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Lahore, Pakistan

Ashfaq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Avais Tahir M.,PERI | Arif Raza M.,Planning and Development | Afzal S.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

The Special Agricultural Safeguard (SAG) is a provision that may be invoked by a Member country of WTO for a product subject to tariffication. It is for the application of the special safeguard designated in the Member's Schedule. It is designed to prevent disruption on domestic markets due to import surges. The current paper provides the answer to the research question, whether special agricultural safeguards have impact on international trade flow or not? Time series data of imports of butter in USA from 13 countries was modeled and estimated by using OLS technique. The adjusted coefficient of determination for the import demand equation of the butter was 0.56, which indicates that the variables included in the equation explained 56 per cent of the variation in imports of butter in the USA. The overall result of the model was also significant as reflected through estimated F-value. The results also showed that in the import demand equation, the coefficients of price, in-quota tariff and over-quota tariff were negative as per a priori expectations. The positive sign of SAG revealed that total volume of imports and the commitments of suppliers plays important role in the import of butter. Source

Bennett C.R.,University of Swansea | McBride D.,University of Swansea | Cross M.,University of Swansea | Gebhardt J.E.,PERI
Hydrometallurgy | Year: 2012

This paper covers the basic formulation of a comprehensive copper heap leach model based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology together with its parameterization and validation against laboratory column test data. For the column test data used here, the model formulation covers an ore with a mixture of chalcocite and pyrite in a column under leach with a ferric raffinate and includes the reaction kinetics of the dissolution of the key minerals within the context of a shrinking core algorithm to accurately model the leach behaviour. Precipitation species, the role of bacteria and the treatment of unsaturated fluid and gas flow in porous media is also described in the context of the model. The current work demonstrates the use of small column test leach data, including particle size distribution, to characterize the ore. The model was then used with the same parameter set to produce a good fit to results from larger columns and different crush sizes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

Tomographic reconstructions with insufficient data, such as the projections scanned with inadequate angular range or contaminated with noise, are often confronted for transmission electron microscopy and full-field transmission X-ray microscopy. Iterative reconstructions can provide a viable solution by numerical optimization with a cost of intensive computational overhead. Although super computer clusters help to reduce computing time from days to hours, they are expensive, costly in energy and have limited CPU hours assigned to users. Recently emerging high performance computing (HPC) hardware, such as the general-purpose graphical processing unit (GPGPU) or Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor, provides a cost-efficient solution. However, the software tools that satisfy specific big data requirement for transmission microscopy and accommodate these hardware architectures are either outdated or rarely available. More over, it is unclear which devise to choose for different imaging modality and data scale. How this problem is being addressed: This STTR project is developing an open-source HPC software tool to solve intensive computation problem for the reconstruction in transmission X-ray microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. By porting existing iterative reconstruction algorithms to GPGPU/Intel many-core coprocessors and implementing new accommodated acceleration methods, we aim to enable near real time reconstruction with insufficiently scanned high-resolution images and suggest suitable devise for related computation problems. What is to be done in Phase I: In Phase I, we will (1) implement an open source high performance software toolkit of representative iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithms executing on both GPU and coprocessor, (2) perform benchmark testing for associated applications and make the architecture recommendation with consideration of budget plan and programming capability, and (3) engage research publications on designing and developing new acceleration algorithms on the aforementioned HPC architectures. Commercial applications and other benefits: These software tools can dramatically enable battery design for material science, drug design for biology research, and dosage control for clinical practice with a largely reduced budget and energy cost.

Abid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashfaq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Abdul Quddus M.,PERI | Avais Tahir M.,PERI | Fatima N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

The paper examined the resource use efficiency of small Bt cotton farmers of Punjab province of Pakistan using the production function approach. Data for the study were obtained from 150 randomly selected Bt cotton farmers from Punjab province using a multistage sampling procedure and then categorized into small, medium and large farmers. Average farm size of small farmer was found to be 5 acres. Regression results indicated that Fertilizer, Spray Number, Irrigation acre inch and labour cost were significantly affecting Bt cotton production while farm size was found non significant. The resource use efficiency analysis showed that efficiency ratios i.e. MVP/MFC for inputs fertilizer (Kg), spray number, irrigation (acre inch) and labour cost (Rs) were found to be 1.5, 3.94, 3.01 and 1.27, respectively. All the efficiency ratios, more than unity indicated the under utilization of all the production inputs under consideration in case of small Bt cotton farmers. Bt cotton production for small Bt farmers had an increasing return to scale with elasticity of production 1.27. Opportunities still exists to increase Bt cotton output in the study area by increasing the level of above mentioned productive resources. Source

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