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Passardi A.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per Lo Studio e la Cura Dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Scarpi E.,Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials | Tamberi S.,Degli Infermi Hospital | Cavanna L.,Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background To investigate the impact of pre-treatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on the outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in a phase III prospective multicentre randomized ITACa (Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer) trial. Methods Three hundred and seventy patients enrolled onto the ITACa first-line trial were considered for this study, 176 receiving chemotherapy (either FOLFIRI or FOLFOX) plus bevacizumab and 194 receiving chemotherapy only. Pre-treatment LDH levels were evaluated to identify a potential correlation with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate. Results Information on pre-treatment LDH levels was available for 344 patients. High LDH levels were predictive of a lower median PFS (8.1 months vs. 9.2 months, p< 0.0001) and median OS (16.1 months vs. 25.2 months, p< 0.0001) in the overall population. In the chemotherapy plus bevacizumab group, median PFS was 9.1 and 9.8 months in patients with high LDH and low LDH, respectively (p= 0.073), whereas in the chemotherapy-only arm it was 6.9 and 9.1 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). In patients with high LDH, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy led to a reduction in the rate of progressive disease (16.4 vs. 30.5%, p= 0.081) and to a prolonged PFS (p= 0.028). Conclusion A high LDH value was confirmed as a marker of poor prognosis. Bevacizumab reduced the progressive disease rate and improved PFS in the high-LDH subgroup, making serum LDH a potentially effective an easily available and marker to select patients who benefit from bevacizumab. Copyright: © 2015 Passardi et al.


Passardi A.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori | Nanni O.,Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials | Tassinari D.,Per gli Infermi Hospital | Turci D.,S Maria Delle Croci Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: We report the results from a first-line phase III randomized clinical trial on metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of adding bevacizumab (B) to standard first-line chemotherapy (CT). Patients and methods: mCRC patients were randomized to receive first-line CT (FOLFIRI or FOLFOX4) plus B (arm A) or CT only (arm B). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), response rate (ORR) and safety. Three hundred and fifty patients and 310 events were required to have an 80% statistical power to detect a difference in PFS between the groups. Results: Between November 2007 and March 2012, 376 patients were randomized. About 60% of patients received FOLFOX4 and 40% FOLFIRI. After a median follow-up of 36 months, 343 progressions and 275 deaths had been observed in the overall population. The median PFS was 9.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.2-10.3] and 8.4 (95% CI 7.2-9.0) months for arms A and B, respectively, with a hazard ratio of 0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.07; P = 0.182). No statistically significant differences in OS or ORR were observed. B-containing regimens were associated with more frequent hypertension, bleeding, proteinuria and asthenia. Conclusions: The addition of B to standard first-line CT for mCRC did not provide a benefit in terms of PFS, OS or ORR. Further research is warranted to better identify the target population. © The Author 2015.


Amadori D.,Cancer Institute Of Romagna Irst | Silvestrini R.,Cancer Institute Of Romagna Irst | De Lena M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Boccardo F.,University of Genoa | And 15 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) have proven highly effective in rapidly proliferating breast cancer (RPBC). It has also been seen that sequential administration of doxorubicin and CMF is superior to their alternation, especially in indolent tumors. In a phase III study, we evaluated whether adjuvant epirubicin (E) followed by CMF is superior to the inverse sequence in RPBC. Patients with node-negative or 1-3 node-positive RPBC (Thymidine Labeling Index > 3% or histological grade 3 or S-phase > 10% or Ki67 > 20%) were randomized to receive E (100 mg/m2 i.v. d1, q21 days for 4 cycles) followed by CMF (600, 40, 600 mg/m2 i.v. d1 and 8, q28 days for 4 cycles) (E → CMF) or CMF followed by E (CMF → E) or CMF for 6 cycles. From November 1997 to December 2004, 1066 patients were enrolled: E → CMF 440, CMF → E 438, and CMF 188. At a median follow-up of 69 months, 5-year OS was 91% (95% CI 88-94) for E → CMF and 93% (95% CI 90-95) for CMF → E, with adjusted hazard ratio of 0.88 (95% CI 0.58-1.35), and DFS was 80% in both arms, with adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 (95% CI 0.73-1.33, Cox model). Adverse events were similar, apart from a higher rate of neutropenia in the CMF → E arm. No important differences in clinical outcome were observed between the two different sequences, making both a valid option in early breast cancer. Further molecular characterization of the tumors might help to identify subgroups achieving higher benefit from either sequence. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


PubMed | Biosciences Laboratory, Degli Infermi Hospital, Vito Fazzi Hospital, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

To investigate the impact of pre-treatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on the outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in a phase III prospective multicentre randomized ITACa (Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer) trial.Three hundred and seventy patients enrolled onto the ITACa first-line trial were considered for this study, 176 receiving chemotherapy (either FOLFIRI or FOLFOX) plus bevacizumab and 194 receiving chemotherapy only. Pre-treatment LDH levels were evaluated to identify a potential correlation with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate.Information on pre-treatment LDH levels was available for 344 patients. High LDH levels were predictive of a lower median PFS (8.1 months vs. 9.2 months, p< 0.0001) and median OS (16.1 months vs. 25.2 months, p< 0.0001) in the overall population. In the chemotherapy plus bevacizumab group, median PFS was 9.1 and 9.8 months in patients with high LDH and low LDH, respectively (p= 0.073), whereas in the chemotherapy-only arm it was 6.9 and 9.1 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). In patients with high LDH, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy led to a reduction in the rate of progressive disease (16.4 vs. 30.5%, p= 0.081) and to a prolonged PFS (p= 0.028).A high LDH value was confirmed as a marker of poor prognosis. Bevacizumab reduced the progressive disease rate and improved PFS in the high-LDH subgroup, making serum LDH a potentially effective an easily available and marker to select patients who benefit from bevacizumab.NCT01878422 ClinicalTrials.gov.


PubMed | S Maria Delle Croci Hospital, Vito Fazzi Hospital, Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and 4 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase III | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2015

We report the results from a first-line phase III randomized clinical trial on metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of adding bevacizumab (B) to standard first-line chemotherapy (CT).mCRC patients were randomized to receive first-line CT (FOLFIRI or FOLFOX4) plus B (arm A) or CT only (arm B). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), response rate (ORR) and safety. Three hundred and fifty patients and 310 events were required to have an 80% statistical power to detect a difference in PFS between the groups.Between November 2007 and March 2012, 376 patients were randomized. About 60% of patients received FOLFOX4 and 40% FOLFIRI. After a median follow-up of 36 months, 343 progressions and 275 deaths had been observed in the overall population. The median PFS was 9.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.2-10.3] and 8.4 (95% CI 7.2-9.0) months for arms A and B, respectively, with a hazard ratio of 0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.07; P = 0.182). No statistically significant differences in OS or ORR were observed. B-containing regimens were associated with more frequent hypertension, bleeding, proteinuria and asthenia.The addition of B to standard first-line CT for mCRC did not provide a benefit in terms of PFS, OS or ORR. Further research is warranted to better identify the target population.NCT01878422.


PubMed | Lugo Hospital, S Maria Delle Croci Hospital, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Degli Infermi Hospital and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical lung cancer | Year: 2016

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations, and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation are generally considered to be mutually exclusive. However, concomitant mutations are found in a small number of patients and the effect of these on response to targeted therapy is still unknown.We considered 380 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent nonsequential testing for EGFR and EML4-ALK translocation. KRAS mutation analysis was also performed on 282 patients.We found 1.6%, 1.1%, and 2.5% of patients who showed a double mutation comprising EGFR and EML4-ALK, EGFR and KRAS, and EML4-ALK and KRAS, respectively. Twenty-eight patients with EGFR mutation underwent first-line therapy with a tyrosine kinase receptor; a clinical benefit was observed in 81.8% of patients with EGFR mutations only and in 67% of those who also showed an EML4-ALK translocation. Twelve patients with an EML4-ALK translocation received crizotinib and 7 of these had disease progression within 3 months (2 had a concomitant KRAS mutation and 1 had a concomitant EGFR mutation). Two patients showed stable disease, 1 of whom also had a KRAS mutation. Two patients obtained a partial response and 1 had a complete response; all harbored an EML4-ALK translocation only. The median overall survival of patients who carried an EML4-ALK translocation alone or concomitant with a KRAS mutation was 57.1 (range, 10.7-not reached) and 10.7 (range, 4.6-not reached) months, respectively.Concomitant EGFR, EML4-ALK, or KRAS mutations can occur in NSCLC. Concomitant KRAS mutation and EML4-ALK translocation represents the most common double alteration and confers a poor prognosis.


Farolfi A.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Scarpi E.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Rocca A.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Mangia A.,Instituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II IRCCS | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Aim To evaluate the optimal time interval from definitive surgery to commencing chemotherapy in early breast cancer (EBC). Patients and methods The relationship between time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy (TTC), calculated in weeks, and disease-free (DFS) or overall survival (OS), was assessed in 921 EBC patients with rapidly proliferating tumours (thymidine labelling index >3% or G3 or Ki67 >20%), randomised in a phase III clinical trial (NCT01031030) to receive chemotherapy with or without anthracyclines (epirubicin → cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) versus CMF → epirubicin versus CMF). DFS, OS and 95% confidence intervals (95% confidence interval (CI)) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed in relation with nodal involvement, oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, Ki67 value, type of adjuvant chemotherapy, menopausal status and tumour size. Results At a median follow-up of 105 months (range 2-188), a prolonged TTC resulted in a significant increase in the risk of relapse: hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.30, p = 0.019). Using a backward elimination procedure, TTC, tumour size and nodal involvement remained significantly associated with DFS. A time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was subsequently utilised to evaluate the best cut-off for TTC, identifying 7 weeks as the best threshold for longer OS (p = 0.043): 8-year OS 88% (95% CI 85-90) for patients with a TTC <7 weeks and 78% (95% CI 68-87) for the other group. Conclusions Our results confirm that a shorter TTC may reduce relapses and possibly also improve clinical outcome in patients with highly proliferating EBC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Ulivi P.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Delmonte A.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Chiadini E.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Calistri D.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are very efficacious in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations. However, about 10% of EGFR wild type (wt) patients respond to TKI, with unknown molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We considered a case series of 34 EGFR wt NSCLC patients responsive to erlotinib after at least one line of therapy. Responsive patients were matched with an equal number of non-responsive EGFR wt patients. A panel of 26 genes, for a total of 214 somatic mutations, was analyzed by MassARRAY® System (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). A 15% KRAS mutation was observed in both groups, with a prevalence of G12C in non-responders (80% vs. 40% in responders). NOTCH1, p53 and EGFR-resistance-related mutations were found more frequently in non-responders, whereas EGFR-sensitizing mutations and alterations in genes involved in proliferation pathways were more frequent in responders. In conclusion, our findings indicate that p53, NOTCH1 and exon 20 EGFR mutations seem to be related to TKI resistance. KRAS mutations do not appear to influence the TKI response, although G12C mutation is more frequent in non-responders. Finally, the use of highly sensitive methodologies could lead to the identification of under-represented EGFR mutations potentially associated with TKI sensitivity. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland


PubMed | IRST IRCCS, Degli Infermi Hospital, Per gli Infermi Hospital, University of Pisa and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of translational medicine | Year: 2015

Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy is a widely used therapeutic option for first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, molecular predictors of bevacizumab efficacy have not yet been identified. We analyzed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms in relation to response to bevacizumab.Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with mCRC enrolled onto the phase III prospective multicentre randomized Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ITACa) trial were evaluated. One hundred fourteen patients received chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (CT + B) and 123 received chemotherapy (CT) alone. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-2578, -1498, -1154, -634 and +936) for VEGF and 2 SNPs (-786, +894) and one variable number tandem repeat in intron 4 for eNOS were analyzed for each patient. The polymorphisms were assessed in relation to progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS).VEGF 936C/T, eNOS +894 G/T and VNTR were significantly correlated with outcome in CT + B patients, but not in CT-only patients. In particular, patients with a specific haplotype combination of the 2 eNOS polymorphisms (defined eNOS Haplo1/Haplo1 and eNOS Haplo 2/Haplo2) showed significantly longer PFS (15.0 vs 9.1 months, P = 0.001) and OS (34.5 vs 20.5 months P = 0.002), and a higher ORR (71 vs 45.9%, P = 0.013) than those with the other genotypes, respectively.Specific eNOS polymorphisms may be capable of identifying a subset of mCRC patients who are more responsive to bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. If confirmed, these results would permit individually tailored treatment with bevacizumab.


Ulivi P.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | Scarpi E.,IRST IRCCS | Passardi A.,IRST IRCCS | Marisi G.,Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRST IRCCS | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy is a widely used therapeutic option for first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, molecular predictors of bevacizumab efficacy have not yet been identified. We analyzed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms in relation to response to bevacizumab. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with mCRC enrolled onto the phase III prospective multicentre randomized "Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ITACa)" trial were evaluated. One hundred fourteen patients received chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (CT + B) and 123 received chemotherapy (CT) alone. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-2578, -1498, -1154, -634 and +936) for VEGF and 2 SNPs (-786, +894) and one variable number tandem repeat in intron 4 for eNOS were analyzed for each patient. The polymorphisms were assessed in relation to progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). Results: VEGF 936C/T, eNOS +894 G/T and VNTR were significantly correlated with outcome in CT + B patients, but not in CT-only patients. In particular, patients with a specific haplotype combination of the 2 eNOS polymorphisms (defined eNOS Haplo1/Haplo1 and eNOS Haplo 2/Haplo2) showed significantly longer PFS (15.0 vs 9.1 months, P = 0.001) and OS (34.5 vs 20.5 months P = 0.002), and a higher ORR (71 vs 45.9%, P = 0.013) than those with the other genotypes, respectively. Conclusions: Specific eNOS polymorphisms may be capable of identifying a subset of mCRC patients who are more responsive to bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. If confirmed, these results would permit individually tailored treatment with bevacizumab. © 2015 Ulivi et al.

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