Liu H.,RAND Corporation |
Harris K.M.,RAND Corporation |
Weinberger S.,Mercer Human Resource Consulting Inc |
Serxner S.,Mercer Human Resource Consulting Inc |
And 2 more authors.
Population Health Management | Year: 2013
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of PepsiCo's health and wellness program on medical cost and utilization. The authors analyzed health plan and program data of employees and dependents 19-64 years of age, who had 2 years of baseline data (2002 and 2003) and at least 1 year of data from the intervention period (2004 to 2007), resulting in a sample of 55,030 members. Program effects were measured using a difference-in-difference approach based on a multivariate regression model with an individual-level random effect. In its first year, the program was associated with a relative increase in per member per month (PMPM) cost ($66, P<0.01); a relative reduction in PMPM costs of $76 (P<0.01) and $61 (P<0.01) was seen in the second and third year, respectively. Over all 3 years, the program was associated with reduced PMPM costs of $38 (P<0.01), a decrease of 50 emergency room visits per 1000 member years (P<0.01), and a decrease of 16 hospital admissions per 1000 member years (P<0.01). The disease management component reduced PMPM costs by $154 (P<0.01), case management increased PMPM costs by $2795 (P<0.01), but no significant effects were observed for lifestyle management over the 3 intervention years. The implementation of a comprehensive health and wellness program was associated with a cost increase in the first year, followed by a decrease in the following years. These results highlight the importance of taking a long-term perspective when implementing such programs and evaluating their effectiveness. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source
Shi X.,PepsiCo Inc. |
Passe D.H.,Scout Consulting
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2010
The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source
PepsiCo Inc. | Date: 2012-03-07
A method for preparing a low viscosity whole grain flour slurry including hydrating whole grain flour in water heated at a temperature of 87 to 99 C., cooling the mixture, adding an enzyme to reduce the viscosity, and acidifying the flour-water mixture to reduce the pH to obtain a reduced viscosity whole grain flour slurry.
PepsiCo Inc. | Date: 2011-03-16
A fountain-style carbonated soft drink dispenser includes a housing adapted to attach to a beverage container, an actuator for selectively opening a fluid conduit, and one or more long tubes that vary a pressure drop across the dispensing assembly and convey fluid. The resistance through the tube(s) is decreased as the pressure within the container decreases so as to maintain a substantially constant flow rate throughout dispensing.
PepsiCo Inc. | Date: 2012-10-31
A reusable aseptic connector is provided. The connector may be used to provide fluid communication between a bag-in-box (BIB) container and a beverage dispenser. The connector may provide aseptic properties of the connection by insulation of an inner volume of a first part and an inner volume of a second part, with the beverage component kept from contacting any of the part of the connector structure that are exposed to the environment and have a risk of induced contamination. The connector may comprise a resilient membrane and a sliding tube wherein the sliding tube is configured to have a portion move toward and through the resilient membrane to establish fluid communication between the first part and the second part, and for the portion to move away from the resilient membrane to destablish fluid communication between the first part and the second part when desired.