically consistent dynamics in the form of transition amplitudes and Hamilton's principal functions. The coarse-graining procedure, which is motivated by tensor network renormalization methods, provides a systematic approximation scheme for this purpose. A crucial role in this coarse-graining scheme is played by the embedding maps that allow interpretation of discrete boundary data as continuum configurations. These embedding maps should be selected according to the dynamics of the system, as the choice of embedding maps will determine the truncation of the renormalization flow. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Montina A.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The communication complexity of a quantum channel is the minimal amount of classical communication required for classically simulating a process of state preparation, transmission through the channel and subsequent measurement. It establishes a limit on the power of quantum communication in terms of classical resources. We show that classical simulations employing a finite amount of communication can be derived from a special class of hidden variable theories where quantum states represent statistical knowledge about the classical state and not an element of reality. This special class has attracted strong interest very recently. The communication cost of each derived simulation is given by the mutual information between the quantum state and the classical state of the parent hidden variable theory. Finally, we find that the communication complexity for single qubits is smaller than 1.28 bits. The previous known upper bound was 1.85 bits. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Pusey M.F.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2015

Suppose one wants to certify that a quantum channel is not entanglement breaking. I consider all four combinations of trusted and untrusted devices at the input and output of the channel, finding that the most interesting is a trusted preparation device at the input and an untrusted measurement device at the output. This provides a time-like analogue of EPR steering, which turns out to reduce to the problem of joint measurability, connecting these concepts in a different way to other recent work. I suggest a few applications of this connection, such as a resource theory of incompatibility. This perspective also sheds light on why the BB84 key distribution protocol can be secure, even with an untrusted measuring device, leading to an uncertainty relation for arbitrary pairs of ensembles. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

Pusey M.F.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

The average result of a weak measurement of some observable A can, under postselection of the measured quantum system, exceed the largest eigenvalue of A. The nature of weak measurements, as well as the presence of postselection and hence possible contribution of measurement disturbance, has led to a long-running debate about whether or not this is surprising. Here, it is shown that such "anomalous weak values" are nonclassical in a precise sense: a sufficiently weak measurement of one constitutes a proof of contextuality. This clarifies, for example, which features must be present (and in an experiment, verified) to demonstrate an effect with no satisfying classical explanation. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Modesto L.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In this paper we study perturbatively an extension of the Stelle higher derivative gravity involving an infinite number of derivative terms. We know that the usual quadratic action is renormalizable but suffers from the unitarity problem because of the presence of a ghost (state of negative norm) in the theory. In this paper, we reconsider the theory first introduced by Tomboulis in 1997, but we expand and extensively study it at both the classical and quantum level. This theory is ghost-free, since the introduction of (in general) two entire functions in the model with the property does not introduce new poles in the propagator. The local high derivative theory is recovered expanding the entire functions to the lowest order in the mass scale of the theory. Any truncation of the entire functions gives rise to the unitarity violation, but if we keep all the infinite series, we do not fall into these troubles. The theory is renormalizable at one loop and finite from two loops on. Since only one-loop Feynman diagrams are divergent, then the theory is super-renormalizable. We analyze the fractal properties of the theory at high energy showing a reduction of the spacetime dimension at short scales. Black hole spherical symmetric solutions are also studied omitting the high curvature corrections in the equation of motions. The solutions are regular and the classical singularity is replaced by a "de Sitter-like core" in r=0. Black holes may show a "multihorizon" structure depending on the value of the mass. We conclude the paper with a generalization of the Tomboulis theory to a multidimensional spacetime. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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